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Company Analysis Chapter 17

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Financial Statement Analysis Financial information presented in the form of financial statements Income statement Balance sheet Analyst must be able to interpret the information provided on the statements Look at example: XYZ Company…

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STATEMENT OF INCOME:19971998199920002001 Total Revenue...............14260002143300289230030586004448000 Cost of Sales...............12387001931400255940026992004005800 Depreciation/Amortization...40100436007680075300101300 Interest Expense............53007500532005260079000 Research / Exploration......00363005370073100 Other Expense...............3310043600461005640037900 Unusual Items...............00000 Pre-Tax Income..............108800117200120500121400150900 Income Tax..................-19900-25700-20400-13700-18100 Earnings BEFORE Extra. Items8890091500100100107700132800 Extraordinary Items.........00000 Income AFTER Extra. Items8890091500100100107700132800 Dividends - Preferred Shares35003800400029002600 Income Available to Common Shares854008770096100104800130200 Earnings /Share.............0.68 0.7060.7270.85 Common Shares - Year End (1000s)125658131398141443152337154280 Common Shares - Average (1000s)125536128932136073144121153237 Dividends - Common Shares...1470022000287002740032200 Market Price per Share (Close)6.697.637.8817.1311.63

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ASSETS:19971998199920002001 Cash & Equivalent...........1500008400087500179200235100 Accounts Receivable.........174000428800413700360100380400 Inventory...................22020058350099270012157001803100 Marketable Securities.......00000 Other.......................00000 Current Assets......5442001096300149390017550002418600 Fixed Assets - Gross13727001650500195620022776002914600 less: Accumulated Depreciation-766200-809800-886600-961900-1063200 Fixed Assets - Net..........606500840700106960013157001851400 Assets..............11507001937000256350030707004270000 LIABILITIES AND EQUITY:19971998199920002001 Bank Loans & Equivalent.....147800346800537400620800828500 Accounts Payable............3472006844008318009014001380900 Current Portion of L-T Debt.540030000208001930056400 Current Liabilities........5004001061200139000015415002265800 Long-Term Debt & Debentures.83500211000425500586600963700 Deferred Taxes & Credits....4160042000538004330056400 Equity: Preferred Stock.....158300157700374003570034100 Common Stock........190600223100347400476800465200 Retained Earnings...176300242000309400386800484800 Total Equity........525200622800694200899300984100 Liabilities + Equity11507001937000256350030707004270000

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XYZ Company FINANCIAL RATIOS: 19971998199920002001 Current Ratio1.091.031.071.141.07 Acid Test (Quick) Ratio0.650.480.360.350.27 ACP (days)44.5473.0252.2142.9731.22 Inventory Turnover5.623.312.582.22 Total Asset Turnover1.241.111.131.001.04 Debt Ratio0.510.660.710.690.76 Debt-to-Equity Ratio1.112.042.622.373.28 Equity Multiplier2.193.113.693.414.34 TIE (or Interest Coverage)21.5316.633.273.312.91 Net Income Margin6.23%4.27%3.46%3.52%2.99% Return on Assets (ROA)7.73%4.72%3.90%3.51%3.11% Return on Equity (ROE)16.93%14.69%14.42%11.98%13.49% P/E Ratio9.8411.2111.1523.5613.68 M/B Ratio2.292.151.703.021.89 Dividend Yield1.75%2.24%2.68%1.11%1.81% Dividend Payout Ratio0.170.250.300.260.25

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INDUSTRY AVERAGES FINANCIAL RATIOS: 19971998199920002001 Current Ratio2.122.852.252.011.69 Acid Test (Quick) Ratio1.211.971.361.241.09 ACP (days)35.2034.0944.5045.9046.90 Inventory Turnover7.788.207.688.528.16 Total Asset Turnover1.781.431.371.261.23 Debt Ratio0.230.330.320.290.32 Debt-to-Equity Ratio0.360.610.560.490.55 Equity Multiplier1.571.821.781.701.74 TIE (or Interest Coverage)34.4142.195.955.538.61 Net Income Margin8.47%6.03%4.34%4.19%5.68% Return on Assets (ROA)15.08%8.64%5.95%5.27%7.01% Return on Equity (ROE)23.68%15.72%10.59%8.96%12.20% P/E Ratio6.429.0812.1322.3815.53 M/B Ratio1.511.421.282.001.88 Dividend Yield1.71%1.73%2.86%2.67%2.08% Dividend Payout Ratio0.130.240.350.390.26

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Ratio Analysis Used to examine a firm’s financial performance A ratio on its own has limited value – to be useful, one must examine: –Trends –Ratios of comparable firms or industry benchmarks

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Ratio Analysis (cont’d) Five types of ratios used to analyze a firm: 1. Liquidity: ability to generate cash and meet s/t debt 2. Asset Management: ability to effectively manage its assets to generate sales and profits 3. Debt Management: ability to effectively handle its debt 4. Profitability: ability to generate profits 5. Value: market value versus accounting values

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A. Liquidity 1. Current ratio = current assets / current liabilities For XYZ (2001): = 2,418,600 / 2,265,800 = 1.07 2. Quick ratio = [CA - Inventory] / current liabilities For XYZ (2001) = (2,418,600 – 1,803,100) / 2,265,800 = 0.27

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B. Asset Management 3. Average Collection Period (ACP) = Account Receivable / (Sales/365days) For XYZ (2001): = 380,400 / (4,448,000/365) = 31.22 days Note: A/R Turnover = Sales / Acct Receivable = 365 / ACP For XYZ (2001) = 365/31.22 days = 11.69 times

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B. Asset Management (cont.) 4. Inventory Turnover = Cost of goods / Inventory or= Net Sales / Inventory For XYZ (2001) (using CoGS): = (4,005,800) /1,803,100 = 2.22 times Days Inventory = Inventory / Daily COGS (or Sales) = 365 / Inventory Turnover For XYZ (2001) = 365/2.22 = 164.4 days 5. Total Asset Turnover = Sales / TA = 4,488,000 / 4,270,000 = 1.042

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C. Debt Ratios 6. Debt Ratio = Total Debt / TA = (2,265,800 + 963,700) / 4,270,000 = 0.756 7. Debt-to-Equity = Total Debt / Total Equity = (2,265,800 + 963,700) / 984,100 = 3.282 TA = Debt + Equity

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C. Debt Ratios (cont.) 8. Leverage Ratio (or Equity Multiplier) = TA / Equity = 4,270,000 / (984,100) = 4.339 higher values more debt 9. TIE (or Interest Coverage) = EBIT / Interest = (150,900 + 79,000) / 79,000 = 2.91 times

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D. Profitability 10. ROE = NI / Equity = 132,800 / 984,100 = 13.49% 11. ROA = NI / TA = 132,800 / 4,270,000 = 3.11% 12. Net Income Margin = NI / Sales = 132,800 / 4,448,000 = 2.99%

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E. Value Ratios 13. Div. Payout = DPS / EPS = Common Dividends / Earnings Available to Common Shareholders = 32,200 / 130,200 =.2473 = 24.73% 14. P/E =Market Price per Share / EPS = 11.63 / 0.85 = 13.68

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E. Value Ratios (cont’d) 15. M/B = Market price per share / Book value per share = 11.63 / [(984,100 – 34,100) / 154,280] = 11.63 / 6.16 = 1.89 16. Dividend Yield = DPS / Market price per share = (32,200 / 153,237) / 11.63 =.21 / 11.63 = 1.81%

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DuPont Analysis ROE = NI / Equity Tax Burden Interest Burden EBIT Efficiency TA Turnover NI / Sales = Net Income Margin NI / TA = ROA Leverage Ratio = TA / Equity LeverageR atio

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Net Profit margin Asset Turnover Leverage Ratio

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XYZ (2001) NI / EBT = 132,800 / 150,900 =.880 EBT / EBIT = 150,900 / (150,900 + 79,000) = 150,900 / 229,900 =.656 EBIT / Sales = 229,900 / 4,448,000 =.0517 Sales / TA = 1.042 (previously calculated) TA / Equity = 4.339 (previously calculated) ROE = (.8800)(.6564)(.0517)(1.042)(4.339) =.1350 = 13.50% This differs from the 13.49% we calculated previously due to rounding errors.

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XYZ (2001) NI / Sales = 0.0299 (previously calculated) Sales /TA = 1.042 (previously calculated) Calculate ROA = (.0299)(1.042) =.0311 = 3.11% (equals the 3.11% previously calculated) TA / Equity = 4.339 (previously calculated) So, ROE = (.0299)(1.042)(4.339) = 13.52% (differs from 13.49% previously calculated due to rounding errors)

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Liquidity Below average –Current and quick ratios of 1.07 and 0.27 are both well below industry averages of 1.69 and 1.09 Bad trend –Current ratio has been steady, but quick ratio has deteriorated significantly Low and deteriorating quick ratio is due to high levels of inventory

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Asset Management Collections as measured by ACP is above average (31 days versus 47 days) and is improving Inventory turnover is very low (2.3 versus industry average of 8.2), and has been continually deteriorating, and they maintain high inventory levels TA turnover is below average, has been over the period, and continues to deteriorate

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Debt Management Debt levels have increased steadily and coverage has deteriorated –Debt ratio is 0.76 (from 0.51 in 1997) –Debt-to-equity is 3.28 (from 1.11 in 1997) –Coverage is 2.91 (from 21.53 in 1997) Debt capacity and coverage are both below average –Debt ratio is 0.76 versus 0.32 industry average –Debt-to-equity is 3.28 versus 0.55 industry average –Coverage is 2.91 versus 8.61 industry average

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Profitability Steady decline in net income margin, ROA and ROE over period Below industry averages, except for ROE –ROE is above average due to use of greater leverage (as noted above)

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DuPont Analysis XYZ (2001) –ROE = (NI/Sales)(Sales/TA)((TA/Eqty) = (.0299)(1.042)(4.339) = 13.51% Industry averages (2001) –ROE = (NI/Sales)(Sales/TA)((TA/Eqty) = (.0568)(1.23)(1.74) = 12.16% This analysis suggests that XYZ displays an above average ROE due to its higher leverage factor, and despite the fact it has below average profitability and asset turnover.

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Value Ratios P/E and M/B ratios are close to average, which is also the case for their dividend yields (Note: a lower dividend yield implies a higher price) They have been close to, or slightly above average over the entire period This suggests the market views XYZ as an “average” company despite some of the problems we have observed

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Summary Below average and deteriorating in terms of liquidity, inventory turnover, and debt management However, they are profitable, even if they are not up to industry standards, and their profitability is dwindling The market views XYZ as an “average” company despite its problems XYZ will probably have to deal with its debt, inventory and liquidity problems in order to maintain an average valuation in the market

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Notes to Financial Statements Provide important details about the company’s financial condition Often included in the notes are: –Accounting policies –Description of fixed assets, share capital and LTD –Commitments and contingencies Financial Statements should also disclose information by segments (i.e., by industry and by location)

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Management’s Discussion and Analysis Important source of information Provides overview of factors/issues affecting firm’s performance May contain explanations of issues uncovered in an analysis of the financial ratios It is the management’s point of view

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Estimating Earnings Per Share

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Estimating EPS Security valuation often depends on having an estimate of EPS for the next year (or next several years) To use the forward P/E multiple, you need an estimate of the multiple and an estimate of EPS 1 To use DCF methods, it is common to estimate the FCFE (or FCFF or Dividends) directly for the first few years and then assume a stable growth rate

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Estimating EPS In order to estimate EPS, the easiest method is to simply remember that what you are analyzing is a business – it has revenues and costs. Estimates of future revenues and costs will translate into estimates of EPS (and with a little more work, estimates of free cash flow) Appropriate methods for forecasting revenues and costs depend heavily on what type of company (i.e. what industry) you are looking at

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Estimating EPS Consider a simple income statement: An estimate of N.I. can be used to get EPS, or as a starting point for a free cash flow estimate Revenues -Costs EBITDA -Depreciation & Amort. EBIT -Interest EBT -tax Net Income

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Estimating EPS To estimate NI for next year, simply estimate each piece of the income statement. Revenues: a revenue estimate is extremely important! The way to estimate depends on the type of firm

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Examples of factors to consider in revenues: –For a firm with a few major products (e.g. pharmaceuticals) – estimate sales for each product –will they grow/decline from last year? –Retail firms – what will be the growth in “same store sales” over last year from existing stores? Are they opening new stores and what will their sales be? –Raw materials producers – need estimate of the output price (e.g. price of nickel, price of oil, etc.). Also need estimate of total output – will the mines start to produce more or less? Will new mines be opened? –Consumer or industrials – What is growth rate in overall product market? Will this company’s market share increase/decrease next year? Combine to estimate revenues.

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–Statistical techniques – Could use regression to estimate revenues. e.g. regress past sales on some variable thought to be related (maybe regress department store sales on GDP growth). The parameters from the regression, and an estimate of the economic variable for next year will give an estimate of next year’s sales. –Many other factors that you might consider. The point is to think of the company being analyzed as a business – what factors will affect its sales, what do you think will happen with those factors? Is the firm’s strategy going to result in increased or decreased sales? What about state of economy/industry etc. –Estimating revenues should use expertise you have gained in all your courses (marketing/strategy/stats etc.) and a lot of common sense.

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Estimating EPS Based on estimate of sales, now estimate EBITDA Often this is done by forecasting next year’s Gross Margin (a.k.a. the EBTIDA ratio (EBITDA/Revenues)) Could take average of last few years’ margins – Ave. Gross Margin X Rev = EBITDA Note: this assumes that next year’s cost structure will be similar to the past If you think that costs may increase or decrease for some reason, must adjust this

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Estimating EPS Depreciation: usually, starting point is last year’s depreciation. Then adjust for declining balance of value of assets, and adjust for any new capital expenditures that will generate depreciation. Interest: estimate based on debt outstanding, level of interest rates (if some debt must be renogiated), effect of any new borrowings

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Estimating EPS Tax: estimate an effective tax rate paid by company. Combine the above estimates to get an estimate of Net Income An estimate of basic EPS is obtained by subtracting preferred dividends from NI and dividing by the number of common shares outstanding

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Using EPS estimate in DCF Valuation An estimate of next year’s EPS could be translated into an estimate of div 1 if the firm uses a fixed payout ratio Commonly, an estimate of FCFE could be obtained based on an estimate of EPS by looking at the extra pieces needed for FCFE Note: it is normal to directly estimate FCFE (or FCFF) out for several years, and then assume a growth rate after that

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Estimating FCFE Remember: FCFE = Net Income + Depreciation – Capital Expenditures – Change in non-cash Working Capital + Net New Debt Issued Given estimate of NI, an estimate of the last 4 factors are necessary

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Estimating FCFE Sometimes, your knowledge of the firm will help a lot: are they expanding and planning on large capital expenditures? Are they planning on increasing/decreasing debt load? Are they increasing/decreasing inventory? etc. Often, simplifying assumptions are used:

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Estimating FCFE Examples of common assumptions: For a firm that is not in a major growth phase, often assumed that capital expenditures = depreciation (e.g. they are simply replacing equipment as it wears out) Often accounts receivable (part of working capital) is assumed to be a constant percentage of sales (unless a component of the firm’s strategy is to change this) Often accounts payable (part of working capital) is assumed to be a constant percentage of costs

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Estimating FCFE Common assumptions (cont.) Inventory sometimes assumed to be a percentage of sales (but note that often firms are trying to build up inventory, or sell it down) Investments in cap ex. or working capital must be financed – if the firm has a target debt/asset ratio then this is often used to determine how much of these investments will be finned with debt vs equity (which gives an estimate of debt issuance in the future) There are other assumptions that you might make in your forecast, the appropriate ones depend on the situation and should be based on your knowledge of the firm and its industry

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Estimating Growth Rates dividends are related to profitability in particular, EPS are important If the firm tries to maintain a constant payout ratio: growth rate in dividends = growth rate in EPS estimate future growth rate based on past growth rate in dividends or EPS? Appropriate?

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estimate sometimes used is “sustainable” growth rate growth rate in Div’s = growth rate in EPS = (1 - payout ratio) ROE need estimate of future ROE the sustainable growth rate is the growth expected with no further investment of capital into the firm Sustainable growth only appropriate as g if payout and ROE are both stable over time (mature industry)

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Estimating “g” 1. Use historical information regarding growth in earnings + dividends: a. Arithmetic averages over some past interval e.g. 3yrs/5yr/10yr/last year b. Geometric averages c. Regressions (e.g. div’s on some econ/industry/firm attribute) 2. Use analyst forecasts 3. Estimate “Sustainable Growth Rate” (see above) 4. Combine #1-3 with judgement to reach final estimate (or range of estimates)

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Other issues in estimating future growth rate: – growth in industry overall – is firm gaining/losing market share in its industry? – Growth rate of economy overall – the long term, stable growth rate for the firm cannot be larger than the long term growth rate of the overall economy

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For long term growth, often an estimate of long term economic growth is used – or something lower if the industry is expected to grows slower than overall economy In short term, growth rates often based on year by year forecasts of earnings for firm Forecasts based on many factors, including growth of industry, growth of market share, revenue growth and costs changes etc.

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