Presentation on theme: "MEASURING INNOVATION: A NEW PERSPECTIVE"— Presentation transcript:
1MEASURING INNOVATION: A NEW PERSPECTIVE Thanks to Ambassador Kornbluh and her staff here at the US mission for the invitation to present the Innovation Strategy in a setting that is a bit less formal than Room C.I’d like to take advantage of this informality by presenting the IS in a slightly different manner, making this more of a dialogue where you interrupt – ask questions and we discuss.2 partsAlessandra Colecchia, OECD, DSTI, Economic Analysis and Statistics
2Measuring innovation: What’s new? New ways of looking at traditional indicatorsNew experimental indicators that provide insight into new areas of policy interestMeasurement gaps and challengesA forward-looking measurement agenda
3New ways of using data and first time indicators reveal what’s new Extensive use of innovation surveys micro-dataExtensive use of administrative data (budget, taxation)Experimental data linking (bibliometrics, patents, company data)
4NEW PLAYERS ARE EMERGING AND COLLABORATION IS INTENSIFYING 200820031998SIZE OF BUBBLE = Number of scientific publicationsTHICKNESS OF LINK = Number of co-authorshipSource: OECD (2010), Measuring Innovation: A New Perspective, Paris.
5MULTIDISCIPLINARY RESEARCH IS EMERGING TO ADDRESS GLOBAL CHALLENGES Science for “green” innovationNEW INDICATOR:matching environmental patents and scientific publications using co-citation analysisGreen technologies (patents) draw on a broad base of scientific knowledgeSource: OECD (2010), Measuring Innovation: A New Perspective, based on Scopus Custom Data, Elsevier, July 2009; OECD,Patent Database, January 2010; and EPO, Worldwide Patent Statistical Database, September The list of environmentalpatent applications has been generated through a search algorithm developed by the OECD and EPO (European Patent Office)
6MARKETS FOR KNOWLEDGE ARE EMERGING Countries are performing both technological and non-R&D based innovation.Catching up countries have lower propensity to innovate or lower propensity to seek protection for their innovationsSource: OECD (2010), Measuring Innovation: A New Perspective, Paris, based on OECD, Patent Database, USPTO, OHIM, JPO and WIPO.
7INNOVATION AS A CATALYST FOR NEW SOURCES OF GROWTH Contributions to labour productivity growth, , in %Innovation explains a good portion of labour productivity growth.Source: OECD (2010), Measuring Innovation: A New Perspective, Paris.
8INVESTING IN INNOVATION = INVESTING IN A BROAD RANGE OF COMPLEMENTARY ASSETS Investment in fixed and intangible assets as a share of GDP, 2006intangiblesInvesting in innovation goes beyond R&D. Investment in intangible assets is rising and taking over investment in physical capital (machinery and equipment).Source: OECD (2010), Measuring Innovation: A New Perspective, OECD, Paris, based on COINVEST and research papers, 2009.
9“New to market” product innovators with and without R&D, 2004-06 INNOVATION BEYOND R&D“New to market” product innovators with and without R&D,As a percentage of innovatorsBut not all innovation is comes directly from R&D.NEW INDICATORS reveal that in Australia and Norway the propensity to introduce a new product is similar whether or not the firm performs R&D.Source: OECD (2010), Measuring Innovation: A New Perspective, OECD, Paris based on OECD Innovation microdata project.
10COLLABORATION INVOLVES ALL TYPES OF FIRMS Collaboration on innovation,As a percentage of innovative firms by R&D statusAnd collaboration for innovation is not just for high-tech firms – in fact the propensity of innovating firms to collaborate is high even if the firm does a low-level of R&D.OECD analysis shows that firms that collaborate on innovation spend more on innovation than those that do not, suggesting that collaboration is not just about cost-saving, but rather a means to extend the scope of a project or complement firms’ competencies.How to read this figure: In Chile, 74% of innovative firms that are in the top 25% of R&D performers have some form of collaboration, 60% of those that are in the bottom 25% of R&D performers collaborate, and 35% of innovative firms that do not perform any R&D still engage in collaboration.NEW INDICATORS reveal that collaboration is used in innovation whether firms perform a lot of R&D, a little R&D or no R&D at all. Policies that stimulate collaboration and network initiatives will have an impact on the entire spectrum of innovative firms.Source: OECD (2010), Measuring Innovation: A New Perspective , OECD, Paris based on OECD Innovation microdata project.
13EDUCATE PEOPLE TO SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY FROM A YOUNG AGE Length of time students have been using a computer and mean PISA science score, 200615-year-olds having used computers for less than one year achieve a “level 2” PISA science scoreBUT 15-year-olds having used computers for more than 5 years raise their PISA science score to “level 3” or even “level 4” in the case of Finland and JapanSource: OECD (2010), Measuring Innovation: A New Perspective, Paris.
14BUILD THE STOCK OF RESEARCHERS New graduates at doctorate level by country of graduation, % of OECD new total doctorate holders, 2007Source: OECD (2010), Measuring Innovation: A New Perspective, Paris.
15TRAIN PEOPLE TO BECOME ENTERPRENEURS Percentage of the population 18 to 64 years old who received any type of training in starting a business, during or after school, 2008Entrepreneurship education is critical for raising awareness about starting and growing a business and providing the skills, attitudes and behaviours to do so.Source: Bosma et al. (2009), Global Entrepreneurship Monitor: 2008 Executive Report.
16LOWER BARRIERS TO ENTERPRENEURSHIP Barriers to entrepreneurship, 2008Scale from 0 to 6 from least to most restrictiveA high quality regulatory framework is important to allow businesses to enter the market and grow. Product Market Regulation Indicators are quantitative indicators derived form qualitative information on laws and regulations that may affect competition.Source: OECD (2010), Measuring Innovation: A New Perspective, Paris, based on OECD Product Market Regulation Database.
17BALANCE TAX INSTRUMENTS NOT TO DISCOURAGE ENTREPRENEURSHIP Taxation on personal income and corporate income, 2009Individuals’ decisions to start a business are affected by taxes and tax policy.Source: OECD (2010), Taxing Wages : 2009 Edition, Paris.
18DIRECT FUNDING of R&DGovernment is 2nd larger funder of R&D in most countries..EU27: 35% from governmentMost R&D statistics come from the performers (GERD matrix)Ask performers how much spending and who funded researchThere is another source of information (GBAORD)Ask governments more policy-oriented questions:to whom (as above); why (socio-economic objectives)Still, GBAORD database under-used: OECD-NESTI launched a pilot study(Jan van Steen (NL) and Benedetto Lepori (U. Université della Svizzera italiana, Switzerland) as team leaders.Get information by mode of funding (how); by type of agency (by whom), by tool (for what), and over time…National experts to analyse administrative documents to exploit better GBAORD data
19Experimental indicator Government funded R&D in higher education by type of funding, 2008Note : This is an experimental indicator. International comparability is currently limited.Source: OECD, based on preliminary data from the Microdata project on public R&D funding, 2009.
20INDIRECT SUPPORT TO BUSINESS R&D Total government support (direct + indirect) to business R&D, % GDPIndirect government funding of R&DSource: OECD (2010), Measuring Innovation: A New Perspective, OECD, Paris based on NESTI 2009 R&D tax incentives questionnaire.