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Precipitation Interception Throughfall Stemflow Evaporation Transpiration Evaporation Ocean Lake Ground water Overland flow Return flow Infiltration Redistribution Evaporation Snow pack Percolation Capillary rise Depression storage Interflow Wetland Plant uptake Overland flow Soil water Figure 11.1 Ecological Climatology © 2008 G. Bonan
Storm Rainfall (mm) Water Flux (mm) Interception (mm) Rainfall Throughfall Stemflow Interception Full leafLeafless Figure 11.2 Ecological Climatology © 2008 G. Bonan
Jan-94Jan-95Jan-96Jan-97Jan-98 Evapotranspiration (mm per day) Cumulative (mm) Boreal Spruce Forest Day of Year Evapotranspiration (mm per day) Cumulative (mm) Tropical Rainforest Day of Year Evapotranspiration (mm per day) Cumulative (mm) Temperate Grassland Figure 11.3 Ecological Climatology © 2008 G. Bonan
Volumetric Soil Moisture Foliage Water Potential (MPa) Figure 11.4 Ecological Climatology © 2008 G. Bonan
Figure 11.5 Ecological Climatology © 2008 G. Bonan
Time (minutes) Cumulative Infiltration, I (mm) Infiltration Rate, i (mm per second) I (mm) i (mm/s) Figure 11.6 Ecological Climatology © 2008 G. Bonan
Time (minutes) Infiltration Rate (mm per second) Sand Sandy loam Loam Clay loam Clay Figure 11.7 Ecological Climatology © 2008 G. Bonan
Sands (A) Loams (B) Clay loams (C) Clays (D) Dry Normal Wet Loam, normal soil water Forest, good litter, normal soil waterForest, good litter, loam Figure 11.8 Ecological Climatology © 2008 G. Bonan
Impermeable Layer Groundwater (saturated) Capillary Fringe (saturated) Root Zone (wilting point to saturation) saturated during rain, otherwise depleted Intermediate Zone (field capacity to saturation) saturated during heavy rain WP FC SAT Water Content Transpiration Infiltration Evaporation Percolation Figure 11.9 Ecological Climatology © 2008 G. Bonan
Figure JanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec Monthly Water Flux (mm) PrecipitationAET AET=PET AET
Figure Ecological Climatology © 2008 G. Bonan
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