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Physical Environment and Physical Activity Preliminary Results from the Finnish Regional Health and Welfare Study 29.3.2012 Nordic Behavioral Medicine.

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Presentation on theme: "Physical Environment and Physical Activity Preliminary Results from the Finnish Regional Health and Welfare Study 29.3.2012 Nordic Behavioral Medicine."— Presentation transcript:

1 Physical Environment and Physical Activity Preliminary Results from the Finnish Regional Health and Welfare Study Nordic Behavioral Medicine Symposium / Tomi Mäkinen Tomi Mäkinen, PhD Senior researcher Population Health Research Unit

2 Adaption of Socioecological Model for Physical Activity among Adults Nordic Behavioral Medicine Symposium / Tomi Mäkinen PERSONAL Age, Health, Skills, Preferences, Motivation, SEP SOCIAL/CULTURAL PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT Social support (family and friends) Ethnicity/Cul tural norms MACRO LEVEL /PUBLIC POLICY Time Constraints (work, family) Design (streets, parks, facilities etc) Connectivity (streets, sidewalks, bicycle-lanes) Proximity (density, land use mix, access) Policies Regulations Laws International Local Taxation Urban planning National Life-course & selection Distance: (home to work, to recreation)

3 Nordic Behavioral Medicine Symposium / Tomi Mäkinen Sociodemographic, Social and Physical environment determinants for walking and cycling among Adults PERSONAL Age(-), Health(+), Skills(+), Preferences(+), Motivation(+), SEP(+) SOCIAL/CULTURAL PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT Social support from family and friends (+) Ethnicity/Cul tural norms (-) Time Constraints (-) Design: Streets (0), Parks/open space (0), Lightning (0), Safety (0) Connectivity: Streets (+), sidewalks (+), bicycle-lanes (+) Proximity: Density (+), land use mix (+), access (+) Wendel-Vos et al Obesity 2007 Trost et al MSSE 2002 McCormack et al IJBNPA 2011 Saelens et al MSSE = inconsistent - = negative + = positive, Social participation (+) Distance : Work-home (?), to recreational area (+), Self-selection

4 Our aims are: Nordic Behavioral Medicine Symposium / Tomi Mäkinen a) How social and physical environment are associated with physical activity (e.g. cycling and walking)? b) Are there area-level and neighborhood-level inequalities in physical activity? c) Can these inequalities be explained with social and physical environments?

5 Nordic Behavioral Medicine Symposium / Tomi Mäkinen Preliminary results from: Nordic Behavioral Medicine Symposium / Tomi Mäkinen a) How social and physical environment are associated with commuting among women and men? b) Are there area-level and neighborhood-level inequalities in physical activity? c) Can these inequalities be explained with social and physical environments?

6 Our hypotheses were: Good walking and cycling infrastructure, green environment and physical activity facilities are positively associated with walking and cycling. Social support and other forms of social participation are positively associated with walking and cycling. There are area- and neighborhood-level inequalities in walking and cycling. These inequalities are mainly due to better physical and social environments in urban areas compared to semi-urban areas and rural areas Nordic Behavioral Medicine Symposium / Tomi Mäkinen

7 Materials and Methods The Regional Health and Wellbeing Study (ATH) –Cross-sectional, year 2010, Finns aged 20 years and over –Response rate varied from 55 to 65 %, –Conducted in year 2010 –Areas included Turku (n=9000), The regions Kainuu (n=9000) Northern Ostrobothnia (n=8000) Random sample of Finnish continent (n=5000) –Self-assessed physical environment and physical activity Statistical analyses and sample weight –preliminary results presented in unadjusted frequencies, Chi 2 -test statistics for gender differences. Regression and spatial modelling to be done in the future. –Weights used to take into account the sampling and make data representative for the whole population Nordic Behavioral Medicine Symposium / Tomi Mäkinen

8 Nordic Behavioral Medicine Symposium / Tomi Mäkinen Northern Ostrobothnia, area 1 Research areas of ATH-Study in year 2010 Northern Ostrobothnia, area 2 Kainuu, area 1 Turku Kainuu, area 2 Kainuu, area 3

9 Short statistics of the two areas examined: TURKU (2010) Population = Tertiary education = 39,6 % Total area, km 2 = 306, Nordic Behavioral Medicine Symposium / Tomi Mäkinen KAINUU (2010) Population = Tertiary education = 21,3% Total area, km 2 =

10 Physical environment, question I Nordic Behavioral Medicine Symposium / Tomi Mäkinen

11 Nordic Behavioral Medicine Symposium / Tomi Mäkinen Physical Environment, question II

12 Physical Activity: Commuting Physical Activity (CPA) Nordic Behavioral Medicine Symposium / Tomi Mäkinen We examined CPA = over 30 minutes a day

13 Results I: Physical Environment and CPA among MEN Nordic Behavioral Medicine Symposium / Tomi Mäkinen * * = statistically significant difference between inactive and active commuting

14 Results II: Physical Environment and CPA among WOMEN Nordic Behavioral Medicine Symposium / Tomi Mäkinen * * = statistically significant difference between inactive and active commuting

15 Results III: physical environment and CPA in Turku Nordic Behavioral Medicine Symposium / Tomi Mäkinen * * * * * * * * * = statistically significant difference between inactive and active commuting

16 Results IV: Physical Environment and CPA in Regions of Kainuu Nordic Behavioral Medicine Symposium / Tomi Mäkinen All are statistically significant!)

17 Preliminary results suggests that Physical environment is associated with CPA among men and women Both genders: Good infrastructure, Enjoyable environment Women: safety, satisfaction of the location Turku: Enjoyable environment, good infrastructure, safety Regions of Kainuu: Enjoyable environment Nordic Behavioral Medicine Symposium / Tomi Mäkinen

18 Limitations: Age and education distributions differ between gender and areas, and this might explain some of the observed associations between physical environment and CPA Commuting physical activity include both cycling and walking Association different in cycling and walking? Elderly prefer walking over cycling Nordic Behavioral Medicine Symposium / Tomi Mäkinen

19 Tack så mycket! Thank you! Kiitos! For the invitation to speak in the symposium! For the members of our research group: Heli Valkeinen, Esko Levälahti, Jukka Murto, Risto Kaikkonen, Susanna Raulio, Katja Borodulin and Ritva Prättälä For any further comments or interests, please don’t hesitate to contact by Tomi Mäkinen, PhD (Public Health) Senior researcher Population Health Research Unit National Institute for Health and Welfare Helsinki, Finland Phone: tomi.makinen[at]thl.fi Nordic Behavioral Medicine Symposium / Tomi Mäkinen


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