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A Small Dose of ToxicsAtHome – 12/10/11 An Introduction To The Health Effects of Toxic Products In The Home A Small Dose of Toxics At Home.

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Presentation on theme: "A Small Dose of ToxicsAtHome – 12/10/11 An Introduction To The Health Effects of Toxic Products In The Home A Small Dose of Toxics At Home."— Presentation transcript:

1 A Small Dose of ToxicsAtHome – 12/10/11 An Introduction To The Health Effects of Toxic Products In The Home A Small Dose of Toxics At Home

2 A Small Dose of ToxicsAtHome – 12/10/11 A Small Dose of Toxicology Home, Sweet Home! Be it ever so humble, there ’s no place like home. Home, Sweet Home! John Howard Payne

3 A Small Dose of ToxicsAtHome – 12/10/11 A Small Dose of Toxicology Toxics in the Home  Household products  Mold & mildew  Radon  Indoor air  Second hand smoke  Lead  Paint solvents

4 A Small Dose of ToxicsAtHome – 12/10/11 A Small Dose of Toxicology Household Hazardous Waste How many pounds of household hazardous waste in your home? (i.e. paints, varnishes, motor oil, pesticides, antifreeze, fluorescent lights)

5 A Small Dose of ToxicsAtHome – 12/10/11 A Small Dose of Toxicology Product Hazards  Flammability  Reactivity  Corrosive (strong acid or base)  Toxicity: human  Toxicity: environmental

6 A Small Dose of ToxicsAtHome – 12/10/11 A Small Dose of Toxicology Hazard and Risk Risk = Hazard X Exposure Dose / Response Individual Sensitivity

7 A Small Dose of ToxicsAtHome – 12/10/11 A Small Dose of Toxicology Exposure Routes  Ingestion Direct ingestion of product Hand to mouth contact  Inhalation Acute inhalation of product during use Chronic inhalation of indoor air  Skin/eye contact Splashing/spilling during use Violent chemical reactions Contact with treated surfaces

8 A Small Dose of ToxicsAtHome – 12/10/11 A Small Dose of Toxicology Poisoning Facts Poisoning events in United States  2.2 million reported exposures  53% involved children under age 6  90% occurred in the home  475,079 treated in a health care facility  920 deaths reported in 2000 Source: National Poison Centers, 2000 data (Litovitz, 2001)

9 A Small Dose of ToxicsAtHome – 12/10/11 A Small Dose of Toxicology More Poisoning Facts

10 A Small Dose of ToxicsAtHome – 12/10/11 A Small Dose of Toxicology Even More Poisoning Facts

11 A Small Dose of ToxicsAtHome – 12/10/11 A Small Dose of Toxicology Common Toxicity Measures LD50: acute ingestion (mg/kg) LC50: acute inhalation (ppm) Draize score: skin irritation TLV: chronic inhalation (ppm) Reference dose: chronic exposure (mg/kg/day)

12 A Small Dose of ToxicsAtHome – 12/10/11 A Small Dose of Toxicology Oral Toxicity of Common Substances Practically non-toxic (> 15,000 mg/kg) Probable oral lethal dose for 150 lb adult > 1 quart modeling clay paraffin wax baby lotion blemish cover (e.g. Clearasil) bone meal cat litter

13 A Small Dose of ToxicsAtHome – 12/10/11 A Small Dose of Toxicology Slightly toxic Slightly toxic (5,000 to 15,000 mg/kg) Probable oral lethal dose for 150 lb adult: between 1 pt & 1 qt hand dishwashing liquid window cleaner latex house paint soap deodorant (roll-on) white glue (e.g. Elmers)

14 A Small Dose of ToxicsAtHome – 12/10/11 A Small Dose of Toxicology Moderately toxic Moderately toxic (500 to 5,000 mg/kg) Probable oral lethal dose for 150 lb adult: between 1 oz & 1 pt antifreeze dry cleaning fluid* (1,1,1-trichloroethane) motor fuels* (gasoline, kerosene, diesel fuel) shoe polish oil-based house paint holly berries *NOTE: aspiration probably more important than toxicity

15 A Small Dose of ToxicsAtHome – 12/10/11 A Small Dose of Toxicology Very toxic Very toxic (50 to 500 mg/kg) Probable oral lethal dose for 150 lb adult: between 1 tsp & 1 oz aspirin and other analgesics lacquer thinners toluene, xylene (aromatic hydrocarbons) mothballs (camphor, naphthalene) tobacco leaves foxglove (digitalis) caffeine diazinon insecticide

16 A Small Dose of ToxicsAtHome – 12/10/11 A Small Dose of Toxicology Extremely toxic Extremely toxic (5 to 50 mg/kg) Probable oral lethal dose for 150 lb adult: 7 drops to 1 tsp opium codeine oil of sassafras

17 A Small Dose of ToxicsAtHome – 12/10/11 A Small Dose of Toxicology Super toxic Super toxic (< 5 mg/kg) Probable oral lethal dose for 150 lb adult: less than 7 drops nicotine botulinum toxins

18 A Small Dose of ToxicsAtHome – 12/10/11 A Small Dose of Toxicology TLVs of Common Ingredients COMPOUNDTLVFOUND INat % ethanol1000vodka, gin, rum, etc.40 acetone750nail polish remover>50 isopropanol400rubbing alcohol70 gasoline300motor fuel100 Methanol200Bix Stripper paint stripper24-50 turpentine100paint thinner100 xylene100spray paintbulk hexane50Carter’s rubber cement90 methylene chloride50Bix Tuff Job paint stripper85 paradichlorobenzene10mothballs100 carbon monoxide10 malathion0.74Ortho Malathion 50+ Insect Spray50 formaldehyde0.30 chlorpyrifos0.014Dursban Spray5.3 diazinon0.008Diazinon Granules5.0 TLV – Threshold Limit Value

19 A Small Dose of ToxicsAtHome – 12/10/11 A Small Dose of Toxicology Carcinogens IngredientProduct(s)% in Product chlorothalonilDaconil Fungicide % benzenegasoline>1% formaldehydeprobably manyunknown lead acetateGrecian Formula hair dyes0.36% methylene chloridepaint strippers (many)up to 85% p-dichlorobenzenemothballs (many)100% vermiculitepotting soils? arsenicCCA-treated lumber34% As 2 O 5

20 A Small Dose of ToxicsAtHome – 12/10/11 A Small Dose of Toxicology Deducing Toxicity from Label Information Stick with federally regulated information Signal words only semi-consistent Ignore marketing information Be alert for inconsistencies

21 SIGNAL WORD ADVERTISING Example

22 A Small Dose of ToxicsAtHome – 12/10/11 A Small Dose of Toxicology Signal Words Signal WordEPACPSCFDA DANGERCat. IEx. Haznot used WARNINGCat. IIHazardousnot used CAUTIONCat. III/IVHazardous“pay attention” No sig. wordnot usedNot Hazardous

23 A Small Dose of ToxicsAtHome – 12/10/11 A Small Dose of Toxicology Shortcomings of Label Information All ingredients not listed (except food, drug, cosmetic, personal care) Only pesticides have disposal and environmental information (and the disposal information is incorrect!) Signal words linked to acute hazards only Some labels contain marketing information that minimizes or contradicts safety warnings People don’t read labels anyway

24 A Small Dose of ToxicsAtHome – 12/10/11 A Small Dose of Toxicology Favorite Labels “Confine pets during application to prevent them from believing they are being fed.” - slug bait “Avoid use while smoking.” - hair spray “This product must not be used for dyeing eyelashes or eyebrows. To do so may cause blindness.” - hair color

25 A Small Dose of ToxicsAtHome – 12/10/11 A Small Dose of Toxicology Label Contradictions “...contains no harsh chemicals which could cause drying or damage...no gloves, no caps, does not irritate your skin” “You get rid of gray gradually, naturally” …………..but there’s more

26 A Small Dose of ToxicsAtHome – 12/10/11 A Small Dose of Toxicology The Rest of the Story Caution: contains lead acetate. [a carcinogen] For external use only. Keep this product out of children’s reach. Do not use on cut or abraded skin. If skin irritation develops, discontinue use.

27 A Small Dose of ToxicsAtHome – 12/10/11 A Small Dose of Toxicology And That’s Not All! —Grecian Formula hair dye Do not use to color mustaches, eyelashes, eyebrows or hair on parts of the body other than the scalp. Do not get in eyes. Follow instructions carefully and wash hands thoroughly after each use.”

28 A Small Dose of ToxicsAtHome – 12/10/11 A Small Dose of Toxicology Less-Toxic Alternatives Water-based products Mechanical devices Enzymes instead of solvents Biological pesticides

29 A Small Dose of ToxicsAtHome – 12/10/11 A Small Dose of Toxicology Less-Toxic Alternatives Alternative Instead of Using Toxic Ingredient Avoided Latex paint Oil-based paint Solvents Snake, plunger Caustic drain opener Corrosive lye Scouring powder Acid toilet cleaner Corrosive hydrochloric acid Beneficial Insecticide for Diazinon, carbaryl or other nematodes soil grubs insecticide Weed puller, Herbicide 2,4-D, dichlobenil, etc. mulch

30 A Small Dose of ToxicsAtHome – 12/10/11 A Small Dose of Toxicology A Small Dose of ™ Toxics At Home

31 A Small Dose of ToxicsAtHome – 12/10/11 A Small Dose of Toxicology Resources from WTC Washington Toxics Coalition (WTC) Home Safe Home consumer fact sheets Toxics Hotline: SAFE Internet: Thanks to Philip Dickey from WTC for providing many of the slides and information for the chapter.

32 A Small Dose of ToxicsAtHome – 12/10/11 A Small Dose of Toxicology Additional Information  Web Sites U.S. Household Products Database – National Institutes of Health, National Library of Medicine. Site has a range of information about household products including their potential health threats. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency - Household Waste Management. Site has a self-directed educational program on managing household waste.

33 A Small Dose of ToxicsAtHome – 12/10/11 A Small Dose of Toxicology Authorship Information For Additional Information Contact Steven G. Gilbert, PhD, DABT Web: This presentation is supplement to “A Small Dose of Toxicology”


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