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Diseases of Poultry II. بیماری های طیور قسمت دوم ارائه از وبلاگ: www.wops.tk.

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Presentation on theme: "Diseases of Poultry II. بیماری های طیور قسمت دوم ارائه از وبلاگ: www.wops.tk."— Presentation transcript:

1 Diseases of Poultry II. بیماری های طیور قسمت دوم ارائه از وبلاگ:

2 ANTE MORTEM INSPECTION At the farm before transportation to the slaughterhouse the poultry flock must be examined by veterinarian. At the farm before transportation to the slaughterhouse the poultry flock must be examined by veterinarian. A certificate must be composed on the results of this inspection and the pre-life of the flock. A certificate must be composed on the results of this inspection and the pre-life of the flock. If the certificate is available – and it is negative – and it does not indicate the necessity of special measures, the ante mortem inspection at the slaughterhouse will include the identification of transported flock and control of injuries took place during transportation, furthermore the examination of dead birds. If the certificate is available – and it is negative – and it does not indicate the necessity of special measures, the ante mortem inspection at the slaughterhouse will include the identification of transported flock and control of injuries took place during transportation, furthermore the examination of dead birds. Based on these data and examinations the veterinarian decides whether the flock will be submitted to normal or special slaughter or further special examination. Based on these data and examinations the veterinarian decides whether the flock will be submitted to normal or special slaughter or further special examination.

3 Notifiable Diseases Former O.I.E. list A Former O.I.E. list A – Newcastle disease (Paramyxovirus) – Avian influenza (Orthomyxovirus) – Duck plaque (Herpesvirus)

4 Viral Diseases Newcastle disease Newcastle disease Avian influenza Avian influenza Fowl pox Fowl pox Infectious bronchitis Infectious bronchitis Infectious laryngotracheitis Infectious laryngotracheitis Infectious bursitis Infectious bursitis Marek's disease Marek's disease

5 Newcastle disease Notifiable disease ! Notifiable disease ! Avian paramyxovirus (serotype 1, 8 genotypes) Avian paramyxovirus (serotype 1, 8 genotypes) different pathogenity (v, m, l, a) different pathogenity (v, m, l, a) chicken, pheasant, turkey, pigeon, wild birds ( water fowl) chicken, pheasant, turkey, pigeon, wild birds ( water fowl) Sensitivity: 56 °C - 3 min pH min disinfectant Sensitivity: 56 °C - 3 min pH min disinfectant

6 Clinical signs: respiratory disease enteritis nervous signs marked drop in egg production Clinical signs: respiratory disease enteritis nervous signs marked drop in egg production Pathology: Pathology: –haemorrhages on seromembranes, on mucosal membranes (proventriculi, small intestine, caeca, -lymphoid tonsils -, trachea, pharynx) –enteritidis –diphtheriod inflammation on lymphoid tonsils on pharynx

7 Newcastle disease (Marek’s disease, Pasteurellosis)

8 Haemorrhages in proventriculi

9 Isolation of virus (pathogenicity) Isolation of virus (pathogenicity) Prevention / Vaccination Prevention / Vaccination Differential diagnosis (septicaemia, CRD, IBD (bursitis), ILT (laryngotracheitis), IB (bronchitis), Fowl pox, pneumovirus, coccidiosis, mycotoxicosis) Differential diagnosis (septicaemia, CRD, IBD (bursitis), ILT (laryngotracheitis), IB (bronchitis), Fowl pox, pneumovirus, coccidiosis, mycotoxicosis)

10 if NDV is observed on the farm: Depopulation of infected flocks may take place using the following methods/drugs/systems: Electronarcosis by water dipping Electronarcosis by water dipping Decapitation and dislocation of the neck Decapitation and dislocation of the neck Gassing with carbon dioxide Gassing with carbon dioxide Vacuum tank Vacuum tank if NDV is observed in the slaughterhouse everything is condemned, and everything has to be desinfected

11 Fowl pox Poxviridae, Avipox Poxviridae, Avipox Sensitivity: 50°C heating 30 min 60°C 8 min in dry scabs for months/years pH 5-9 resistant Sensitivity: 50°C heating 30 min 60°C 8 min in dry scabs for months/years pH 5-9 resistant

12 cutaneous form nodular (proliferative) lesions on the comb, wattle, eyelids, other non feathered areas cutaneous form nodular (proliferative) lesions on the comb, wattle, eyelids, other non feathered areas diphtheroid form nodules on mucosal membranes of pharynx, trachea, oesophagus diphtheroid form nodules on mucosal membranes of pharynx, trachea, oesophagus special histopathological changes (cytoplasmic inclusion body) special histopathological changes (cytoplasmic inclusion body)

13 Chronic conjunctivitis, diphteroid form

14 Chonic laryngitis, diphteroid form

15 Infectious Laryngotracheitis Herpesvirus Herpesvirus Sensitivity: mild (halogen-detergents + iodophors, heating, freezing (-18°, -25° C !) Sensitivity: mild (halogen-detergents + iodophors, heating, freezing (-18°, -25° C !) Acute respiratory disease Acute respiratory disease Conjunctivitis Laryngitis Tracheitis (Histopathology: intranuclear inclusion body in epithelial cells by 3 day PI) Conjunctivitis Laryngitis Tracheitis (Histopathology: intranuclear inclusion body in epithelial cells by 3 day PI)

16 Swollen head (laryngotracheitis, mycoplasmosis)

17 Laryngs (left - normal) (medium - hyperemic) (right - fibrin)

18 Infectious bronchitis Coronavirus Coronavirus Sensitivity: 56°C 15 min at room temperature 2-3 days common detergents destroy Sensitivity: 56°C 15 min at room temperature 2-3 days common detergents destroy Pathology: acute catarrhal tracheitis, bronchitis sinusitis, air sacculitis local pneumonia Pathology: acute catarrhal tracheitis, bronchitis sinusitis, air sacculitis local pneumonia nephritis, salpingitis (eggs !) nephritis, salpingitis (eggs !)

19 Uricosis (heart) and salpingitis

20 Uricosis (ureter) and salpingitis,

21 Infectious bursal Disease (Gumboro Disease) Birnavirus Birnavirus bursa Fabricii (B lymphoid cells) immunsuppression ! bursa Fabricii (B lymphoid cells) immunsuppression ! Sensitivity: very stabile virus! 60-70°C -30 min 0.5 % chloramines 10 min invert soap + 0,05 sodium hydroxide Sensitivity: very stabile virus! 60-70°C -30 min 0.5 % chloramines 10 min invert soap + 0,05 sodium hydroxide

22 Pathology: haemorrhages in muscles (legs, breast) on mucosal membrane of proventriculi on lymphoid tissues of intestine oedema and haemorrhageous inflammation of bursa Fabricii Pathology: haemorrhages in muscles (legs, breast) on mucosal membrane of proventriculi on lymphoid tissues of intestine oedema and haemorrhageous inflammation of bursa Fabricii Diff. diagnosis: Newcastle disease mycotoxicosis Diff. diagnosis: Newcastle disease mycotoxicosis Prevention: vaccination, hygiene Prevention: vaccination, hygiene

23 Upper: Haemorrhages in muscle Below: Bursa fabricii

24 Marek’s Disease Herpesvirus (cell-associated virus) Herpesvirus (cell-associated virus) Sensitivity:  Sensitivity:  Pathogenity: „classical” form (lesions in peripheral nerves) tumoral form (lymphoid tumors in different organs or in skin) transient paralysis Pathogenity: „classical” form (lesions in peripheral nerves) tumoral form (lymphoid tumors in different organs or in skin) transient paralysis Differential diagnosis: Newcastle disease leucosis tumors Differential diagnosis: Newcastle disease leucosis tumors

25 Transient paralysis

26 Lymphoid tumors in the skin

27 Lymphoid tumors in the liver

28

29 Parasites / Protozoa Coccidiosis Eimeria tenella Eimeria necatrix Eimeria acervulina Eimeria truncata Eimeria tenella Eimeria necatrix Eimeria acervulina Eimeria truncata Chicken, turkey geese Chicken, turkey geese Anticoccidial drugs /vaccination Anticoccidial drugs /vaccination immunsuppressive diseases (Marek’s disease, CAV, Gumboro disease, Reo, mycotoxines…) immunsuppressive diseases (Marek’s disease, CAV, Gumboro disease, Reo, mycotoxines…)

30 Haemorrhagic enteritis (clotted blood - fibrinous inflammation) in caecum in small intestines Haemorrhagic enteritis (clotted blood - fibrinous inflammation) in caecum in small intestines renal coccidiosis (enlarged, yellow-greyish kidneys) renal coccidiosis (enlarged, yellow-greyish kidneys)

31 Caeca

32 Fungal infections Aspergillosis Aspergillus fumigatus Aspergillus flavus Penicillium Mucor Aspergillus fumigatus Aspergillus flavus Penicillium Mucor Respiratory disease pneumonia (granulomes) air sacculitis, peritonitis Respiratory disease pneumonia (granulomes) air sacculitis, peritonitis Litter, feed (toxins) Litter, feed (toxins) (Antibiotics are contraindicated!) (Antibiotics are contraindicated!)

33 Colonies of moulds

34 In these cases poultry meat is partially condemned for human consumption (the affected areas are condemned: - parenchymal organs - intestines - skin + muscles /breast, legs/ )


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