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Objective Environmental Properties Occurrent Cognitions Occurrent Emotions Social and Behavioral Events Perceived Environmental Properties Latent/Enduring.

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Presentation on theme: "Objective Environmental Properties Occurrent Cognitions Occurrent Emotions Social and Behavioral Events Perceived Environmental Properties Latent/Enduring."— Presentation transcript:

1 Objective Environmental Properties Occurrent Cognitions Occurrent Emotions Social and Behavioral Events Perceived Environmental Properties Latent/Enduring Dispositions “Personality Traits” Life Events and Broad Social Contexts Biology “In the Moment” A General Framework for Personality Psychology

2 Trait Approach to Personality

3 Trait Approach – Goals Know definition of “trait” Recognize potential problems with trait concept Understand how traits are “used” in personality psychology Know the fundamental “broad” traits and understand the scientific process through which they have been identified Evaluate whether traits are, in fact, related to important events, outcomes, etc.

4 What is a “Personality Trait”? A relatively stable tendency to think, feel, and act in certain ways. Issues with the “trait” concept Traits vs “types ”? Causal entities or Summary labels? (circular?) Individual Differences in general tendencies (what about variability?) Behavioral prediction and behavioral consistency?

5 Are “Traits” Useful, Valid Scientific Concepts? Walter Mischel (1968) “Person-situation Debate”: 1)“Global traits” do not predict behavior within specific situations very well. (r <.30) 2) Individual differences in behavior are not consistent across specific situations Implications for “trait” as useful for understanding behavior? So, are “Traits” useful concepts?

6 Person-situation debate - implications –During the Nuremberg trials after World War II, some participants in wartime atrocities defended themselves by saying they were “only following orders.” Is this the same thing as saying that the situation was so strong that their behavior was not determined by their own personal characteristics, so they should not be blamed? What do you think of this defense?

7 Sociologists point out that criminal behavior is much more likely from people who come from crime- prone neighborhoods, low economic levels, and unstable family backgrounds. These are all situational factors. Does this fact imply that crime comes from the situation and not from the person? If so, how can we hold a person responsible for criminal actions? Person-situation debate - implications

8 Trait Approach – Goals Know definition of “trait” Recognize potential problems with trait concept Understand how traits are “used” in personality psychology Know the fundamental “broad” traits and understand the scientific process through which they have been identified Evaluate whether traits are, in fact, related to important events, outcomes, etc.

9 How are “traits” used Personality Psychology? Some uses of “traits”: Understand an individual Understand a group (prototypical group member) Understand the personality implications of an important psychological quality or behavior Predict behavior, feelings Predict important events in life (death)

10 Using Traits to Understand an Individual: 18-yr old male college student, referred for treatment after being arrested for making harassing phone calls to a young woman he had known for years

11 MMPI Scales Hypochondriasis (Hs) - neurotic concern over bodily functioning. Depression (D) - poor morale, lack of hope in the future, and a general dissatisfaction with one's own life situation. Hysteria (Hy) - This scale was developed to identify patients who demonstrated hysterical reactions to stress situations. When under stress, they develop conversion- type symptoms as a means of resolving conflict and avoiding responsibility Psychopathic Deviate (Pd) - This scale was originally developed to identify patients diagnosed as psychopathic personality, asocial or amoral type. Masculinity-Femininity (Mf) - Scale 5 was originally developed by Hathaway and McKinley to identify homosexual invert males. Scores that are markedly higher than expected for males, based on the persons' intelligence, education, and social class should suggest the possibility of sexual concerns and problems.

12 MMPI Scales Paranoia (Pa) - feelings of persecution, grandiose self-concepts, suspiciousness, excessive sensitivity, and rigid opinions and attitudes. Psychasthenia (Pt) anxiety, obsessive-compulsive disorder, abnormal fears, self- criticism, difficulties in concentration, and guilt feelings.. Schizophrenia (Sc) - bizarre thought processes and peculiar perceptions, social alienation, poor familial relationships, difficulties in concentration and impulse control, lack of deep interests, disturbing questions of self-worth and self-identity, and sexual difficulties. Hypomania (Ma) - Elevated mood, accelerated speech and motor activity, irritability, flight of ideas, and brief periods of depression. Social Introversion (Si) - insecure and uncomfortable in social situations. They tend to be shy, reserved, timid, and retiring, while low scorers tend to be outgoing, gregarious, friendly, and talkative.

13 Using Traits to Understand an Individual Duckworth, J. C., & Anderson, W. P. (1995). Clinical Interpretation This configuration indicates an angry, hostile, antisocial individual who is overall sensitive to perceived insults. It is unlikely that he will have any deep social relationships This will be partly the result of his suspiciousness and distrust of others, but also reflects the fact that he is likely to be unfriendly to others and to have unusual thoughts that when shared with others cause them to back away from him. Other people who know him are likely to report that they seem him as creepy There is the potential for aggressive acting out. The therapist should listen carefully for any indications that action is planned against the client's victim.

14 Using Traits to Understand Groups Cumella, E. J., Wall, A. D., & Kerr-Almeida, N. (2000).

15 Using Traits to Understand a Psychological Quality or Behavior How is non-clinical depression (NCD) related to self-perceptions, interpersonal behavior, and social reputation? --Creation of one’s social world-- NCD Social Behavior Partner’s perception of “target” person Partner’s Behavior

16 Using Traits to Understand a Psychological Quality or Behavior (Furr & Funder, 1998) Example: Depressive emotions How do people who tend to experience depressive symptoms see themselves? 140 Participants completed two measures (S data): Depression Inventory California Q-set (100 personality trait items) Look at correlations between Dep score and EACH CQ item.

17 Using Traits to Understand a Psychological Quality or Behavior How do students with relatively high levels of non-clinical depression (NCD) see themselves? CAQ Item CorrelationCAQ Item Correlation Feels a lack of personal meaning in life.53Feels satisfied with self -.52 Feels cheated and victimized by life.52High aspiration level for self -.45 Concerned with adequacy as a person.43Is cheerful -.42 Ego-brittle – disorganized under stress.36 Physically attractive-.36 Is basically anxious..34Regards self as physically attractive-.34 Is self-defeating.30Has a high degree of intellect -.33 Tends to ruminate.29 Is verbally fluent; express ideas well-.31 Interprets simple events as complicated.29 Internally consistent personality -.31 Tends to be self-defensive.29Is straightforward, forthright, candid-.31 Tends to undermine, obstruct, sabotage.29 How do students with high levels of NCD act with opposite sex strangers? (Behavioral Prediction)

18 Using Traits to Understand a Psychological Quality or Behavior Behavioral Correlates of NCD – Females Correlations Between Female’s Depression Scores and their behavior Behavior CorrelationBehaviorCorrelation Expresses insecurity.38Speaks fluently & expresses ideas well-.43 Self pity or feelings of victimization.35Appears to be relaxed & comfortable -.35 Acts irritated.31Exhibits social skills -.29 Gives up when faced with obstacles.31Engages in constant eye contact -.23 Expresses criticism.30 Behaves in a fearful or timid manner.29 Expresses guilt. (About anything).27 Says negative things about self.27 Compares self to others).26 Blames others (For anything).24 Shows signs of tension or anxiety.24 How do strangers react to students with high levels of NCD?

19 Using Traits to Understand a Psychological Quality or Behavior How do strangers react to students with relatively high levels of NCD? Correlations Between Female’s Depression Scores and Male Stranger’s behavior Male’s Behavior CorrelationMale’s Behavior Correlation Acts stereotypically male.35 Behaves cheerfully-.29 Talks at rather than with female.31Seems to like the female-.28 Exhibits condescending behavior.30 Initiates humor-.25 Acts irritated.28Interested in partner says -.23 Tries to control the interaction.27Acts playful-.20 Dominates the interaction.25Laughs frequently-.20 Seems detached.20Enjoys the interaction-.20 NEXT: How are students with relatively high levels of NCD seen by their close acquaintances? Creation of long-term social environment

20 Using Traits to Understand…. Correlations between self-reported Dep score and Informant-reported CAQ items. CQ Item CorrelationCQ Item Correlation Feels a lack of personal meaning in life.38 Is cheerful -.40 Feels cheated and victimized by life.38 Has high aspiration level for self -.33 Is self-defeating.35 Feels satisfied with self-.31 Has hostility towards others.34 Dependable and responsible -.30 Generally fearful.33 Is skilled in social techniques -.29 Distrustful of people in general.31 Responds to humor -.26 Tends to delay or avoid action.29 Has social poise and presence -.26 Is critical, skeptical, not easily impressed.27 Gregarious -.24 Gives up in the face of frustration.27Is protective of those close to him or her -.23 Tends to transfer or project blame.25 Is productive, gets things done-.21 Tends to undermine and obstruct.24Is an interesting, arresting person -.20 Keeps people at a distance;.24 Has a wide range of interests-.20 Has fluctuating moods.21Has warmth; and compassion -.20 Tends to be self-defensive.21 Has insight into motives & behavior -.19 Is basically anxious.20 Is turned to for advice and reassurance -.18 Is unpredictable and changeable.20 Is verbally fluent; can express ideas well-.18 Over-reactive to minor frustrations.20 Regards self as physically attractive -.18 Is guileful and deceitful; manipulative,.18Straightforward, forthright, candid -.17

21 Using Traits to Understand a Psychological Quality or Behavior How is non-clinical depression (NCD) related to self-perceptions, interpersonal behavior, and social reputation? --Creation of one’s social world-- NCD Social Behavior Partner’s perception of “target” person Partner’s Behavior

22 Trait Approach – Goals Know definition of “trait” Recognize potential problems with trait concept Understand how traits are “used” in personality psychology Know the fundamental “broad” traits and understand the scientific process through which they have been identified Evaluate whether traits are, in fact, related to important events, outcomes, etc.

23 What are the Most Fundamental Traits? How many traits are there? How could we answer this question? One idea - look to language to understand personality. Why? Lexical Hypothesis Gordon Allport: Allport & Odbert (1936) - 17, 953 individual difference words Can these be “boiled” down to the most essential few – what are they and how could we even do this? Ray Cattell – Factor Analysis

24 What are the Most Fundamental Traits? How many “core” traits are there? Assertive Talkative Dominant Influential Creative Imaginative Thoughtful Intellectual

25 What are the Important Traits? Cattell – Factor Analysis A five-step, crash-course in Factor Analysis: 1)Ask people to rate themselves on each term (How X are you on a 1 to 10 scale)? 2) Compute correlations among the terms. – Do people who score high on one attribute score high on the other?

26 What are the Important Traits? Cattell – Factor Analysis Correlation Matrix

27 What are the Important Traits? Cattell – Factor Analysis Step 3) Interpret the pattern of correlations – what is related to what? Are there clusters of items? If so, why? “Factors” Step 4) Psychologize – name the factors – what are the underlying dimensions

28 What are the Important Traits? Cattell – (some of) the 16 Factors FactorDescription AffectiaOutgoing – reserved IntelligenceMore – less intelligent Ego strengthEmotionally stable – volatile DominanceAssertive – humble SurgencyHappy-go-lucky – somber Super-ego strengthConscientious – impulsive ParmiaAdventurous – timid PermsiaTender-minded – tough-minded CoastheniaIndividualistic – group-oriented Social-role concernSocially mature – socially immature ProtensionSuspicious – trusting AutiaImaginative – Practical

29 What are the Important Traits? The Five Factors of Personality Extraversion Openness to Experience Conscientiousness Agreeableness Neuroticism

30 What are the Important Traits? The Five Factors of Personality Factor Description Extraversion Energetic, sociable vs shy, reserved, introverted Neuroticism High-strung, emotional vs calm, emotionally stable Openness Imaginative, open-minded vs traditional thinking AgreeablenessFriendly, trusting vs cold, unkind ConscientiousnessDependable, organized vs impulsive, careless

31 What are the Important Traits? The Five Factors of Personality -Plus a 6 th ?- Factor Description Honesty/Humility Genuine, Fair, Not Greedy, Modest “HEXACO” Model – Expansion of Big Five, by 1 Honesty/Humility Emotional Stability eXtraversion Agreeableness Conscientiousness Openness

32 What are the Important Traits? The Five Factors of Personality Are the Big Five universal? –Where to look? Different cultures, language systems Different species (Primates, Canines) –What to look for? Factor structure Accuracy of trait judgments

33 What are the Important Traits? The Five Factors of Personality Big 5 as: –“Primary Colors” –Longitude and Latitude –Hierarchy

34 What are the Important Traits? The Five Factors of Personality EXTRAVERSION Pos. Emotions Ascendance Energy Venturesome Joy Enthusi asm Domin- ance Exhib- ition Lively Active Exct Seekng Pref Change The Extraversion hierarchy

35 How are “traits” used Personality Psychology? Some uses of “traits”: Understand an individual Understand a group (prototypical group member) Understand the personality implications of an important psychological quality or behavior Predict behavior, feelings Understand & Predict important events in life (death)

36 Can we use trait info to predict important life outcomes? WorkLoveHealth How might personality (ones own or someone else’s?) be related to these? Discuss

37 Personality and Career/Business “Person-environment fit” Do people with particular personality traits “fit” in particular social environments? (selection) – promote well-being, competence, satisfaction, etc Job performance Does personality predict job performance? Personality, Leadership, and Ethical Behavior Does a leader’s personality affect his/her employee’s ethical behavior?

38 “Person-environment fit” Do people with particular personality traits “fit” in particular social environments? (selection) – promote well-being, competence, satisfaction, etc Choice of work/career env How should we think about types of careers?

39 Are traits related to career preferences? Six Job Types (John Holland) 1.Realistic –Work with hands, tools, outdoors. –Agriculture, Police Officer, Construction 2. Investigative –Work on their own, observing, and solving problems –Science, Engineering

40 Job Types (cont.) 3. Artistic –Work with their minds—innovating, imagining, and creating –Art, Advertising, Architecture 4. Social –Work with people--informing, helping, training –Healing professions, Psychologist (counseling), recreation & tourism Are traits related to career preferences?

41 Job Types (cont.) 5. Enterprising –Work with people--influencing, leading, or managing –Management, sales, HR 6. Conventional –Work with words & numbers, carry out detailed instructions –Accounting, Finance, Banking Are traits related to career preferences?

42 Do some kinds of people prefer certain kinds of careers? De Fruyt & Mervielde (1997).The five-factor model of personality and Holland’s RIASEC interest types. Personality and Individual Differences,23, students, many majors, mean age = 23.4 Completed measure of Big 5 & measure of “career interests” (6 dimensions of career interests) Predictions - Which traits would be associated with which type of career interest? Discuss

43 Are traits related to career preferences? Corrs between Big 5 and career interests: Type of Career NEOAC Realistic Investigative Artistic Social Enterprising Conventional

44 Personality and Career/Business “Person-environment fit” Do people with particular personality traits “fit” in particular social environments? (selection) – promote well-being, competence, satisfaction, etc Job performance Does personality predict job performance? Personality, Leadership, and Ethical Behavior Does a leader’s personality affect his/her employee’s ethical behavior?

45 Job performance Does personality predict job performance? Which traits (of the Big Five) would be most strongly related to job performance and why? Discuss

46 Personality and Job performance

47 Personality and Career/Business “Person-environment fit” Do people with particular personality traits “fit” in particular social environments? (selection) – promote well-being, competence, satisfaction, etc Personality, Leadership, and Ethical Behavior Does a leader’s personality affect his/her employee’s ethical behavior?

48 Personality, Leadership, & Ethical Behavior Example – Enron financial scandal and collapse: Enron bankrupt and execs arrested, Arthur Anderson (largest accting firm in world) dissolved Employees & shareholders lost billions in retirement investments.

49 Personality, Leadership, & Ethical Behavior From the Markkula Center for Applied Ethics What Really Went Wrong With Enron? A Culture of Evil? What went wrong at Enron? In ethics, explanations tend to fall into three categories: personal, organizational, and systemic. Personal explanations look for the causes of evil in the character of the individuals who were involved. Did this happen, for example, because the people involved were vicious? Were they greedy? Were they stupid? Were they callous? Were they intemperate? Were they lacking in compassion? Organizational explanations look for causes in group influences. They take seriously the ways that we influence each other when we do things as a group. These influences include the shared beliefs that groups develop about who is important, what is permissible, and how things are done here in this group. These include also the shared values that we call a group culture, the rules or policies groups develop to govern their interactions with each other and the rest of the world. Systemic explanations look for causes outside the group, for example in the environmental forces that drive or direct groups or individuals to do one thing rather than another. These include laws and the regulations …., the economic and social institutions…. Etc,

50 Personality, Leadership, & Ethical Behavior Walumbwa & Schaubroeck (2009). Leader Personality Traits and Employee Voice Behavior: Mediating Roles of Ethical Leadership and Work Group Psychological Safety. Journal of Applied Psychology, 94, 1275–1286. Does a leader’s personality affect his/her employee’s ethical behavior? Can a leader create a culture that facilitates ethical behavior? “ethical leaders not only inform individuals of the benefits of ethical behavior and the cost of inappropriate behavior; such leaders also set clear standards and use rewards and fair and balanced punishment to hold followers accountable for their ethical conduct.”

51 Personality, Leadership, & Ethical Behavior Walumbwa & Schaubroeck (2009). Leader Personality Traits and Employee Voice Behavior: Mediating Roles of Ethical Leadership and Work Group Psychological Safety. Journal of Applied Psychology, 94, 1275–1286. Data from 222 supervisors, 894 employees from financial firm

52 Personality, Leadership, & Ethical Behavior.43*.39* *.49* So, leaders who are agreeable and/or conscientiousness tend to exhibit ethical leadership, which seems to promote employees’ perceptions that they can express criticism/concerns, which seems to promote their willingness to actually do so.

53 Personality, Leadership, & Ethical Behavior How can we understand ethical behavior in the business world? Traits  Personal explanations Traits  Organizational explanations (leaders’ personalities can affect organizational culture, which affects employees’ ethical behavior Systemic explanations (not psychological)

54 Personality and Relationship Functioning

55 Do some kinds of people have a tendency to be more satisfied in relationships than other people? Bouchard, Lussier, & Sabourin (1999). Personality and marital adjustment:” Utility of the five- factor model of personality. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 61, couples, avg age = mid 30’s, avg time living together = 9 years. Completed measure of Big 5, and measure of relationship satisfaction Corrs between Big 5 and marital satisfaction. Predictions? Discuss NEOAC NEOAC Males-.24*.15*.10*.23*.24* Females -.40*.21*.02.25*.17*

56 Are traits related to romantic satisfaction? Do some kinds of people make their partner more satisfied? Botwin, Buss, & Shackleford Journal of Personality 107 couples, Completed measure of Big 5, and measure of relationship satisfaction. Corrs between subject’s marital satisfaction and partner’s personality traits: Partner’s personality SubjectNEOAC Husband-.27*.12.29*.32*.06 Wife -.23*.07.31*.37*.20* Interpretations?

57 What are the implications for the link between personality and rel functioning? Stability correlations: Corr of Relationship scores at age 21 with Rel scores at 26 Participants Aspect with SameWith Diff of Rel PartnerPartner Quality.40*.24* Conflict.37*.29* Abuse.44*.29* Implications?

58 Personality and Physical Health

59 In what ways could a person’s personality be associated with whether he or she reports having health problems? How could “who you are” be related to your physical health?

60 “Health Behavior Model” Events that might cause stress Interpret events as threatening Coping response Physiological Arousal Health Behaviors Illness Personality From Weibe, D. J. & Smith, T. W. (1997). Personality and health: Progress and problems in psychosomatics. In Handbook of Personality Psychology

61 Personality and Health – Personality and Diabetes treatment Are renal-failure patients’ personality traits associated with time-of-health (ie, lack of deterioration)? Predictions (why?): C - positively correlated with time-of-health (linear association) N - Medium N good (long time of health), Low or high N bad (short time of health) (nonlinear association)

62 Personality and Health – Personality and Diabetes treatment Study –85 patients with end-stage renal disease –Completed a measure of the big 5 (NEO-PI-R) –DV = renal deterioration time – rapidity of deterioration (in years)

63 Personality and Health – Personality and Diabetes treatment Results supported predictions Low risk group (High C and Med N) High risk Group (Low C and high or low N) Med risk Group (High C and high or low N) Med risk Group (Low/Med C and med N)

64 Personality and Health – Personality and Doctor/Patient Communication Association between Mother’s personality and prospects for child’s health. –Is mothers’ personality related to the quality of her interaction with pediatrician? –Are mothers’ personality traits related to her behavior with doctor? –Are mothers’ traits related to doctor’s behavior?

65 Personality and Health – Personality and Doctor/Patient Comm. Study –78 Mothers & children (< 2 yrs old) –Mothers completed measure of Big 5 –Researchers recorded conversations between mother and pediatrician: –These were then coded into communicative behaviors (eg, giving medical information, or asking for medical information, express humor & laughter, expressive concerns, total length of conversation, etc)

66 Personality and Health – Personality and Doctor/Patient Comm. Results showed that mothers’ traits were indeed related to her comm. beh with pediatrician –Mothers high on E & C (and low on N) spoke more to baby –Mothers high on O Asked for reassurance about child’s health gave more medically relevant info to dr Expressed humor & laughter had longer conversations

67 Personality and Health – Personality and Doctor/Patient Comunication Results also showed that mother’s traits were related to the pediatrician’s behavior –In response to Mothers with high O, pediatricians Engaged in more conversation Expressed more humor and laughter Offered reassurance to mother –In response to Mothers with high N, pediatricians Asked more medical questions Asked about mothers’ concerns

68 Is childhood personality related to life span Friedman et al (1993). Does childhood personality predict longevity? Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 65, ,178 subjects – First assessed at age 11 (1922). Parents & teachers rated them on psychological traits – including measures of Conscientiousness, Emotional Stability, Energy, Sociability, & Intelligence Subjects have been followed ever since. Tracked who had died and when. Children high on Conscientious had greater odds of survival: Children very low on Con were 35% more likely to die before 70 than were children very high on Con!

69 Why is childhood personality related to life span Friedman et al (1995). Childhood conscientiousness and longevity: Health behaviors and cause of death Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 68, High Con = Careful (accidents, fewer self- destructive behaviors) In fact, children high on Con showed less smoking and drinking throughout life. But this did not totally account for the association between Con and Longevity.

70 Personality traits and consequential outcomes

71 Trait Approach – Goals Know definition of “trait” Recognize potential problems with trait concept Understand how traits are “used” in personality psychology Know the fundamental “broad” traits and understand the scientific process through which they have been identified Evaluate whether traits are, in fact, related to important events, outcomes, etc.

72 Objective Environmental Properties Occurrent Cognitions Occurrent Emotions Social and Behavioral Events Perceived Environmental Properties Latent/Enduring Dispositions Traits (e.g., Big 5) Life Events and Broad Social Contexts Biology “In the Moment” A General Framework for Personality Psychology


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