8AristotleGreek – B.C.First to develop a biological classification system.Classified things as either a plant or an animal.
9Aristotle’s systemHe subdivided plants into three groups, herbs, shrubs, and trees, depending on the size and structure of a plant.He grouped animals according to various characteristics, including their habitat and physical differences.
10Aristotle’s systemHe subdivided plants into three groups, herbs, shrubs, and trees, depending on the size and structure of a plant.
11Aristotle’s systemAs time passed, more organisms were discovered and some did not fit easily into Aristotle’s groups, but many centuries passed before Aristotle’s system was replaced.
12LinnaeusSwedish - ( )Based his classification system on physical and structural similarities.As a result, the groupings revealed the relationships of the organisms.
13Example Bats fly but they produce milk for their young. [Are they a bird or a mammal?]Answer:They are Mammals
15How are evolutionary relationships determined? Evolutionary relationships are determined on the basis of similarities in structure, breeding behavior, geographical distribution, chromosomes, and biochemistry.
16Structural similarities Structural similarities among species reveal relationships.The presence of many shared physical structures implies that species are closely related and may have evolved from a common ancestor.
17Evolutionary Relationships Are determined by similarities in structure, breeding behavior, geographical distribution, chromosomes, and biochemistry (DNA).
18Structural similarities For example, plant taxonomists use structural evidence to classify dandelions and sunflowers in the same family, Asteraceae, because they have similar flower and fruit structures.
19SimilaritiesTaxonomists observe and compare features among members of different taxa and use this information to infer their evolutionary history.
25What are the taxa they all have in common? Kingdom, Phylum, Class and Order
26Binomial nomenclature (Scientific Name) Developed by Linnaeus.The first word used identifies the genus of the organism.The second word, which often describes a characteristic of the organism.
27Genus (JEE nus) (plural, genera) consists of a group of similar species.Just because they look alike it doesn’t make them alike.
28Latin Is the most common language of scientific names. canis : dog. aranea : spider's webcavus : hole, pitclaudus : lamecontra : (+ acc.) againstdecor : beauty, grace
29Scientific NamesShould be italicized in print and underlined when handwritten.The first letter of the genus name is uppercase, but the first letter of the descriptive name is lowercase.Passer domesticus
30Question 1 A. by their common genus B. by their analogous structures How did Aristotle group organisms such as birds, bats, and insects?A. by their common genusB. by their analogous structuresC. by their common speciesD. by their homologous structures
31The answer is B.The organisms were grouped together because of their wings, which, in this case, are analogous structures.
32Question 2 A. genus B. family C. order D. phylum Which taxon contains the fewest species?A. genusB. familyC. orderD. phylumThe answer:A, genus.
33Question 3What is the difference between “classification” and “taxonomy?”AnswerClassification is the grouping of objects or information based on similarities. Taxonomy is the branch of biology that classifies and names organisms based on their different characteristics.
34Question 4What are the two parts that make up binomial nomenclature?AnswerBinomial nomenclature comprises a genus name followed by a specific epithet.
35Classify the following based on function. DeskChairCalculatorStoolBookcaseComputerlightsT.V.
46Fungi: Earth’s decomposers Organisms in Kingdom Fungi are heterotrophs that do not move from place to place.A fungus is either a unicellular or multicellular eukaryote that absorbs nutrients from organic materials in the environment.
59Geographical distribution ProbingBillsGraspingBillsCrushingBillsFeedersCactusInsectSeedFeedersFeedersFruitParrotBillsFeedersAncestral Species
60Geographical distribution These finches probably spread into different niches on the volcanic islands and evolved over time into many distinct species. The fact that they share a common ancestry is supported by their geographical distribution in addition to their genetic similarities.
61Chromosome comparisons For example, cauliflower, cabbage, kale, and broccoli look different but have chromosomes that are almost identical in structure.
62Chromosome comparisons Therefore, biologists propose that these plants are related.
63Question 1 A. chromosome comparisons B. biochemistry Which of the following is NOT a way to determine evolutionary relationships?A. chromosome comparisonsB. biochemistryC. specific epithetsD. geographical distributionThe answer is C.
64Question 2How does a cladogram differ from a pedigree?AnswerPedigrees show the direct ancestry of an organism from two parents. Cladograms show a probable evolution from an ancestral group.
65Question 3AllosaurusVelociraptorRobinArchaeopteryxSinornisTheropodsFeathers withshaft, veins,and barbsFlight feathers;arms as longas legs3-toed foot;wishboneDownfeathersLight bonesUsing the cladogram, which of the following traits would be a primitive trait?
66AllosaurusVelociraptorRobinArchaeopteryxSinornisTheropodsFeathers withshaft, veins,and barbsFlight feathers;arms as longas legs3-toed foot;wishboneDownfeathersLight bonesThe answer is light bones. Primitive traits are traits that evolved very early.
67Question 4Why do taxonomists use Latin names for classification?AnswerLatin is no longer used in conversation and, therefore, does not change.
68Question 5What is the relationship between cladistics and taxonomy?AnswerCladistics is one kind of taxonomy that is based on phylogeny.
69Question 6 Domain Eukarya Kingdom Animalia Phylum Chordata Class MammaliaOrderCarnivoraFamilyFelidaeGenusLynxSpeciesLynxrufusLynxcanadensisBobcatLynx
70Both organisms are members of the same kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, and genus but belong to different species.
71Question 7 Which taxon contains the others? A. order B. class C. genus D. familyThe answer is B.
72Question 3 Which of the following pairs of terms is NOT related? A. specific epithet – genusB. binomial nomenclature – LinnaeusC. biology – taxonomyD. Aristotle – evolutionary relationshipsThe answer is D.
73Question 5What two main characteristics distinguish the members of the six kingdoms?AnswerThe two characteristics are differences in cellular structures and methods of obtaining energy.
74Question 6Which of the following is NOT true of both the animal and plant kingdoms?A. both contain organisms made up of cellsB. tissues are organized into organsC. cells are organized into tissuesD. cells contain cell wallsThe answer is D.
75Question 7 Which of the following describes a fungus? A. autotrophic prokaryoteB. unicellular or multicellular heterotrophC. unicellular autotrophD. heterotrophic prokaryote
76The answer is B, unicellular or multicellular heterotroph.
77Question 10Why do some scientists believe that plants existed on Earth’s landmasses much earlier than fossils indicate?AnswerPlants do not fossilize as often as organisms that contain hard structures, like bones, which more readily fossilize than soft tissues.