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 determination of an individual’s characteristics by interpreting the various irregularities and folds of the skin.

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Presentation on theme: " determination of an individual’s characteristics by interpreting the various irregularities and folds of the skin."— Presentation transcript:

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2  determination of an individual’s characteristics by interpreting the various irregularities and folds of the skin

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4  When troubled I seek out ◦ People ◦ Action ◦ Solitude  I prefer ◦ physical comfort ◦ physical adventure ◦ Privacy  The time of my life I favor is ◦ Childhood ◦ Early adulthood ◦ Later years

5  What would bother me most would be ◦ being cut off from other people ◦ being closed off in small places ◦ being exposed to endless noise  When in a group I like to ◦ Mingle ◦ take charge ◦ take off  I prefer to ◦ let things take their course ◦ do things ◦ observe what is going on

6  The thing I like most is ◦ eating exercise time to myself  The qualities that fit me best are ◦ tolerance and love of people love of power and leadership a highly developed self-awareness

7  Conduct a frequency count of 1, 2, 3s  1 = Endomorph  2 = Mesomorph  3 = Ectomorph

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9  soft body  underdeveloped muscles  round shaped  Associated personality traits:

10  hard, muscular body, mature appearance  rectangular shaped, thick skin  upright posture  Associated personality traits:

11  thin, delicate build, young appearance  tall, lightly muscled  stoop-shouldered, large brain  Associated personality traits:

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13  Prior to Accident  capable and efficient foreman  well-balanced mind  shrewd  business man  After Accident  fitful, irreverent  grossly profane  impatient and obstinate  lack of emotion

14  Chimps (1935)  Easily frustrated, vicious  Frontal lobes operated on…  Chimps became mellow  Egas Moniz was present  Procedure then applied to humans

15  Nobel Prize in 1949 Nobel Prize  1937 – lobotomy  thalamus-prefrontal cortex incision

16  Francis Farmer (actress)  Rosemary Kennedy (1941)  Received lobotomy for mood swings  Implication ◦ less emotional, but not emotionally responsive and future anticipation becomes erratic and disorganized ◦ Ability to make decisions falls apart

17  Part of limbic system ◦ Reptilian Brain  Implicated in emotions  When removed: ◦ less aggressive and less fearful ◦ try to eat inedible things ◦ increased sexual behavior

18  University of Texas (summer, 1969)  Killed wife and mother  14 others killed the next day  Autopsy  tumor next to amygdala

19  Left  Positive emotions  Damage to: ◦ Schizophrenia ◦ Disorganized ◦ Illogical thinking  Right  Negative emotions  Damage to: ◦ Bipolar Disorder ◦ Mood swings ◦ Energy fluctuations

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21  Hippocrates (460?-377? B.C.)  Galen (A. D ?)  Somatogenic Hypothesis  sanguine, melancholic, choleric, phlegmatic

22 Primal Qualities:Dry/ColdWet/WarmWet/ColdDry/Warm Elements:EarthAirWaterFire Seasons:AutumnSpringWinterSummer Humors:Black BileBloodPhlegmYellow Bile Termperaments:MelancholicSanguinePhlegmaticCholeric Principal Organs:SpleenHeartBrainLiver

23  descriptions of the four temperaments  traits cluster together  prototypical model of personality

24  reorganized the four types  two dimensions ◦ degree of emotionality ◦ degree of changeability  dimensional model of personality

25 Click here Click here for video link

26  critical of psychoanalysis  at worst – fictional  at best – untestable  700 neurotically maladjusted patients  Reviewed case histories  Developed a two-factor model

27  used factor analysis - two factors  Neuroticism ◦ Disorganized personality, dependency, narrow interests, dismissal from military service, parental psychopathology, unsatisfactory home  Two groups ◦ Neurotically maladjusted (obsessive, anxiety) ◦ Hysterical (physical problems with no physical basis)

28  negative affect, sleepiness, irritability, feelings of inferiority, sluggish  heightened right hemisphere activity

29  use poor coping strategies (i.e., self-blame)  irrational ideas  less able to control their impulses

30  Two Types of E-I  Introversion ◦ Anxiety, obsessive-compulsive symptoms, reactive depression neuroses, irritability, apathy, self-conscious, moody, prone to day dreaming  Extraversion ◦ Hysterical neurosis, bad work history, hypochondriacal, prone to stammer, accident prone, disgruntled, prone to aches and pains

31  introverts prone to: ◦ anxiety-depressive disorders ◦ coined the term “dysthymia”  extraverts prone to: ◦ hysteria-psychopathic disorders

32  Enter Pavlov  Studies in conditioning  excitatory and inhibitory processes  Establishing a CR due to excitatory processes  Extinguishing CRs due to inhibitory processes

33  Extraversion  talk more when they meet people  more eye contact  sales, personnel work, nursing and teaching  impulsive  gamble more often

34  sexual  permissive in their sexual attitudes  higher sex drive  feel good about life  less responsive to punishment  persist in the face of punishment  don't tend to learn from their mistakes

35  when Es are given a stimulant, they behave like Is  when Is are given an depressant, they tend to act like Es  Is are more sensitive to stimulation  pupil reaction of Es is slower  nervous system of Is is more sensitive

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37 ExcitationInhibitionDisorder IntrovertsHigh (rapid)Low (slow)Dysthymia ExtravertsLow (slow)High (rapid)Hysteria Psychopathology

38 performance arousal level optimal performance

39 performance arousal level Neurotic Extrovert Easy Task

40 performance arousal level normal extravert Hard Task

41  Eysenck proposed in mid 1970s  dimensional  at extreme, psychotic reactions/antisocial  moderate, unusualness and artistic  Polygenic personality trait  “PEN” captured in EPQ

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43  High scores PEN  Impulsivity migrates to P factor  Primary and Secondary Psychopaths  Primary –higher P relative to N  Secondary – higher N relative to P

44  Psychoticism ◦ aggressive, cold, egocentric, impersonal ◦ antisocial, unempathic, creative  Extraversion ◦ social, lively, active, assertive, ◦ carefree, dominant, surgent  Neuroticism ◦ anxious, depressed, guilt-prone ◦ irrational, shy, moody emotional

45  Neuropsychologist  Basic theory: ◦ Personality based on the interaction of two systems  Approach  Inhibition

46  Approach System  Located in the Septal area and the lateral hypothalamus  Causes one to be sensitive to potential rewards and to be motivated to seek rewards

47  Inhibition system  Controlled by septo-hippocampus  Causes one to be sensitive to potential punishments and to be motivated to avoid those punishments

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49  Added a third dimension  Flight or Fight system  Controls tendency to be aroused or aggressive  Controlled by amygdala  Parallel to Eysenck’s “psychoticism”

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51  Dopamine  Serotonin  Norepinephrine

52 Feeding, drinking, movement Imbalanced dopamine activity can cause brain dysfunction and disease. Schizophrenia and Parkinson's disease

53  Related to Approach behavior  “Extraversion” and sociability  Parallel with Gray BAS?  “Reward deficiency syndrome”

54  WWI – patients developed Parkinson’s  Given L-dopa  Catatonic to Normal  Later, to hypomania, restlessness and grandiosity, to deep depression

55  Role in inhibition of impulses  Parallel with Gray’s BIS?  Serotonin depletion: Irrational anger, hypersensitivity to rejection, pessimism, obsessive worry, fear of risk taking

56  Serotonin (5HT), many receptor subtypes  Hunger ◦ Too little 5Ht, increase in hunger (carbohydrates)  Aggressive Behavior ◦ Too little 5HT, violence, antisocial and suicidal behavior  Sleep Onset ◦ Too much 5HT, causes sleep ◦ Warm milk and turkey contain tryptophan (a precursor to Serotonin)  Depression and OCD ◦ Too little 5HT

57  serotonin hypothesis =  used for a variety of disorders  work by raising levels of serotonin by blocking reuptake

58  Prozac  Zoloft  Paxil  Luvox  Celexa Side Effects weight loss, activating, increased anxiety, nausea, headaches, sexual dysfunction

59  Eli Lilly  22 million Americans have used  Cosmetic Psychopharmacology

60  hormone and neurotransmitter  secreted by the medulla of the adrenal gland  brings about "fight or flight"  increased metabolism, blood pressure, mental activity, blood flow to the muscles, and heart rate  Also Known As: noradrenaline

61  High levels ◦ Anger, anxiety, dependent, sociable  Low levels ◦ Disinhibition, impulsivity ◦ Nonconformist, socially detached

62  Robert Cloninger  Novelty seeking -  Harm avoidance -  Reward dependence -

63  Scan page 21

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65  backs up the nervous system providing communication and control  network of glands that secrete hormones  hormones are chemical messengers that use blood as method of transport

66  Hypersecretion = too much hormone  Hyposecretion = too little hormone

67  1) solely endocrine (e.g., thyroid)  2) mixed function (e.g., pancreas, thymus)  3) function not entirely known (e.g, pineal)

68  Regulates metabolism  T3 and T4 are the major thyroid hormones  T4 = thyroxine

69  characterized by sped-up metabolism, elevated body temperature, increased appetite with weight loss, accelerated heart rate, nervousness, agitation, fatigue and insomnia

70  including lethargy, impaired memory, concentration, feeling cold, constipation, fatigue

71  estrogen and testosterone

72  Linked (indirectly) to aggressive  Males 10 times greater amount  High male testosterone ◦ “Stable extravert” ◦ Sociable, self-acceptance, dominance ◦ Restless energy, smile less ◦ More sexual

73  High Testosterone Females ◦ Unprovoked violent crimes ◦ Increased sexual interest ◦ Increased sociability, lack of inhibitions ◦ “butch” lesbians (Funder, 2001)  Low Testosterone Females ◦ Less sexual interest


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