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How to Make a Good Insect Specimen label … … and why.

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Presentation on theme: "How to Make a Good Insect Specimen label … … and why."— Presentation transcript:

1 How to Make a Good Insect Specimen label … … and why

2 Digital Specimen Data Wave of the future Specimen labels = data sink (relatively primitive to get that data, borrow specimens, visit collections, etc.) Specimen labels transformed to digital format = data that can be used by the global community for many uses, some we have yet to envision

3 3 main concepts –Projection –Datum –Coordinate system Geographical Concepts

4 What projections do Tissot’s Indicatrix of distortion Rectangular projection

5 Geographical Concepts: Datum

6 Common Datums NAD27 (North American Datum): system derived from land- based surveys, using Clarke 1886 ellipsoid NAD83: satellite-based system using the Earth’s center as a reference point; eventually adopted as GRS80 (Geodetic Ref. System 1980) WGS84 (World Geodetic System 1984): mathematically refined GRS80 used by the US military and default for GPS For most uses, NAD83, GRS80, WGS84 are equivalent Geographical Concepts: Datums

7 Coordinate Systems Degrees, minutes, seconds 39°25’06”N, 92°26’18”W Degrees, decimal minutes 39°25.1016’N, 92°26.2942’W Decimal degrees *** use this!! 39.41837°, -92.43824° N = +, S = -, E = +, W = -

8 What is an acceptable georeference? Point: A numerical description of a place that can be mapped, and… Extent: that describes the spatial extent of a locality (or collecting event), and … Uncertainty: its associated uncertainties. What is a Georeference? Placing a spot on a map

9 Insect Label: low vs. high quality 1 mi. E Moberly Randolph Co., Mo. July 4-5, 1972 Coll. E. G. Riley USA: MO: Randolph Co. 1 mi. E Moberly, Hwy. 24 39.44929°N, 92.40219°W (WGS84), +/- 200m VII-4-5-1972, E. G. Riley UV light, secondary growth oak-hickory forest Old style – w/o georeference single label Modern style – includes georeference Often need a double decker (= two labels/spec.) Two labels vs. single label: Pro: keeps footprint of label small (4 or 5 lines) Con: twice the work cutting and placing

10 Common Georeferencing Practices: or, … what will happen to locality data from your old-style labels Geolocate Used for locating points and giving uncertainties, editing those points and uncertainties, finding new points from known points Google Earth / Google Maps / GPS / paper maps, etc. Used for locating points Georeference calculator Used for calculating uncertainties from known points via recommended “best practices” for particular locality types (named place, offset-heading, etc.) Demonstrate with examples: Point –radius method

11 Out-Put from Geolocate Search

12 Geolocate results for … Moberly, MO1 mi. E Moberly, MO * Note: Uncertainty resized to polygon

13 Output from Georef calculator for point at “1 mi. E of Moberly on Hwy. 24: Randolph Co., Missouri” 39.449941lat -92.406406lon 7225 (WGS84) World Geodetic System 1984datum decimal degrees 3.98237 4.489 mi. = maximum uncertainty radius (= ½ of linear extent) ** Note that collecting event assumed to have taken place within a ca. 9-mile wide circle 1 mi 0.00001 degrees

14 Geolocate vs. Good Label 1 mi. E Moberly, Hwy. 24, MO USA: MO: Randolph Co. 1 mi. E Moberly, Hwy. 24 39.44929°N, 92.40219°W (WGS84), +/- 200m

15 Google Earth view

16 Suggested Protocol for Preparing Good Labels Take GPS reading in field (especially if an obscure locality with poor landmarks) Run GPS coordinates in Google Earth / Google Maps to relocate point at middle of extent of the collecting event (CE). Calculate maximum uncertainty radius of CE (use ruler in Google Earth, etc.) Record coordinate source datum (GWS84)

17 Suggested Protocol for Preparing Good Labels, con’t. Review how to use a GPS (set datum, record GPS model etc, + GPS error with each waypoint) Review how to take distance measurements using GoogleEarth and GoogleMaps Create master copy of CE label (MS Word). Cut coordinates from typed labels and paste into Google Earth for verification: must double check Review how to format labels (font size, line spacing, etc.) for printing in MS Word. Review need for quality paper & printer


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