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Precipitation Interception Throughfall Stemflow Evaporation Transpiration Evaporation Ocean Lake Ground water Overland flow Return flow Infiltration Redistribution.

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Presentation on theme: "Precipitation Interception Throughfall Stemflow Evaporation Transpiration Evaporation Ocean Lake Ground water Overland flow Return flow Infiltration Redistribution."— Presentation transcript:

1 Precipitation Interception Throughfall Stemflow Evaporation Transpiration Evaporation Ocean Lake Ground water Overland flow Return flow Infiltration Redistribution Evaporation Snow pack Percolation Capillary rise Depression storage Interflow Wetland Plant uptake Overland flow Soil water Figure 11.1 Ecological Climatology © 2008 G. Bonan

2 Storm Rainfall (mm) Water Flux (mm) Interception (mm) Rainfall Throughfall Stemflow Interception Full leafLeafless Figure 11.2 Ecological Climatology © 2008 G. Bonan

3 Jan-94Jan-95Jan-96Jan-97Jan-98 Evapotranspiration (mm per day) Cumulative (mm) Boreal Spruce Forest Day of Year Evapotranspiration (mm per day) Cumulative (mm) Tropical Rainforest Day of Year Evapotranspiration (mm per day) Cumulative (mm) Temperate Grassland Figure 11.3 Ecological Climatology © 2008 G. Bonan

4 Volumetric Soil Moisture Foliage Water Potential (MPa) Figure 11.4 Ecological Climatology © 2008 G. Bonan

5 Figure 11.5 Ecological Climatology © 2008 G. Bonan

6 Time (minutes) Cumulative Infiltration, I (mm) Infiltration Rate,  i  (mm per second) I (mm)  i  (mm/s) Figure 11.6 Ecological Climatology © 2008 G. Bonan

7 Time (minutes) Infiltration Rate (mm per second) Sand Sandy loam Loam Clay loam Clay Figure 11.7 Ecological Climatology © 2008 G. Bonan

8 Sands (A) Loams (B) Clay loams (C) Clays (D) Dry Normal Wet Loam, normal soil water Forest, good litter, normal soil waterForest, good litter, loam Figure 11.8 Ecological Climatology © 2008 G. Bonan

9 Impermeable Layer Groundwater (saturated) Capillary Fringe (saturated) Root Zone (wilting point to saturation) saturated during rain, otherwise depleted Intermediate Zone (field capacity to saturation) saturated during heavy rain WP FC SAT Water Content Transpiration Infiltration Evaporation Percolation Figure 11.9 Ecological Climatology © 2008 G. Bonan

10 Figure JanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec Monthly Water Flux (mm) PrecipitationAET AET=PET AET

11 Figure Ecological Climatology © 2008 G. Bonan


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