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2002 Minerals Education Workshop Sponsored by: Indiana Department of Natural Resources – Division of Reclamation November 1-2, 2002.

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Presentation on theme: "2002 Minerals Education Workshop Sponsored by: Indiana Department of Natural Resources – Division of Reclamation November 1-2, 2002."— Presentation transcript:

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2 2002 Minerals Education Workshop Sponsored by: Indiana Department of Natural Resources – Division of Reclamation November 1-2, 2002

3 Minerals

4 Minerals A mineral is a naturally occurring, inorganic solid that has a specific internal structure, a definite chemical composition and specific physical properties.

5 Minerals A mineral is a naturally occurring, inorganic solid that has a specific internal structure, a definite chemical composition and specific physical properties. Must occur naturally in nature Not man-made

6 Minerals A mineral is a naturally occurring, inorganic solid that has a specific internal structure, a definite chemical composition and specific physical properties. Does not have a “living” or biological origin What about coal?

7 Pennsylvanian-age swamp Coal

8 Minerals A mineral is a naturally occurring, inorganic solid that has a specific internal structure, a definite chemical composition and specific physical properties. (Gold) into a specific crystalline structure Definite arrangement of atoms Web.jjay.cuny.edu

9 crystal collection of unit cells molecule atoms Indiana Geological Survey/After Mineralogy, 1998, Dexter Perkins mineral unit cell

10 GraphiteDiamond The arrangement of atoms is important. The element carbon (C) can form diamond -- a hard, clear mineral -- or graphite -- a soft, gray mineral -- depending on the crystal structure. Hard, bright, gemSoft, gray, lubricant Indiana Geological Survey

11 (www.discovery.com)www.discovery.com

12 (www.discovery.com)www.discovery.com

13 Minerals A mineral is a naturally occurring, inorganic solid that has a specific internal structure, a definite chemical composition and specific physical properties. CuAl 6 (PO 4 ) 4 (OH) 8 *5H 2 OSiO 2 Quartz R.Weller/Cochise College Turquoise Can be expressed with a specific chemical formula

14 Minerals A mineral is a naturally occurring, inorganic solid that has a specific internal structure, a definite chemical composition and specific physical properties. Minerals of the same type always have the same hardness, specific gravity, cleavage, streak, etc.

15 Physical Characteristics of Minerals 1) Smell: scratch & sniff 2) Luster: reflection of light off a clean surface A.Metallic – looks like a metal B.Nonmetallic a.Vitreous (glassy) b.Resinous c.Greasy d.Earthy/chalky e.Pearly R.Weller/Cochise College

16 Physical Characteristics of Minerals Physical Characteristics of Minerals (continued) 3) Magnetism: is the mineral magnetic? 4)Color: use with caution! 5)Streak: color of the powdered mineral on an unglazed, porcelain plate A.Metallic minerals generally have colored (dark) streaks B.Nonmetallic minerals generally have white/ colorless or very pale-colored streaks R.Weller/Cochise College

17 Physical Characteristics of Minerals Physical Characteristics of Minerals (continued) 6) Hardness: How resistant is the mineral to scratching? A.Mohs Hardness Scale 1.Talc 2.Gypsum 3.Calcite 4.Fluorite 5.Apatite 6.Orthoclase 7.Quartz 8.Topaz 9.Corundum (ruby, sapphire) 10.Diamond R.Weller/Cochise CollegeTalc

18 Physical Characteristics of Minerals (continued) a.Fingernail B.Common hardness test: b.Copper penny / plate c.Steel nail d.Glass plate

19 Physical Characteristics of Minerals (continued) 7) Cleavage: tendency of some minerals to break along planes of weakness Cleavage in (1) direction Cleavage in (2) directions at right angles Cleavage in (2) directions not at right angles Cleavage in (3) directions at right angles Cleavage in (3) directions not at right angles Cleavage in (4) directions Cleavage in (6) directions

20 Physical Characteristics of Minerals (continued) Not all minerals have cleavage! **Caution – although the description may state the mineral has cleavage, the mineral in your set may not show it!

21 Physical Characteristics of Minerals (continued) 8) Effervescent (fizz rate): reaction of the mineral to a weak acid To determine if calcite (CaCO 3 ) is present

22 Physical Characteristics of Minerals (continued) 9) Specific gravity: ratio of the weight of a mineral fragment & the weight of an equal amount of water

23 The calcite crystal pictured here is from Indiana. The journal Rocks and Minerals featured Indiana minerals in one 1986 issue. Indiana Geological Survey

24 Minerals of Indiana Calcite CaCO 3 Indiana Geological Survey Calcite Fluorite

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26 Quartz SiO 2 Indiana Geological Survey R.Weller/Cochise College Minerals of Indiana Indiana Geological Survey

27 Limonite FeO (OH) H 2 O Fluorite CaF 2 Minerals of Indiana R.Weller/Cochise College

28 Gypsum CaSO 4 *2H 2 O Minerals of Indiana Sphalerite ZnS R.Weller/Cochise College

29 Siderite FeCO 3 Dolomite CaMg(CO 3 ) 2 Minerals of Indiana Indiana Geological Survey

30 Minerals of Indiana Barite BaSO 4 Pyrite FeS 2 Indiana Geological Survey

31 Small crystals of resistant, so-called “heavy minerals,” including gold (Au), can be concentrated from stream sediments. These minerals were brought to Indiana by glaciers. Indiana Geological Survey

32 INDUSTRIAL MINERALS AROUND THE HOUSE Hair Cream Counter tops Household Cleaners Caulking Jewelry Kitty Litter Fiberglass Roofing Potting Soil Paint ITEM MINERALS NEEDED TO PRODUCE THEM Calcium carbonate Titanium dioxide, calcium carbonate, aluminum hydrate Silica, pumice, diatomite, feldspar, limestone Calcium carbonate, gypsum Precious and semiprecious stones Attapulgite, montmorillonite, zeolites, diatomite, pumice, volcanic ash Silica, borates, limestone, soda ash, feldspar Vermiculite, perlite, gypsum, zeolites, peat Titanium dioxide, kaolin clays, calcium carbonate, mica, talc, silica Indiana Geological Survey

33 Carpet Glass/Ceramics Vinyl Flooring Glossy Paper Cake/Bread Plant Fertilizers Toothpaste Lipstick Baby Powder Calcium carbonate Silica sand, limestone, talc, lithium, borates, soda ash, feldspar Calcium carbonate, clay, wollastonite Kaolin clay, limestone, sodium sulfate, lime, soda ash, titanium dioxide Gypsum, phosphates Potash, phosphates, nitrogen, sulfur Calcium carbonate, sodium carbonate, fluorine Calcium carbonate, talc Talc ITEM MINERALS NEEDED TO PRODUCE THEM Indiana Geological Survey INDUSTRIAL MINERALS AROUND THE HOUSE

34 Indiana Geological Survey/After “Out of the Rock” by the National Energy Foundation

35 Indiana Geological Survey

36 Wow !!!

37 Mineral Exercise

38       html  Suggested Websites 

39 Evaluations


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