Presentation on theme: "Classification 2 It’s alive 3 Evaluate the history, purpose, and methods of taxonomy. Section Objectives: Explain the meaning of a scientific name (binominal."— Presentation transcript:
2 It’s alive
3 Evaluate the history, purpose, and methods of taxonomy. Section Objectives: Explain the meaning of a scientific name (binominal nomenclature). Show the levels of organization (taxa).
4 Classification The grouping of objects or information based on similarities. Cat Frog
6 Taxonomy (tak SAH nuh mee) The branch of biology that groups and names organisms based on studies of their different characteristics. How Classification Began Mother tiger raise piglets after cubs die.
7 Taxonomists Biologists who study taxonomy.
8 Aristotle Greek – 384 - 322 B.C. First to develop a biological classification system. Classified things as either a plant or an animal.
9 He grouped animals according to various characteristics, including their habitat and physical differences. He subdivided plants into three groups, herbs, shrubs, and trees, depending on the size and structure of a plant. Aristotle’s system
10 He subdivided plants into three groups, herbs, shrubs, and trees, depending on the size and structure of a plant. Aristotle’s system
11 As time passed, more organisms were discovered and some did not fit easily into Aristotle’s groups, but many centuries passed before Aristotle’s system was replaced. Aristotle’s system
12 Linnaeus Swedish - (1707 - 1778) Based his classification system on physical and structural similarities. As a result, the groupings revealed the relationships of the organisms.
13 Example Bats fly but they produce milk for their young. [Are they a bird or a mammal?] Answer: They are Mammals
15 Evolutionary relationships are determined on the basis of similarities in structure, breeding behavior, geographical distribution, chromosomes, and biochemistry. How are evolutionary relationships determined?
16 Structural similarities among species reveal relationships. The presence of many shared physical structures implies that species are closely related and may have evolved from a common ancestor. Structural similarities
17 Evolutionary Relationships Are determined by similarities in structure, breeding behavior, geographical distribution, chromosomes, and biochemistry (DNA).
18 For example, plant taxonomists use structural evidence to classify dandelions and sunflowers in the same family, Asteraceae, because they have similar flower and fruit structures. Structural similarities
19 Taxonomists observe and compare features among members of different taxa and use this information to infer their evolutionary history. Similarities
20 Classifying Diversity
21 Grizzly bearBlack bearGiant panda Red fox Abert squirrel Coral snake Sea star KINGDOM Animalia PHYLUM Chordata CLASS Mammalia ORDER Carnivora FAMILY Ursidae GENUS Ursus SPECIES Ursus arctos Section 18-1 General Specific
22 Classification of Organisms Kingdom Phylum / Division Class Order Family Genus Species
23 Compare the appearance of a lynx, Lynx rufus, a bobcat, Lynx canadensis, and a mountain lion, Panthera concolor. Lynx Mountain lion Bobcat Taxonomic rankings
24 Domain Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus Species Eukarya Animalia Chordata Mammalia Carnivora Felidae Lynx rufus Lynx canadensis Bobcat Lynx
25 What are the taxa they all have in common? Kingdom, Phylum, Class and Order
26 Binomial nomenclature (Scientific Name) Developed by Linnaeus. The first word used identifies the genus of the organism. The second word, which often describes a characteristic of the organism.
27 consists of a group of similar species. Genus (JEE nus) (plural, genera) Just because they look alike it doesn’t make them alike.
28 Latin Is the most common language of scientific names. aranea : spider's web canis : dog. cavus : hole, pit claudus : lame contra : (+ acc.) against decor : beauty, grace
29 Scientific Names Should be italicized in print and underlined when handwritten. The first letter of the genus name is uppercase, but the first letter of the descriptive name is lowercase. Passer domesticus
30 How did Aristotle group organisms such as birds, bats, and insects? D. by their homologous structures C. by their common species B. by their analogous structures A. by their common genus Question 1
31 The answer is B. The organisms were grouped together because of their wings, which, in this case, are analogous structures.
32 Which taxon contains the fewest species? D. phylum C. order B. family A. genus The answer: Question 2 A, genus.
33 What is the difference between “ classification ” and “ taxonomy? ” Answer Classification is the grouping of objects or information based on similarities. Taxonomy is the branch of biology that classifies and names organisms based on their different characteristics. Question 3
34 What are the two parts that make up binomial nomenclature? Answer Binomial nomenclature comprises a genus name followed by a specific epithet. Question 4
35 Classify the following based on function. Desk Chair Calculator Stool Bookcase Computer lights T.V.
40 Bacteria Archaebacteria- Archae means ancient Most are anaerobic, (live in environments with no oxygen).
41 Heterotrophs. Nearly all are motile. Animal cells do not have cell walls. Animals: Multicellular consumers
42 Animals Invertebrates & Vertebrates
43 Protists Plant like Fungus like Animal like The kingdom into which things are placed that can not be placed in any other kingdom.
44 A n a l p o r e A Paramecium Kingdom Protista contains diverse species that share some characteristics
46 Organisms in Kingdom Fungi are heterotrophs that do not move from place to place. A fungus is either a unicellular or multicellular eukaryote that absorbs nutrients from organic materials in the environment. Fungi: Earth’s decomposers
47 Fungi: Earth’s decomposers
48 Multicellular Photosynthetic eukaryotes that are stationary. Plants: Multicellular oxygen producers Cape Sundew
49 What is the branch of biology that groups and names organisms based on studies of their different characteristics? Taxonomy
50 Who developed binomial nomenclature? Linnaeus
51 Name the 7 levels of taxa Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus Species
52 Name the 6 kingdoms. Plant Animal Eubacteria Archaebacteria Protist Fungi
53 Life’s Six Kingdoms
54 More Classification Litter hurts Turtle survives! !
56 Phylogeny Evolutionary history of a species.
57 Cladistics Classification system that believes organisms evolved from a common ancestral group. As they evolve they retain some unique traits from that ancestor.
59 Crushing Bills Probing Bills Grasping Bills Ancestral Species Parrot Bills Seed Feeders Cactus Feeders Insect Feeders Fruit Feeders Geographical distribution
60 These finches probably spread into different niches on the volcanic islands and evolved over time into many distinct species. The fact that they share a common ancestry is supported by their geographical distribution in addition to their genetic similarities. Geographical distribution
61 For example, cauliflower, cabbage, kale, and broccoli look different but have chromosomes that are almost identical in structure. Chromosome comparisons
62 Therefore, biologists propose that these plants are related. Chromosome comparisons
63 Which of the following is NOT a way to determine evolutionary relationships? D. geographical distribution C. specific epithets B. biochemistry A. chromosome comparisons The answer is C. Question 1
64 How does a cladogram differ from a pedigree? Answer Pedigrees show the direct ancestry of an organism from two parents. Cladograms show a probable evolution from an ancestral group. Question 2
65 Using the cladogram, which of the following traits would be a primitive trait? Theropods Allosaurus Sinornis Velociraptor Archaeopteryx Robin Light bones 3-toed foot; wishbone Down feathers Feathers with shaft, veins, and barbs Flight feathers; arms as long as legs Question 3
66 The answer is light bones. Primitive traits are traits that evolved very early. Theropods Allosaurus Sinornis Velociraptor Archaeopteryx Robin Light bones 3-toed foot; wishbone Down feathers Feathers with shaft, veins, and barbs Flight feathers; arms as long as legs
67 Why do taxonomists use Latin names for classification? Answer Latin is no longer used in conversation and, therefore, does not change. Question 4
68 What is the relationship between cladistics and taxonomy? Answer Cladistics is one kind of taxonomy that is based on phylogeny. Question 5
69 Doma in Kingdo m Phylum Class Order Family Genus Species Eukar ya Animali a Chordat a Mamma lia Carnivo ra Felidae Lynx rufus Lynx canade nsis Bobcat Lynx Question 6
70 Both organisms are members of the same kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, and genus but belong to different species.
71 Which taxon contains the others? D. family C. genus B. class A. order The answer is B. Question 7
72 Which of the following pairs of terms is NOT related? D. Aristotle – evolutionary relationships C. biology – taxonomy B. binomial nomenclature – Linnaeus A. specific epithet – genus The answer is D. Question 3
73 What two main characteristics distinguish the members of the six kingdoms? Answer The two characteristics are differences in cellular structures and methods of obtaining energy. Question 5
74 Which of the following is NOT true of both the animal and plant kingdoms? D. cells contain cell walls C. cells are organized into tissues B. tissues are organized into organs A. both contain organisms made up of cells The answer is D. Question 6
75 Which of the following describes a fungus? D. heterotrophic prokaryote C. unicellular autotroph B. unicellular or multicellular heterotroph A. autotrophic prokaryote Question 7
76 The answer is B, unicellular or multicellular heterotroph.
77 Why do some scientists believe that plants existed on Earth’s landmasses much earlier than fossils indicate? Answer Plants do not fossilize as often as organisms that contain hard structures, like bones, which more readily fossilize than soft tissues. Question 10