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PBIS Implementation: Current Trends & Future Considerations George Sugai OSEP Center on PBIS Center for Behavioral Education & Research University of Connecticut.

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Presentation on theme: "PBIS Implementation: Current Trends & Future Considerations George Sugai OSEP Center on PBIS Center for Behavioral Education & Research University of Connecticut."— Presentation transcript:

1 PBIS Implementation: Current Trends & Future Considerations George Sugai OSEP Center on PBIS Center for Behavioral Education & Research University of Connecticut Nov

2 PURPOSE Describe & link considerations from 15+ years of PBIS implementation to future directions “Overview of national trends in PBIS implementation as basis for action planning & future implementation in MN. Emphasis on PBIS framework, data- based decision making & outcomes, & implementation fidelity. Future considerations also are presented as basis for supporting & maximizing participation in conference sessions”

3

4 9 Considerations

5 1. Invest in prevention for ALL

6 VIOLENCE PREVENTION Surgeon General’s Report on Youth Violence (2001) Coordinated Social Emotional & Learning (Greenberg et al., 2003) Center for Study & Prevention of Violence (2006) White House Conference on School Violence (2006)

7 Biglan, 1995; Mayer, 1995; Walker et al., 1996

8 2. Teach behavior like academic skills, explicitly & deliberately

9 Teaching Academics & Behaviors DEFINE Simply DEFINE Simply MODEL PRACTICE In Setting PRACTICE In Setting ADJUST for Efficiency ADJUST for Efficiency MONITOR & ACKNOWLEDGE Continuously MONITOR & ACKNOWLEDGE Continuously

10 Teaching Matrix SETTING All Settings HallwaysPlaygroundsCafeteria Library/ Compute r Lab AssemblyBus Respect Ourselves Be on task. Give your best effort. Be prepared. Walk.Have a plan. Eat all your food. Select healthy foods. Study, read, compute. Sit in one spot. Watch for your stop. Respect Others Be kind. Hands/feet to self. Help/share with others. Use normal voice volume. Walk to right. Play safe. Include others. Share equipment. Practice good table manners Whisper. Return books. Listen/watch. Use appropriate applause. Use a quiet voice. Stay in your seat. Respect Property Recycle. Clean up after self. Pick up litter. Maintain physical space. Use equipment properly. Put litter in garbage can. Replace trays & utensils. Clean up eating area. Push in chairs. Treat books carefully. Pick up. Treat chairs appropriately. Wipe your feet. Sit appropriately. Expectations 1. SOCIAL SKILL 2. NATURAL CONTEXT 3. BEHAVIOR EXAMPLES

11 NC Positive Behavior Support Initiative Bob Algozzine Schools w/ Low ODRs & High Academic Outcomes Office Discipline Referrals per 100 Students Proportion of Students Meeting State Academic Standard PBIS in North Carolina

12 Algozzine, B., Wang, C., & Violette, A. S. (2011). Reexamining the relationship between academic achievement and social behavior. Journal of Positive Behavioral Interventions, 13, Burke, M. D., Hagan-Burke, S., & Sugai, G. (2003). The efficacy of function-based interventions for students with learning disabilities who exhibit escape-maintained problem behavior: Preliminary results from a single case study. Learning Disabilities Quarterly, 26, McIntosh, K., Chard, D. J., Boland, J. B., & Horner, R. H. (2006). Demonstration of combined efforts in school-wide academic and behavioral systems and incidence of reading and behavior challenges in early elementary grades. Journal of Positive Behavioral Interventions, 8, McIntosh, K., Horner, R. H., Chard, D. J., Dickey, C. R., and Braun, D. H. (2008). Reading skills and function of problem behavior in typical school settings. Journal of Special Education, 42, Nelson, J. R., Johnson, A., & Marchand-Martella, N. (1996). Effects of direct instruction, cooperative learning, and independent learning practices on the classroom behavior of students with behavioral disorders: A comparative analysis. Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders, 4, Wang, C., & Algozzine, B. (2011). Rethinking the relationship between reading and behavior in early elementary school. Journal of Educational Research, 104, Academic-Behavior Connection “Viewed as outcomes, achievement and behavior are related; viewed as causes of each other, achievement and behavior are unrelated. In this context, teaching behavior as relentlessly as we teach reading or other academic content is the ultimate act of prevention, promise, and power underlying PBS and other preventive interventions in America’s schools.” Algozzine, Wang, & Violette (2011), p. 16.

13 3. Emphasize PBIS as framework, not curriculum

14 SWPBS (aka PBIS/RtI) is Framework

15 SYSTEMS PRACTICES DATA Supporting Staff Behavior Supporting Student Behavior OUTCOMES Supporting Social Competence & Academic Achievement Supporting Decision Making Integrated Elements

16 Agreements Team Data-based Action Plan ImplementationEvaluation GENERAL IMPLEMENTATION PROCESS: “Getting Started”

17 SWPBS Implementation Blueprint

18 RtI

19 4. Invest in multi- tiered systems logic

20 Primary Prevention: School-/Classroom- Wide Systems for All Students, Staff, & Settings Secondary Prevention: Specialized Group Systems for Students with At-Risk Behavior Tertiary Prevention: Specialized Individualized Systems for Students with High-Risk Behavior ~80% of Students ~15% ~5% CONTINUUM OF SCHOOL-WIDE INSTRUCTIONAL & POSITIVE BEHAVIOR SUPPORT ALL SOME FEW

21 All Some Few Continuum of Support for ALL Dec 7, 2007

22 Continuum of Support for ALL “Theora” Dec 7, 2007 Science Soc Studies Reading Math Soc skills Basketball Spanish Label behavior…not people

23 Continuum of Support for ALL: “Molcom” Dec 7, 2007 Prob Sol. Coop play Adult rel. Anger man. Attend. Peer interac Ind. play Label behavior…not people Self-assess

24 1-5% 5-10% 80-90% Intensive, Individual Interventions Individual Students Assessment-based High Intensity Intensive, Individual Interventions Individual Students Assessment-based Intense, durable procedures Targeted Group Interventions Some students (at-risk) High efficiency Rapid response Targeted Group Interventions Some students (at-risk) High efficiency Rapid response Universal Interventions All students Preventive, proactive Universal Interventions All settings, all students Preventive, proactive Responsiveness to Intervention Academic SystemsBehavioral Systems Circa 1996

25 RTI Integrated Continuum Mar Academic Continuum Behavior Continuum

26 ~80% of Students ~5% ESTABLISHING CONTINUUM of SWPBS SECONDARY PREVENTION Check in/out Targeted social skills instruction Peer-based supports Social skills club TERTIARY PREVENTION Function-based support Wraparound Person-centered planning PRIMARY PREVENTION Teach SW expectations Proactive SW discipline Positive reinforcement Effective instruction Parent engagement SECONDARY PREVENTION TERTIARY PREVENTION PRIMARY PREVENTION ~15%

27 5. Invest in capacity for implementation fidelity

28 “Making a turn” IMPLEMENTATION EffectiveNot Effective PRACTICE Effective Not Effective Maximum Student Benefits Fixsen & Blase, 2009

29 Detrich, Keyworth, & States (2007). J. Evid.-based Prac. in Sch. Start w/ What Works Focus on Fidelity

30 SYSTEMS PRACTICES DATA Supporting Staff Behavior Supporting Student Behavior OUTCOMES Supporting Social Competence & Academic Achievement Supporting Decision Making Integrated Elements

31 Basic “Logic” SYSTEMS PRACTICES DATA Training + Coaching + Evaluation Maximum Student Outcomes Implementation Fidelity

32 Where are you in implementation process? Adapted from Fixsen & Blase, 2005

33 6. Support & engage leadership

34 School leadership & contributing factors on student learning. Louis, Leithwood, Wahlstrom, & Anderson (2010). School Leadership School Conditions Teachers Classroom Conditions Student/ Family Background

35 To receive positive ratings on previous, managers must do 4 things well: Buckingham & Coffman 2002, Gallup

36 Effective leaders engage in actions or behaviors & establish working conditions that: Sugai, Horner, & Lewis, in press

37 7. Work smarter by doing a few effective things very well

38 Initiative, Project, Committee PurposeOutcomeTarget Group Staff Involved SIP/SID/e tc Attendance Committee Character Education Safety Committee School Spirit Committee Discipline Committee DARE Committee EBS Work Group Working Smarter

39 Initiative, Committee PurposeOutcomeTarget Group Staff Involved SIP/SID Attendance Committee Increase attendance Increase % of students attending daily All studentsEric, Ellen, Marlee Goal #2 Character Education Improve character All studentsMarlee, J.S., Ellen Goal #3 Safety Committee Improve safetyPredictable response to threat/crisis Dangerous students Has not metGoal #3 School Spirit Committee Enhance school spirit Improve moraleAll studentsHas not met Discipline Committee Improve behaviorDecrease office referrals Bullies, antisocial students, repeat offenders Ellen, Eric, Marlee, Otis Goal #3 DARE Committee Prevent drug useHigh/at-risk drug users Don EBS Work GroupImplement 3-tier model Decrease office referrals, increase attendance, enhance academic engagement, improve grades All studentsEric, Ellen, Marlee, Otis, Emma Goal #2 Goal #3 Sample Teaming Matrix Are outcomes measurable?

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42 Classroom SWPBS Practices Non-classroom Family Student & Family School-wide Smallest # Evidence-based Biggest, durable effect

43 SCHOOL-WIDE 1.1. Leadership team 2.Behavior purpose statement 3.Set of positive expectations & behaviors 4.Procedures for teaching SW & classroom-wide expected behavior 5.Continuum of procedures for encouraging expected behavior 6.Continuum of procedures for discouraging rule violations 7.Procedures for on-going data-based monitoring & evaluation EVIDENCE- BASED INTERVENTION PRACTICES CLASSROOM 1.All school-wide 2.Maximum structure & predictability in routines & environment 3.Positively stated expectations posted, taught, reviewed, prompted, & supervised. 4.Maximum engagement through high rates of opportunities to respond, delivery of evidence- based instructional curriculum & practices 5.Continuum of strategies to acknowledge displays of appropriate behavior. 6.Continuum of strategies for responding to inappropriate behavior. INDIVIDUAL STUDENT 1.Behavioral competence at school & district levels 2.Function-based behavior support planning 3.Team- & data-based decision making 4.Comprehensive person-centered planning & wraparound processes 5.Targeted social skills & self-management instruction 6. Individualized instructional & curricular accommodations NONCLASSROOM 1.Positive expectations & routines taught & encouraged 2.Active supervision by all staff (Scan, move, interact) 3.Precorrections & reminders 4.Positive reinforcement FAMILY ENGAGEMENT 1.Continuum of positive behavior support for all families 2.Frequent, regular positive contacts, communications, & acknowledgements 3.Formal & active participation & involvement as equal partner 4.Access to system of integrated school & community resources

44 1.Leadership team 2.Behavior purpose statement 3.Set of positive expectations & behaviors 4.Procedures for teaching SW & classroom-wide expected behavior 5.Continuum of procedures for encouraging expected behavior 6.Continuum of procedures for discouraging rule violations 7.Procedures for on-going data-based monitoring & evaluation School-wide

45 Bradshaw, C.P., Koth, C. W., Thornton, L. A., & Leaf, P. J. (2009). Altering school climate through school-wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports: Findings from a group- randomized effectiveness trial. Prevention Science, 10(2), Bradshaw, C. P., Koth, C. W., Bevans, K. B., Ialongo, N., & Leaf, P. J. (2008). The impact of school-wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (PBIS) on the organizational health of elementary schools. School Psychology Quarterly, 23(4), Bradshaw, C. P., Mitchell, M. M., & Leaf, P. J. (2010). Examining the effects of School-Wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports on student outcomes: Results from a randomized controlled effectiveness trial in elementary schools. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 12, Bradshaw, C. P., Reinke, W. M., Brown, L. D., Bevans, K. B., & Leaf, P. J. (2008). Implementation of school-wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (PBIS) in elementary schools: Observations from a randomized trial. Education & Treatment of Children, 31, Horner, R., Sugai, G., Smolkowski, K., Eber, L., Nakasato, J., Todd, A., & Esperanza, J., (2009). A randomized, wait-list controlled effectiveness trial assessing school-wide positive behavior support in elementary schools. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 11, Horner, R. H., Sugai, G., & Anderson, C. M. (2010). Examining the evidence base for school-wide positive behavior support. Focus on Exceptionality, 42(8), Waasdorp, T. E., Bradshaw, C. P., & Leaf, P. J. (in press). The impact of school-wide positive behavioral interventions and supports (SWPBIS) on bullying and peer rejection: A randomized controlled effectiveness trial. RCT & Group Design PBIS Studies Reduced major disciplinary infractions Improvements in academic achievement Enhanced perception of organizational health & safety Improved school climate Reductions in teacher reported bullying behavior & peer rejection

46 8. Guide decisions with data

47 Data Decision Making

48 Data Assessment & Evaluation Tools ✔ ✔

49 Gawande, A. (2009). The checklist manifesto. NY: MacMillan

50 Name______________________________Date_____________ Setting □ Hallway □ Entrance □ Cafeteria □ Playground □ Other_______________ Time Start_________ Time End _________ Tally each Positive Student ContactsTotal # Ratio of Positives to Negatives: _____: 1 Tally each Negative Student ContactsTotal # Non-Classroom Management: Self-Assessment

51 1.Did I have at least 4 positive for 1 negative student contacts? Yes No 2. Did I move throughout the area I was supervising? Yes No 3. Did I frequently scan the area I was supervising? Yes No 4. Did I positively interact with most of the students in the area? Yes No 5. Did I handle most minor rule violations quickly and quietly? Yes No 6. Did I follow school procedures for handling major rule violations? Yes No 7. Do I know our school-wide expectations (positively stated rules)? Yes No 8. Did I positively acknowledge at least 5 different students for displaying our school-wide expectations? Yes No Overall active supervision score: 7-8 “yes” = “Super Supervision” 5-6 “yes” = “So-So Supervision” <5 “yes” = “Improvement Needed” # Yes______

52 Teacher__________________________ Rater_______________________ Date___________ Instructional Activity Time Start_______ Time End________ Tally each Positive Student Contacts Total #Tally each Negative Student Contacts Total # Ratio of Positives to Negatives: _____ to 1 Classroom Management: Self-Assessment

53 Classroom Management Practice Rating 1. I have arranged my classroom to minimize crowding and distraction Yes No 2. I have maximized structure and predictability in my classroom (e.g., explicit classroom routines, specific directions, etc.). Yes No 3. I have posted, taught, reviewed, and reinforced 3-5 positively stated expectations (or rules). Yes No 4. I provided more frequent acknowledgement for appropriate behaviors than inappropriate behaviors (See top of page). Yes No 5. I provided each student with multiple opportunities to respond and participate during instruction. Yes No 6. My instruction actively engaged students in observable ways (e.g., writing, verbalizing) Yes No 7. I actively supervised my classroom (e.g., moving, scanning) during instruction. Yes No 8. I ignored or provided quick, direct, explicit reprimands/redirections in response to inappropriate behavior. Yes No 9. I have multiple strategies/systems in place to acknowledge appropriate behavior (e.g., class point systems, praise, etc.). Yes No 10. In general, I have provided specific feedback in response to social and academic behavior errors and correct responses. Yes No Overall classroom management score: 10-8 “yes” = “Super” 7-5 “yes” = “So-So” < 5 “yes” = “Improvement Needed” # Yes___

54 9. Consider context & culture

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56 SWPBS & Cultural Responsive Practices Vincent, Randall, Cartledge, Tobin, & Swain-Bradway 2011

57 SYSTEMS PRACTICES DATA Supporting Staff Behavior Supporting Student Behavior OUTCOMES Supporting Social Competence & Academic Achievement Supporting Decision Making Vincent, Randall, Cartledge, Tobin, & Swain- Bradway 2011 CULTURAL RELEVANCE CULTURAL VALIDITY CULTURAL KNOWLEDGE CULTURAL EQUITY

58 Highline School District, Washington May 2011

59 Arabic Expectations at Awsaj Academy Elementary S. Thomas, Nov. 2011

60 Shishmaref School AK, Lyon Johnson, Aug 9, 2011

61 Norway, 2009

62 Upcoming Events


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