4MMDAProhibits:Littering, dumping, throwing of garbage or any wasteOpen or public places
5MMDARequires:Owners, lessees, occupants of residential and commercial establishmentsClean and maintain cleanlinessFrontage and immediate surroundingsPenalties for violation
6MMDA 96-009 Solid waste disposal and management PoliciesStandardsPrograms and projects for proper and sanitary waste disposalSanitary landfill and other alternative facilitiesReduce, reuse and recycle solid wasteRegulate indiscriminate dumping/littering in public places, rivers, canals, drainage and other water outlets.
7MMDAProper Refuse Management and Reduction of Solid Waste at its source in Metro ManilaAIMS TO:Ensure urban protection from solid waste that is improperly segregated, collected and disposedReduce Solid Waste at its sourceOptimize the inherent value of waste as materials resourceInstitutionalize necessary reforms in handling solid wastes
8Ecological Solid Waste Management Act of 2000 REPUBLIC ACT NO. 9003Ecological Solid Waste Management Act of 2000
9Segregation of Wastes Mandatory Segregation of Solid Wastes For premises containing 6 or more residential units, the local government unit shall promulgate regulations requiring the owner or person in charge of such premises to:(a) provide for the residents a designated area and containers in which to accumulate source separated recyclable materials to be collected by the municipality or private center; and(b) notify the occupants of such buildings of the requirements of this Act and the regulations promulgated pursuant thereto.Section 21 requires the mandatory segregation of solid wastes at source to include household, institutional, industrial, commercial and agriculturalsources. The wastes will be segregated and properly marked as can-be- composted, non-recyclable, recyclable or special wastes. Segregation and collection of biodegradable, can-be-composted and reusable wastes shall be conducted at the barangay level, while collection of non-recyclable materials and special wastes shall be the responsibility of the municipality or city (Section 10).
10Segregation of WastesRequirements for the Segregation and Storage of Solid Waste(a) There shall be a separate container for each type of waste from all sources: Provided, That in the case of bulky waste, it will suffice that the same be collected and placed in a separate and designated area; and(b) The solid waste container depending on its use shall be properly marked or identified for on-site collection as "compostable", "non-recyclable", "recyclable" or "special waste", or any other classification as may be determined by the Commission.Black: Non-biodegradable wasteRed: Hazardous wasteGreen: Biodegradable wasteYellow: Pathological waste
11Collection and Transport of Solid Waste Requirements for Collection of Solid Waste(a) All collectors and other personnel directly dealing with collection of solid waste shall be equipped with personal protective equipment to protect them from the hazards of handling solid wastes;(b) Necessary training shall be given to the collectors and personnel to ensure that the solid wastes are handled properly and in accordance with the guidelines pursuant to this Act; and(c) Collection of solid waste shall be done in a manner which prevents damage to the container, and spillage or scattering of solid waste within the collection vicinity.
12Collection and Transport of Solid Waste Requirements for the Transport of Solid WasteThe use of separate collection schedules and/or separate trucks or haulers shall be required for specific types of wastes. Otherwise, vehicles used for the collection and transport of solid wastes shall have the appropriate compartments to facilitate efficient storing of sorted wastes while in transit.Vehicles shall be designed to consider road size, condition and capacity to ensure the safe and efficient collection and transport of solid wastes.The waste compartment shall have a cover to ensure the containment of solid wastes while in transit.For the purpose of identification, vehicles shall bear the body number, the name, and telephone number of the contractor/agency collecting solid waste.
19Solid waste management (SWM) to wastes from households, municipal services, construction debris and the agricultural sector.also includes non-hazardous, non-liquid wastes from institutions and industries (RA 9003)Solid waste management (SWM)pertains to the control of the “generation, storage, collection, transfer and transport, processing and disposal (RA ) ” of solid waste in a fashion that is in accordance to societal and economic needs while at the same time compliant to environmental standards and principles.
20What is Ecological SWM?It is the systematic management of solid waste which provides for:Waste reduction at sourceSegregation at source for recovery of reusables, recyclables and compostablesSegregated transportation, storage, transfer, processing, treatment and disposal of solid waste management andAll other waste management activities which do not harm the environment
21The Solid Waste Management Plan Who must have SWM plans?All provinces, cities and municipalities.The law requires that the plan shall:Be a 10-year plan consistent with the National SWM Framework.Be for the re-use, recycling and composting of wastes and ensure the efficient management of solid waste generated in the respective jurisdictions of LGUsContain a timetable and all the components provided in RA 9003All local government SWN plans have to be approved by the NSWM comission
22Components of the SWM plan Background informationWaste characterizationSource reductionRecyclingCompostingCollection and transferprocessing8. Solid waste facility capacity and final disposal 9. Education & public information 10. Special wastes 11. Resource requirement & funding 12. Privatization of SWM projects
23Solid Waste Management Activities The 1st priority of the ecological SWM system shall be volume reduction at the source.Other major SWN activities under RA 9003ProcessingCovers segregation, re-use, recycling and compostingCollection & transportEstablishment of materials recovery facilityDisposal
24Solid Waste Management Activities Mandatory segregation shall be conducted at the source which refers to separating at the point of origin different materials found in solid waste for recycling and re-using them.Solid wastes shall be segregated into :Compostable special wastesNon-recyclable othersrecyclable
25Solid Waste Management Activities The DTI, in cooperation with the DENR, DILG/LGUs, sectors practicing recycling and other concerned agencies, shall undertake a study of existing markets for processing and purchasing recyclable materials and the potential steps necessary to expand these markets.
26Institutional Set-up of SWM in Metro Manila National Solid Waste Management Commission (NSWMC)Metro Manila Development Authority (MMDA)Local Government UnitsNGOsINSTITUTIONS RESPONSIBLEWith the passing of RA 9003 there came a transformation in the country’s SWM. TheNational Solid Waste Management Commission (NSWMC), a central body for national SWM wascreated to oversee the implementation of a comprehensive SWM framework (refer to Figure 6.2 ).Under it are provincial SWM boards to be chaired by their respective governors. The provincialboards will be composed of the city and municipal mayors, as well as, NGOs and representatives ofthe recycling, and packaging industries. In the case of Metro Manila, the MMDA is mandated tochair its SWM board. (RA 9003) The LGUs work under the MMDA and directly with residentialand commercial generators through the delivery of waste collection and municipal services. TheNGOs focus on community-based projects such as environmental education.Residential GeneratorsCommercial GeneratorsMunicipal Services
27National Solid Waste Management Commission (NSWMC) created to implement RA 9003tasked to create a national SWM framework and oversee its implementation in accordance to RA 9003’s objectivesChairSecretary of the Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR)Vice-Chairrepresentative of the private sectorprovides secretariat support to the commission:DENR – Environmental Management Bureau (DENR – EMB)
28Metro Manila Development Authority (MMDA) created in 1995 with the passing of RA 7924created with the task of overseeing metro-wide services within Metro Manila without trespassing on LGU autonomy, which is provided for in RA 7160, the Local Government Code.dependent on subsidies and allocations from the national government as well as contributions from LGUs
29Local Government Units (LGUs) refer to individual cities and municipalitiesInvolvement involves solid waste collection, street sweeping and river clean upsquality of services varies from LGU to LGU, depending on their financial capability to deliver SWM servicesMajority of the hire contractors to take care of solid waste collection and transport to the dumps for final disposal.With the passing of RA they are tasked:to formulate 10-year SWM plans which would redirect at least a quarter of generated solid wastes towards reuse, recycling and compostingnow requiring their citizens to practice segregationwaste is to be classified in four types: biodegradable, nonrecyclable, recyclable, and special wasteThese LGUs or Local Government Units refer to individual cities and municipalities. Underthe NCR, there are 17 LGUs – 13 are cities while 4 are municipalities. Their involvement in SWMin their respective jurisdictions involves solid waste collection, street sweeping and river clean ups.The quality of services, however, varies from LGU to LGU, depending on their financial capabilityto deliver SWM services. There is a large amount of controversy that surrounds the way SWM ishandled in LGUs. Majority of the LGUs hire contractors to take care of solid waste collection andtransport to the dumps for final disposal. Critics say that SWM is plagued with corruption as manycontractors, as well as politicians, see this sector as a lucrative venture (PCIJ, 2001).With the passing of RA 9003, they are tasked to formulate 10-year SWM plans which wouldredirect at least a quarter of generated solid wastes towards reuse, recycling and compostingthrough the establishment of community based recovery facilities and buy-back centers (ADB,2002). Considering the abovementioned corruption in SWM, these vested interests are perhapssome of the reasons why there is a delay in the implementation of ESWM’s provisions.Under R.A. 9003, LGUs are now requiring their citizens to practice segregation at thesource including institutional, industrial, commercial, and agricultural sources. The waste is tobe classified in four types: biodegradable, nonrecyclable, recyclable, and special waste. Thebaronages are now mandated to collect recyclable and biodegradable waste, and the city/munic-ipality is responsible for the residual and special waste. To further encourage segregation atthe source, the LGUs have developed specific collection schedules/dates for biodegradable,recyclable, and residual waste. Some LGUs are refusing to collect nonsegregated waste. Wastesegregation at the household level, however, is not yet widely practiced. Traditionally, Filipinosonly segregate waste according to what they can sell, mainly bottles and papers, to roamingwaste buyers.
30Non Governmental Organizations (NGOs) passage of RA 9003Recycling Movement of the Philippines, the Earth Day Network, Mother Earth, Linis Ganda, Concerned Citizens Against Pollution, and Greenpeace Philippinesstrongly oppose MMDA’s plans that focus more on finding the potential landfill sites rather than recycling and waste segregation--Odette Alcantara, founder and head of Mother Earthalso conduct:community-based recyclingmaterial recovery effortstraining and seminars for community leaders and help them set up SWM systems in their areasThere is a well-developed sector of non-governmental organizations (NGOs) in the country,championing different causes (Gaite & Eggerth, 2000). The cause of solid waste management is noexception. Especially in Metro Manila, where the problems of SWM were pronounced NGOs havelong campaigned for sectoral changes favoring community based solutions. The passage of RA9003 has long been fought for by an alliance of NGOs which include the Recycling Movement ofthe Philippines, the Earth Day Network, Mother Earth, Linis Ganda15, Concerned Citizens AgainstPollution, and Greenpeace Philippines (Gonzales, 2002). After the signing of RA 9003 into law,these NGOs have not rested their case. They remain vigilant and aware that the law has not beenproperly implemented. According to Odette Alcantara, founder and head of Mother Earth, theystrongly oppose MMDA’s plans that focus more on finding the potential landfill sites rather thanrecycling and waste segregation (Personal Interview).Aside from lobbying for better legislation and its implementation, these NGOs also conductcommunity-based recycling and material recovery efforts. Some conduct training and seminars forcommunity leaders and help them set up SWM systems in their areas. An NGO, Linis Ganda,organized the Federation of Multi-purpose Cooperatives, an alliance of 572 junk shops thatemployed over a thousand eco-aides to conduct recycling activities
31Waste Flow in Metro Manila The waste flow in Metro Manila basically follows the set up as seen in Figure From thegenerators, they are burned by the generators themselves, inappropriately dumped and littered,collected or recycled. Backyard burning or small-scale community burning is a traditional wastereatment method and is usually done by households within their premises. This is done by 52.8%of the households (NSO, 2003) and is permitted under the Clean Air Act (RA 8749).In the diagrams (see Figures 5.1, 5.2 & 6.4), waste from street sweepings and river clean upare collectively known as municipal services. These, basically, reenter into generation, as these arewastes recovered from those that have inappropriately dumped and littered in the streets,waterways, bodies of water and other public places.