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Precipitation Interception Throughfall Stemflow Evaporation Transpiration Evaporation Ocean Lake Ground water Overland flow Return flow Infiltration Redistribution Evaporation Snow pack Percolation Capillary rise Depression storage Interflow Wetland Plant uptake Overland flow Soil water Figure 11.1 Ecological Climatology © 2008 G. Bonan
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 05101520253035404550 Storm Rainfall (mm) Water Flux (mm) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Interception (mm) Rainfall Throughfall Stemflow Interception Full leafLeafless Figure 11.2 Ecological Climatology © 2008 G. Bonan
0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 Jan-94Jan-95Jan-96Jan-97Jan-98 Evapotranspiration (mm per day) 0 200 400 600 800 Cumulative (mm) Boreal Spruce Forest 1 2 3 4 5 6 90120150180210 Day of Year Evapotranspiration (mm per day) 0 100 200 300 400 500 Cumulative (mm) Tropical Rainforest 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 120150180210240270300 Day of Year Evapotranspiration (mm per day) 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 Cumulative (mm) Temperate Grassland Figure 11.3 Ecological Climatology © 2008 G. Bonan
0.080.090.100.22.214.171.124.15 Volumetric Soil Moisture -0.2 -0.4 -0.6 -0.8 -1.2 -1.4 -1.6 -1.8 0.0 Foliage Water Potential (MPa) Figure 11.4 Ecological Climatology © 2008 G. Bonan
Figure 11.5 Ecological Climatology © 2008 G. Bonan
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 0102030405060 Time (minutes) Cumulative Infiltration, I (mm) 0.00 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.05 0.06 0.07 0.08 0.09 Infiltration Rate, i (mm per second) I (mm) i (mm/s) Figure 11.6 Ecological Climatology © 2008 G. Bonan
0.001 0.01 0.1 1 0102030405060 Time (minutes) Infiltration Rate (mm per second) Sand Sandy loam Loam Clay loam Clay Figure 11.7 Ecological Climatology © 2008 G. Bonan
Sands (A) Loams (B) Clay loams (C) Clays (D) Dry Normal Wet Loam, normal soil water Forest, good litter, normal soil waterForest, good litter, loam Figure 11.8 Ecological Climatology © 2008 G. Bonan
Impermeable Layer Groundwater (saturated) Capillary Fringe (saturated) Root Zone (wilting point to saturation) saturated during rain, otherwise depleted Intermediate Zone (field capacity to saturation) saturated during heavy rain WP FC SAT Water Content Transpiration Infiltration Evaporation Percolation Figure 11.9 Ecological Climatology © 2008 G. Bonan
Figure 11.10 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 JanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec Monthly Water Flux (mm) PrecipitationAET AET=PET AET
"name": "Figure 11.10 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 JanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec Monthly Water Flux (mm) PrecipitationAET AET=PET AET
Figure 11.11 Ecological Climatology © 2008 G. Bonan
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