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Excerpt from: What the heck is work anyway? by Alexander Kjuerulf Rather than try to come up with the most correct definition of work, i.e. one that would.

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Presentation on theme: "Excerpt from: What the heck is work anyway? by Alexander Kjuerulf Rather than try to come up with the most correct definition of work, i.e. one that would."— Presentation transcript:

1 Excerpt from: What the heck is work anyway? by Alexander Kjuerulf Rather than try to come up with the most correct definition of work, i.e. one that would make sense in an economical, sociological and psychological perspective, I’d rather try to find a definition of work or rather a view of work, that promotes happiness at work in most normal kinds of work. This immediately eliminates some definitions: If work is simply that you do because you have to, then happiness at work is almost impossible by definition. If work is only what you do for money, it eliminates all volunteer work. If work is only what you do for a purpose, then all aspects of your job that are not productive are no longer work. I’m not claiming to have the answer yet, but as I see it here are some elements of a definition if work that is conducive to happiness: Work is something you choose to do. You may not have a choice of whether or not to work but you have choice in what work you do. Work is something you’re valued for. Either someone pays you for your work or someone takes the time and resources to organize your work. Work is an activity where you make a positive difference for someone else.

2 Quick sharing from PwC report They are arguing for students familiar with data analytics, but also… Business leaders often lament skill gaps, and we believe demand will continue to exceed the supply of candidates who have an analytical mindset, technical skills, and a foundation for leadership. So while skills in data analytics will be desired, we believe broader business acumen, global awareness, relationship skills, and leadership abilities will be just as coveted. This broad base will equip students to not only solve challenges, but also to frame these issues in a broader context, so they can ask the right questions—the ones that lead to root causes and solutions.

3 Quick sharing from PwC report They are arguing for students familiar with data analytics, but also… Business leaders often lament skill gaps, and we believe demand will continue to exceed the supply of candidates who have an analytical mindset, technical skills, and a foundation for leadership. So while skills in data analytics will be desired, we believe broader business acumen, global awareness, relationship skills, and leadership abilities will be just as coveted. This broad base will equip students to not only solve challenges, but also to frame these issues in a broader context, so they can ask the right questions—the ones that lead to root causes and solutions.

4 Quick sharing from PwC report They are arguing for students familiar with data analytics, but also… Business leaders often lament skill gaps, and we believe demand will continue to exceed the supply of candidates who have an analytical mindset, technical skills, and a foundation for leadership. So while skills in data analytics will be desired, we believe broader business acumen, global awareness, relationship skills, and leadership abilities will be just as coveted. This broad base will equip students to not only solve challenges, but also to frame these issues in a broader context, so they can ask the right questions—the ones that lead to root causes and solutions.

5 CHAPTER 7 CASH AND RECEIVABLES CONTINUED Sommers – ACCT 3311

6 Supported by a formal promissory note.  A negotiable instrument.  Maker signs in favor of a Payee.  Interest-bearing (has a stated rate of interest) OR  Zero-interest-bearing (interest included in face amount). Notes Receivable

7 Generally originate from:  Customers who need to extend payment period of an outstanding receivable.  High-risk or new customers.  Loans to employees and subsidiaries.  Sales of property, plant, and equipment.  Lending transactions (the majority of notes). Notes Receivable..

8 Note Receivable Journal Entries On June 30, 2011, the Esquire Company sold some merchandise to a customer for $30,000. In payment, Esquire agreed to accept a 6% note requiring the payment of interest and principal on March 31, The 6% rate is appropriate in this situation. Prepare the journal entry to record the sale of merchandise (omit any entry that might be required for the cost of the goods sold). June 30, 2011 Note receivable30,000 Sales revenue30,000

9 Note Receivable Journal Entries On June 30, 2011, the Esquire Company sold some merchandise to a customer for $30,000. In payment, Esquire agreed to accept a 6% note requiring the payment of interest and principal on March 31, The 6% rate is appropriate in this situation. Prepare the journal entry at December 31, December 31, 2011 Interest receivable900 Interest revenue 900 ($30,000 x 6% x 6/12) = 900

10 Note Receivable Journal Entries On June 30, 2011, the Esquire Company sold some merchandise to a customer for $30,000. In payment, Esquire agreed to accept a 6% note requiring the payment of interest and principal on March 31, The 6% rate is appropriate in this situation. Prepare the journal entry at March 31, March 31, 2012 Cash 31,350 Interest revenue 450 Interest receivable 900 Note receivable 30,000 ($30,000 x 6% x 3/12) = 450

11 Illustration: Morgan Corp. makes a loan to Marie Co. and receives in exchange a three-year, $10,000 note bearing interest at 10 percent annually. The market rate of interest for a note of similar risk is 12 percent. How does Morgan record the receipt of the note? ,0001,000 Interest$1,000 $10,000 Principal 4 i = 12% n = 3 Interest-bearing Note FV=10,000, pmt=1,000, n=3, i=12%=>PV=9,520

12 Illustration: How does Morgan record the receipt of the note? Notes Receivable 10,000 Discount on Notes Receivable 480 Cash 9,520 Interest-bearing Note

13 Illustration 7-15 Interest-bearing Note

14 Journal Entries for Interest-Bearing Note Cash 1,000 Discount on notes receivable142 Interest revenue1,142 Interest-bearing Note

15 Q7-15 What is “imputed interest”? Imputed interest is the interest ascribed or attributed to a situation or circumstance which is void of a stated or otherwise appropriate interest factor. Imputed interest is the result of a process of interest rate estimation called imputation. In what situations is it necessary to impute an interest rate for notes receivable? An interest rate is imputed for notes receivable when (1) no interest rate is stated for the transaction, or (2) the stated interest rate is unreasonable, or (3) the stated face amount of the note is materially different from the current cash price for the same or similar items or from the current market value of the debt instrument. Discussion Question

16 Q7-15 Continued – What are the considerations in imputing an appropriate rate? In imputing an appropriate interest rate, consideration should be given to the prevailing interest rates for similar instruments of issuers with similar credit ratings, the collateral, and restrictive covenants.

17 Non-Interest Bearing Note On April 30, 2011, the Rangers Company sold some merchandise to a customer for $40,000. Rangers agreed to accept a payment of $40,000 on April 30, A 6% interest rate is appropriate in this situation. Prepare the journal entry to record the sale of merchandise (omit any entry that might be required for the cost of the goods sold). FV=40,000, pmt=0, n=5, i=6%=>PV=29,890 April 30, 2011 Note receivable40,000 Discount on note receivable10,110 Sales revenue29,890

18 Non-Interest Bearing Note On April 30, 2011, the Rangers Company sold some merchandise to a customer for $40,000. Rangers agreed to accept a payment of $40,000 on April 30, A 6% interest rate is appropriate in this situation. Prepare the amortization schedule. CashInterestAmortBalance 4/30/ ,890 4/30/2012 4/30/2013 4/30/2014 4/30/2015 4/30/2016

19 Non-Interest Bearing Note On April 30, 2011, the Rangers Company sold some merchandise to a customer for $40,000. Rangers agreed to accept a payment of $40,000 on April 30, A 6% interest rate is appropriate in this situation. Prepare the amortization schedule. CashInterestAmortBalance 4/30/ ,890 4/30/ ,793 31,683 4/30/2013 4/30/2014 4/30/2015 4/30/2016

20 Non-Interest Bearing Note On April 30, 2011, the Rangers Company sold some merchandise to a customer for $40,000. Rangers agreed to accept a payment of $40,000 on April 30, A 6% interest rate is appropriate in this situation. Prepare the amortization schedule. CashInterestAmortBalance 4/30/ ,890 4/30/ ,793 31,683 4/30/ ,901 33,584 4/30/2014 4/30/2015 4/30/2016

21 Non-Interest Bearing Note On April 30, 2011, the Rangers Company sold some merchandise to a customer for $40,000. Rangers agreed to accept a payment of $40,000 on April 30, A 6% interest rate is appropriate in this situation. Prepare the amortization schedule. CashInterestAmortBalance 4/30/ ,890 4/30/ ,793 31,683 4/30/ ,901 33,584 4/30/ ,015 35,599 4/30/ ,136 37,735 4/30/ ,265 40,000

22 Non-Interest Bearing Note On April 30, 2011, the Rangers Company sold some merchandise to a customer for $40,000. Rangers agreed to accept a payment of $40,000 on April 30, A 6% interest rate is appropriate in this situation. Prepare the journal entry at December 31, December 31, 2011 Discount on note receivable1,195 Interest revenue1,195 (1,793 X 8/12) CashInterestAmortBalance 4/30/ ,890 4/30/ ,793 31,683 4/30/ ,901 33,584 4/30/ ,015 35,599 4/30/ ,136 37,735 4/30/ ,265 40,000

23 Non-Interest Bearing Note On April 30, 2011, the Rangers Company sold some merchandise to a customer for $40,000. Rangers agreed to accept a payment of $40,000 on April 30, A 6% interest rate is appropriate in this situation. Prepare the journal entry at December 31, December 31, 2012 Discount on note receivable1,865 Interest revenue1,865 (1,793 X 4/12) + (1,901 X 8/12) CashInterestAmortBalance 4/30/ ,890 4/30/ ,793 31,683 4/30/ ,901 33,584 4/30/ ,015 35,599 4/30/ ,136 37,735 4/30/ ,265 40,000

24 Non-Interest Bearing Note On April 30, 2011, the Rangers Company sold some merchandise to a customer for $40,000. Rangers agreed to accept a payment of $40,000 on April 30, A 6% interest rate is appropriate in this situation. What is the balance of the note at December 31, 2012? 31,683 + (1,901 X 8/12) = 32,950 CashInterestAmortBalance 4/30/ ,890 4/30/ ,793 31,683 4/30/ ,901 33,584 4/30/ ,015 35,599 4/30/ ,136 37,735 4/30/ ,265 40,000

25 Non-Interest Bearing Note On April 30, 2011, the Rangers Company sold some merchandise to a customer for $40,000. Rangers agreed to accept a payment of $40,000 on April 30, A 6% interest rate is appropriate in this situation. Prepare the journal entry at April 30, April 30, 2016 Discount on note receivable 755 Interest revenue 755 (2,265 X 4/12) Cash40,000 Note receivable40,000 CashInterestAmortBalance 4/30/ ,890 4/30/ ,793 31,683 4/30/ ,136 37,735 4/30/ ,265 40,000

26 Notes Received for Property, Goods or Services In a bargained transaction entered into at arm’s length, the stated interest rate is presumed to be fair unless: 1.No interest rate is stated, or 2.Stated interest rate is unreasonable, or 3.Face amount of the note is materially different from the current cash sales price.

27 Oasis Development Co. sold a corner lot to Rusty Pelican as a restaurant site. Oasis accepted in exchange a five-year note having a maturity value of $35,247 and no stated interest rate. The land originally cost Oasis $14,000. At the date of sale the land had a fair market value of $20,000. Oasis uses the fair market value of the land, $20,000, as the present value of the note. Oasis therefore records the sale as: Notes Receivable 35,247 Discount on Notes Receivable 15,247 Land 14,000 Gain on Sale of Land 6,000 ($35,247 - $20,000) = $15,247 Notes Receivable Example

28 Discussion Question Q7-16 What is the fair value option? Where do companies that elect the fair value option report unrealized holding gains and losses? The fair value option gives companies the option of using fair value as the measurement basis for financial instruments. The Board believes that fair value measurement for financial instruments provides more relevant and understandable information than historical cost. If companies choose the fair value option, the receivables are recorded at fair value, with unrealized gains or losses reported as part of net income.

29  Short-Term reported at Net Realizable Value (same as accounting for accounts receivable).  Long-Term - FASB requires companies disclose not only their cost but also their fair value in the notes to the financial statements. ► Fair Value Option. Companies have the option to use fair value as the basis of measurement in the financial statements. Adjustments to value go through net income. Valuation of Notes Receivable

30 Owner may transfer accounts or notes receivables to another company for cash. Reasons:  Competition.  Sell receivables because money is tight.  Billing / collection are time-consuming and costly. Transfer accomplished by: 1. Secured borrowing 2. Sale of receivables Disposition of Receivables

31 Secured borrowing Now CashXXX PayableXXX Get cash sooner, have A/R and payable on books Later CashXXX A/RXXX PayableXXX CashXXX Sale of Receivables Now CashXXX A/RXXX Get cash sooner, but have nothing else on books Later Nothing

32 The FASB concluded that a sale occurs only if the seller surrenders control of the receivables to the buyer. Three conditions must be met. Secured borrowing vs. Sale

33 Factors are finance companies or banks that buy receivables from businesses for a fee. Illustration 7-17 Sale of Receivables

34 Sale Without Recourse  Purchaser assumes risk of collection  Transfer is outright sale of receivable  Seller records loss on sale  Seller uses Due from Factor (receivable) account to cover discounts, returns, and allowances Sale With Recourse  Seller guarantees payment to purchaser  Financial components approach used to record transfer Sale of Receivables

35 1.Segregate the different types of receivables that a company possesses, if material. 2.Appropriately offset the valuation accounts against the proper receivable accounts. 3.Determine that receivables classified in the current assets section will be converted into cash within the year or the operating cycle, whichever is longer. 4.Disclose any loss contingencies that exist on the receivables. 5.Disclose any receivables designated or pledged as collateral. 6.Disclose the nature of credit risk inherent in the receivables. Presentation of Receivables

36 Discussion Question Q7-21 What is the accounts receivable turnover ratio, and what type of information does it provide? The accounts receivable turnover ratio is computed by dividing net sales by average net receiv­ables outstanding during the year. This ratio is used to assess the liquidity of the receivables. It measures the number of times, on average, receivables are collected during the period. It provides some indication of the quality of the receivables and how successful the company is in collecting its outstanding receivables.

37 This Ratio used to:  Assess the liquidity of the receivables.  Measure the number of times, on average, a company collects receivables during the period. A/R Turnover Ratio

38 RELEVANT FACTS - Similarities  The accounting and reporting related to cash is essentially the same under both IFRS and GAAP. In addition, the definition used for cash equivalents is the same.  Like GAAP, cash and receivables are generally reported in the current assets section of the balance sheet under IFRS.  Similar to GAAP, IFRS requires that loans and receivables be accounted for at amortized cost, adjusted for allowances for doubtful accounts. IFRS

39 RELEVANT FACTS - Differences  Under IFRS, companies may report cash and receivables as the last items in current assets under IFRS. Under GAAP, these items are reported in order of liquidity.  While IFRS implies that receivables with different characteristics should be reported separately, there is no standard that mandates this segregation. GAAP has explicit guidance in the area.  The fair value option is similar under GAAP and IFRS but not identical. The international standard related to the fair value option is subject to certain qualifying criteria not in the U.S. standard. In addition, there is some difference in the financial instruments covered. IFRS

40 RELEVANT FACTS - Differences  Under IFRS, bank overdrafts are generally reported as cash. Under GAAP, such balances are reported as liabilities.  IFRS and GAAP differ in the criteria used to account for transfers of receivables. IFRS is a combination of an approach focused on risks and rewards and loss of control. GAAP uses loss of control as the primary criterion. In addition, IFRS generally permits partial transfers; GAAP does not. IFRS

41 Receivables Journal Entries Weldon Corporation’s fiscal year ends December 31. The following is a list of transactions involving receivables that occurred during 2011: 3/17Accounts receivable of $1,700 were written off as uncollectible. The company uses the allowance method. 3/30Loaned an officer of the company $20,000 and received a note requiring principal and interest at 7% to be paid on March 30, /30Sold merchandise to the Blankenship Company for $12,000. Terms of the sale are 2/10, n/30. Weldon uses the gross method to account for cash discounts. 7/8The Blankenship Company paid its account in full. 8/31Sold stock in a nonpublic company with a book value of $5,000 and accepted a $6,000 non-interest-bearing note with a discount rate of 8%. The $6,000 payment is due on February 28, The stock has no ready market value. 12/31Bad debt expense is estimated to be 2% of credit sales for the year. Credit sales for 2011 were $700,000. Prepare all journal entries.

42 Receivables Journal Entries 3/17Accounts receivable of $1,700 were written off as uncollectible. The company uses the allowance method. Allowance for uncollectible accounts 1,700 Accounts receivable 1,700 3/30Loaned an officer of the company $20,000 and received a note requiring principal and interest at 7% to be paid on March 30, Note receivable20,000 Cash20,000

43 Receivables Journal Entries 6/30Sold merchandise to the Blankenship Company for $12,000. Terms of the sale are 2/10, n/30. Weldon uses the gross method to account for cash discounts. Accounts receivable12,000 Sales revenue12,000 7/8The Blankenship Company paid its account in full. Cash ($12,000 x 98%)11,760 Sales discounts ($12,000 x 2%) 240 Accounts receivable12,000

44 Receivables Journal Entries 8/31Sold stock in a nonpublic company with a book value of $5,000 and accepted a $6,000 non-interest-bearing note with a discount rate of 8%. The $6,000 payment is due on February 28, The stock has no ready market value. Notes receivable (face amount) 6,000 Discount on note receivable 227 Investments (book value) 5,000 Gain on sale of investments (difference) 773 PV(FV=6,000, pmt=0, n=6/12, i=8%) = 5,773 12/31Bad debt expense is estimated to be 2% of credit sales for the year. Credit sales for 2011 were $700,000. Bad debt expense ($700,000 x 2%)14,000 Allowance for uncollectible accounts14,000

45 Receivables Journal Entries Adjusting Entries: To accrue interest earned on note receivable from loan to officer. Interest receivable1,050 Interest revenue ($20,000 x 7% x 9/12)1,050 To accrue interest earned on note receivable from sale of stock. Discount on note receivable 154 Interest revenue ($5,773 x 8% x 4/12) 154


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