1 Prepared by: Carole Bowman, Sheridan College Accounting PrinciplesSecond Canadian EditionWeygandt · Kieso · Kimmel · TrenholmPrepared by: Carole Bowman, Sheridan College
2 ADJUSTING THE ACCOUNTS CHAPTER3ADJUSTING THE ACCOUNTS
3 TIME PERIOD ASSUMPTION The time period (or periodicity) assumption assumes that the economic life of a business can be divided into artificial time periods — generally a month, a quarter, or a year.Periods of less than one year are called interim periods.The accounting time period of one year in length is usually known as a fiscal year.1
4 REVENUE RECOGNITION PRINCIPLE The revenue recognition principle states that revenue should be recognized in the accounting period in which it is earned.In a service business, revenue is usually considered to be earned at the time the service is performed.In a merchandising business, revenue is usually earned at the time the goods are delivered.2
5 THE MATCHING PRINCIPLE The practice of expense recognition is referred to as the matching principle.The matching principle is the GAAP that states that the revenue earned during one fiscal period must be matched with the expenses incurred to earn that revenue.Revenuesearnedthis monthare offsetagainst....expensesincurred inearning therevenue3
6 ACCRUAL BASIS OF ACCOUNTING Adheres to theRevenue recognition principleMatching principleRevenue recorded when earned, not only when cash received.Expense recorded when services or goods are used or consumed in the generation of revenue, not only when cash paid.GAAP
7 CASH BASIS OF ACCOUNTING PowerPoint SlidesCASH BASIS OF ACCOUNTINGNOT GAAPRevenue recorded only when cash received.Expense recorded only when cash paid.5
8 HAPPEN! ADJUSTING ENTRIES Adjusting entries make the revenue recognition and matching principlesHAPPEN!
9 ADJUSTING ENTRIES * Accrued means owing but not yet due. Adjusting entries are required each time financial statements are prepared.Adjusting entries can be classified as1. prepayments (prepaid expenses or unearned revenues),2. accruals (accrued* revenues or accrued expenses), or3. estimates of valuation (amortization / depreciation).* Accrued means owing but not yet due.5
10 TYPES OF ADJUSTING ENTRIES Prepayments1. Prepaid Expenses — Expenses paid in cash and recorded as assets before they are used or consumed. (e.g. Rent paid in advance)2. Unearned Revenues — Revenues received in cash and recorded as liabilities before they are earned. (e.g. Prepayment for a service before the service is rendered)
11 TYPES OF ADJUSTING ENTRIES Accruals1. Accrued Revenues — Revenues earned but not yet received in cash or recorded.2. Accrued Expenses — Expenses incurred but not yet paid in cash or recorded. (e.g. Interest owed but not yet due)
12 TYPES OF ADJUSTING ENTRIES Estimates of valuation1. Amortization — Allocation of the cost of capital assets to expense over their useful lives.
13 PREPAYMENTSPrepayments are either prepaid expenses or unearned revenues.Adjusting entries for prepayments are required to record the portion of the prepayment that represents1. the expense incurred or,2. the revenue earned in the current accounting period.
14 PREPAID EXPENSESPrepaid expenses are expenses paid in cash and recorded as assets before they are used or consumed.Prepaid expenses expire with the passage of time or through use and consumption.An asset-expense account relationship exists with prepaid expenses.6
15 PREPAID EXPENSESPrior to adjustment, assets are overstated and expenses are understated.The adjusting entry results in a debit to an expense account and a credit to an asset account.Examples of prepaid expenses include supplies, rent, insurance, and property tax.7
16 “PREPAID” ADJUSTMENTFour month’s rent of $4,800 had been paid in advance.Rent Expense ,200--Prepaid Rent ,200--To record rent used during May.$4,800/4
17 UNEARNED REVENUESUnearned revenues are revenues received and recorded as liabilities before they are earned.Unearned revenues are subsequently earned by performing a service or providing a good to a customer.A liability-revenue account relationship exists with unearned revenues.10
18 UNEARNED REVENUESPrior to adjustment, liabilities are overstated and revenues are understated.The adjusting entry results in a debit to a liability account and a credit to a revenue account.Examples of unearned revenues include rent, magazine subscriptions, airplane tickets, and tuition.
19 REVENUE REQUIRING ADJUSTMENT EarnedThe business has provided goods or services but has not yet billed the customerUnearnedThe business has received payment for goods or services they have not yet provided
20 UNEARNED ENTRYIn April Cottage Furniture received payment of $2,400 from a customer to provide them with custom furniture that would be delivered in May.Cash ,400--Unearned Revenue 2,400--To record payment forfurniture to be providedin May.Liability
21 EARNED REVENUE ENTRYRevenue can not be recognized until the goods or services are provided in May.Unearned Revenue 2,400--Sales 2,400--To record the delivery of the furniture orderedand paid for in April.
23 ACCRUALS A different type of adjusting entry is accruals. Adjusting entries for accruals are required to record revenues earned and expenses incurred in the current period.The adjusting entry for accruals will increase both a balance sheet and an income statement account.
24 ACCRUED REVENUESAccrued revenues may accumulate with the passing of time or through services performed but not billed or collected.An asset-revenue account relationship exists with accrued revenues.Prior to adjustment, assets and revenues are understated.The adjusting entry requires a debit to an asset account and a credit to a revenue account.Examples of accrued revenues include accounts receivable, rent receivable, and interest receivable.
25 ACCRUED EXPENSESAccrued expenses are expenses incurred but not yet paid.A liability-expense account relationship exists.Prior to adjustment, liabilities and expenses are understated.The adjusting entry results in a debit to an expense account and a credit to a liability account.Examples of accrued expenses include accounts payable, rent payable, salaries payable, and interest payable.
26 ILLUSTRATION 3-6 FORMULA TO CALCULATE INTEREST Face Value of NoteAnnual Interest RateTime(in Terms of One Year)Interestxx=$5,000 x % x /12 = $25
27 “ACCRUED” ADJUSTMENT A bank loan of $5,000 was taken at 6%/a Interest ExpenseInterest PayableTo record the interest accrued on the bankloan during May.$5,000 x 0.06 / 12
29 AMORTIZATIONAmortization is the process of allocating the cost of certain capital assets to expense over their useful life in a rational and systematic manner.Amortization attempts to match the cost of a long-term, capital asset to the revenue it generates each period.
30 AMORTIZATIONAmortization is an estimate rather than a factual measurement of the cost that has expired.We’re not attempting to reflect theactual change in value of an asset!
31 Accumulated Amortization In recording amortization, Amortization Expense is debited and a contra asset account, Accumulated Amortization, is credited.The difference between the cost of the asset and its related accumulated amortization is referred to as the net book value of the asset.xxx xxxAmortization ExpenseAccumulated Amortization
32 “VALUATION” ADJUSTMENT A piece of equipment costing $360,000 was expected to have a useful life of 10 years and no “residual” value.Depreciation Expense ,000--Accumulated Depreciation-Equipment ,000--To record the depreciation for Mayusing straight line.$360,000/10/12One yearCostLife
33 "VALUATION" ADJUSTMENTA piece of equipment costing $360,000 was expected to have a useful life of 10 years and scrap value of $45,000.Depreciation Expense ,625--Accumulated Depreciation-Equipment ,625--To record the depreciation for May using straight line.($360,000 – $45,000)/10/12
34 Balance Sheet Presentation AMORTIZATIONBalance Sheet PresentationOffice equipment $5,000Less: Accumulated amortizationNet book value $4,917Estimate
35 ILLUSTRATION 3-8 SUMMARY OF ADJUSTING ENTRIES 1.Prepaid Assets and Assets overstated Dr. Expenses expenses expenses Expenses understated Cr. Assets2.Unearned Liabilities and Liabilities overstated Dr. Liabilities revenues revenues Revenues understated Cr. Revenues3.Accrued Assets and Assets understated Dr. Assets revenues revenues Revenues understated Cr. Revenues4.Accrued Expenses and Expenses understated Dr. Expenses expenses liabilities Liabilities understated Cr. Liabilities5.Amortization Expense and Expenses understated Dr. Amort. Exp contra asset Assets overstated Cr. Accum AmortizationAccountAccounts beforeAdjustingType ofAdjustmentRelationshipAdjustmentEntry
36 ADJUSTED TRIAL BALANCE An Adjusted Trial Balance is prepared after all adjusting entries have been journalized and posted.It shows the balances of all accounts at the end of the accounting period and the effects of all financial events that have occurred during the period.It proves the equality of the total debit and credit balances in the ledger after all adjustments have been made.Financial statements can be prepared directly from the adjusted trial balance.
37 ILLUSTRATION TRIAL BALANCE AND ADJUSTED TRIAL BALANCE COMPARED
38 PREPARING FINANCIAL STATEMENTS Financial statements can be prepared directly from an adjusted trial balance.1. The income statement is prepared from the revenue and expense accounts.2. The statement of owner’s equity is derived from the owner’s capital and drawings accounts and the net income (or net loss) shown in the income statement.3. The balance sheet is then prepared from the asset and liability accounts and the ending owner’s capital balance as reported in the statement of owner’s equity.
39 ILLUSTRATION PREPARATION OF THE INCOME STATEMENT AND THE STATEMENT OF OWNER’S EQUITY FROM THE ADJUSTED TRIAL BALANCE
40 From Statement of Owner’s Equity ILLUSTRATION PREPARATION OF THE BALANCE SHEET FROM THE ADJUSTED TRIAL BALANCEFrom Statement of Owner’s Equity
41 WORK SHEETA work sheet is a multiple-column form that may be used in the adjustment process and in preparing financial statements.It is a working tool or a supplementary device for the accountant and not a permanent accounting record.Use of a work sheet should make the preparation of adjusting entries and financial statements easier.
42 ILLUSTRATION 4-1 WORK SHEET 4. Extend adjusted balance to appropriate columns.5. Calculate income/loss and complete the worksheet.1. Prepare trial balance on the worksheet.2. Enter adjustment data.3. Enter adjusted balances