Presentation on theme: "PBIS Implementation: Current Trends & Future Considerations"— Presentation transcript:
1PBIS Implementation: Current Trends & Future Considerations George SugaiOSEP Center on PBISCenter for Behavioral Education & ResearchUniversity of ConnecticutNov
2PURPOSEDescribe & link considerations from 15+ years of PBIS implementation to future directions“Overview of national trends in PBIS implementation as basis for action planning & future implementation in MN. Emphasis on PBIS framework, data-based decision making & outcomes, & implementation fidelity. Future considerations also are presented as basis for supporting & maximizing participation in conference sessions”
6VIOLENCE PREVENTION Positive predictable school-wide climate High rates academic & social successFormal social skills instructionPositive active supervision & reinforcementPositive adult role modelsMulti-component, multi-year school-family-community effortSurgeon General’s Report on Youth Violence (2001)Coordinated Social Emotional & Learning (Greenberg et al., 2003)Center for Study & Prevention of Violence (2006)White House Conference on School Violence (2006)VIOLENCE PREVENTION
7Prevention Logic for All Redesign of teaching environments…not studentsDecrease development of new problem behaviorsPrevent worsening & reduce intensity of existing problem behaviorsEliminate triggers & maintainers of problem behaviorsAdd triggers & maintainers of prosocial behaviorTeach, monitor, & acknowledge prosocial behaviorBiglan, 1995; Mayer, 1995; Walker et al., 1996
82. Teach behavior like academic skills, explicitly & deliberately
102. NATURAL CONTEXT 1. SOCIAL SKILL 3. BEHAVIOR EXAMPLES Expectations Teaching MatrixSETTINGAll SettingsHallwaysPlaygroundsCafeteriaLibrary/Computer LabAssemblyBusRespect OurselvesBe on task.Give your best effort.Be prepared.Walk.Have a plan.Eat all your food.Select healthy foods.Study, read, compute.Sit in one spot.Watch for your stop.Respect OthersBe kind.Hands/feet to self.Help/share with others.Use normal voice volume.Walk to right.Play safe.Include others.Share equipment.Practice good table mannersWhisper.Return books.Listen/watch.Use appropriate applause.Use a quiet voice.Stay in your seat.Respect PropertyRecycle.Clean up after self.Pick up litter.Maintain physical space.Use equipment properly.Put litter in garbage can.Replace trays & utensils.Clean up eating area.Push in chairs.Treat books carefully.Pick up.Treat chairs appropriately.Wipe your feet.Sit appropriately.2. NATURAL CONTEXT1. SOCIAL SKILLExpectations3. BEHAVIOR EXAMPLES
11NC Positive Behavior Support Initiative Bob AlgozzineNC Positive Behavior Support InitiativeSchools w/ Low ODRs & High Academic OutcomesProportion of Students Meeting State Academic StandardOffice Discipline Referrals per 100 StudentsPBIS in North Carolina
12Academic-Behavior Connection Algozzine, B., Wang, C., & Violette, A. S. (2011). Reexamining the relationship between academic achievement and social behavior. Journal of Positive Behavioral Interventions, 13, Burke, M. D., Hagan-Burke, S., & Sugai, G. (2003). The efficacy of function-based interventions for students with learning disabilities who exhibit escape-maintained problem behavior: Preliminary results from a single case study. Learning Disabilities Quarterly, 26, McIntosh, K., Chard, D. J., Boland, J. B., & Horner, R. H. (2006). Demonstration of combined efforts in school-wide academic and behavioral systems and incidence of reading and behavior challenges in early elementary grades. Journal of Positive Behavioral Interventions, 8, McIntosh, K., Horner, R. H., Chard, D. J., Dickey, C. R., and Braun, D. H. (2008). Reading skills and function of problem behavior in typical school settings. Journal of Special Education, 42, Nelson, J. R., Johnson, A., & Marchand-Martella, N. (1996). Effects of direct instruction, cooperative learning, and independent learning practices on the classroom behavior of students with behavioral disorders: A comparative analysis. Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders, 4, Wang, C., & Algozzine, B. (2011). Rethinking the relationship between reading and behavior in early elementary school. Journal of Educational Research, 104,“Viewed as outcomes, achievement and behavior are related; viewed as causes of each other, achievement and behavior are unrelated. In this context, teaching behavior as relentlessly as we teach reading or other academic content is the ultimate act of prevention, promise, and power underlying PBS and other preventive interventions in America’s schools.”Algozzine, Wang, & Violette (2011), p. 16.
2023 ALL SOME FEW Tertiary Prevention: Specialized CONTINUUM OF IndividualizedSystems for Students with High-Risk BehaviorCONTINUUM OFSCHOOL-WIDEINSTRUCTIONAL &POSITIVE BEHAVIORSUPPORTFEW~5%Secondary Prevention:Specialized GroupSystems for Students with At-Risk Behavior~15%SOMEPrimary Prevention:School-/Classroom-Wide Systems forAll Students,Staff, & Settings23ALL~80% of Students
21Continuum of Support for ALL 23Continuum of Support for ALLUniversalTargetedIntensiveFewSomeNOTICE GREEN GOES IS FOR “ALL”AllDec 7, 2007
22Continuum of Support for ALL “Theora” UniversalTargetedIntensiveMathScienceSpanishReadingNOTICE GREEN GOES IS FOR “ALL”Soc skillsSoc StudiesBasketballLabel behavior…not peopleDec 7, 2007
23Continuum of Support for ALL: “Molcom”UniversalTargetedIntensiveAnger man.Prob Sol.Ind. playAdult rel.Self-assessNOTICE GREEN GOES IS FOR “ALL”Baker, 2005 JPBIAttend.Coop playPeer interacLabel behavior…not peopleDec 7, 2007
24Responsiveness to Intervention Academic SystemsBehavioral SystemsIntensive, Individual InterventionsIndividual StudentsAssessment-basedHigh IntensityIntensive, Individual InterventionsIndividual StudentsAssessment-basedIntense, durable procedures1-5%1-5%Targeted Group InterventionsSome students (at-risk)High efficiencyRapid response5-10%5-10%Targeted Group InterventionsSome students (at-risk)High efficiencyRapid responseUniversal InterventionsAll studentsPreventive, proactive80-90%Universal InterventionsAll settings, all studentsPreventive, proactive80-90%Circa 1996
2523 RTI Behavior Continuum Academic Continuum Integrated Continuum NOTICE GREEN GOES IS FOR “ALL”Mar
26ESTABLISHING CONTINUUM of SWPBS TERTIARY PREVENTIONTERTIARY PREVENTIONFunction-based supportWraparoundPerson-centered planning~5%~15%SECONDARY PREVENTIONCheck in/outTargeted social skills instructionPeer-based supportsSocial skills clubSECONDARY PREVENTIONPRIMARY PREVENTIONTeach SW expectationsProactive SW disciplinePositive reinforcementEffective instructionParent engagementPRIMARY PREVENTION~80% of Students
275. Invest in capacity for implementation fidelity
29Detrich, Keyworth, & States (2007). J. Evid.-based Prac. in Sch. Startw/What WorksFocus on FidelityResearch to Practice is dependent on good research.Detrich, Keyworth, & States (2007). J. Evid.-based Prac. in Sch.
30Supporting Social Competence & IntegratedElementsSupporting Social Competence &Academic AchievementOUTCOMES15SupportingDecisionMakingSupportingStaff BehaviorDATASYSTEMSPRACTICESSupportingStudent Behavior
31Implementation Fidelity Maximum Student Outcomes Basic “Logic”SYSTEMSDATAPRACTICESImplementation FidelityMaximum Student OutcomesTraining+CoachingEvaluation
32Where are you in implementation process Where are you in implementation process? Adapted from Fixsen & Blase, 2005We think we know what we need, so we ordered 3 month free trial (evidence-based)EXPLORATION & ADOPTIONLet’s make sure we’re ready to implement (capacity infrastructure)INSTALLATIONLet’s give it a try & evaluate (demonstration)INITIAL IMPLEMENTATIONThat worked, let’s do it for real (investment)FULL IMPLEMENTATIONLet’s make it our way of doing business (institutionalized use)SUSTAINABILITY & CONTINUOUS REGENERATION
34School leadership & contributing factors on student learning. Student/ Family BackgroundSchool ConditionsSchool LeadershipTeachersClassroom ConditionsLouis, Leithwood, Wahlstrom, & Anderson (2010).
35Buckingham & Coffman 2002, Gallup To receive positive ratings on previous, managers must do 4 things well:When selecting someone, they select for talent…not simply experience, intelligence, or determination.When setting expectations, they define right outcomes…not the right steps.When motivating someone, they focus on strengths…not on weaknesses.When developing someone, they help him find right fit…not simply the next rung on ladder. (p. 67)Buckingham & Coffman 2002, Gallup
36Sugai, Horner, & Lewis, in press Effective leaders engage in actions or behaviors & establish working conditions that:Emphasize setting clear goalsDevelop strength qualities of teachersOrganize operation of school for successConsider implementation phases, drivers, & processes associated w/ utilization of effective teaching practicePromote strengths, talents, & capacities of their workers to achieve specific expectations & outcomesMonitor & measure effects of their actions, decisions, & policies w/relevant dataSugai, Horner, & Lewis, in press
377. Work smarter by doing a few effective things very well
38Initiative, Project, Committee Working SmarterInitiative, Project, CommitteePurposeOutcomeTarget GroupStaff InvolvedSIP/SID/etcAttendance CommitteeCharacter EducationSafety CommitteeSchool Spirit CommitteeDiscipline CommitteeDARE CommitteeEBS Work Group
39Are outcomes measurable? Sample Teaming MatrixInitiative, CommitteePurposeOutcomeTarget GroupStaff InvolvedSIP/SIDAttendance CommitteeIncrease attendanceIncrease % of students attending dailyAll studentsEric, Ellen, MarleeGoal #2Character EducationImprove characterMarlee, J.S., EllenGoal #3Safety CommitteeImprove safetyPredictable response to threat/crisisDangerous studentsHas not metSchool Spirit CommitteeEnhance school spiritImprove moraleDiscipline CommitteeImprove behaviorDecrease office referralsBullies, antisocial students, repeat offendersEllen, Eric, Marlee, OtisDARE CommitteePrevent drug useHigh/at-risk drug usersDonEBS Work GroupImplement 3-tier modelDecrease office referrals, increase attendance, enhance academic engagement, improve gradesEric, Ellen, Marlee, Otis, EmmaAre outcomes measurable?
43EVIDENCE- BASED INTERVENTION PRACTICES SCHOOL-WIDE1. Leadership teamBehavior purpose statementSet of positive expectations & behaviorsProcedures for teaching SW & classroom-wide expected behaviorContinuum of procedures for encouraging expected behaviorContinuum of procedures for discouraging rule violationsProcedures for on-going data-based monitoring & evaluationEVIDENCE- BASED INTERVENTION PRACTICESCLASSROOMAll school-wideMaximum structure & predictability in routines & environmentPositively stated expectations posted, taught, reviewed, prompted, & supervised.Maximum engagement through high rates of opportunities to respond, delivery of evidence- based instructional curriculum & practicesContinuum of strategies to acknowledge displays of appropriate behavior.Continuum of strategies for responding to inappropriate behavior.INDIVIDUAL STUDENTBehavioral competence at school & district levelsFunction-based behavior support planningTeam- & data-based decision makingComprehensive person-centered planning & wraparound processesTargeted social skills & self-management instructionIndividualized instructional & curricular accommodationsNONCLASSROOMPositive expectations & routines taught & encouragedActive supervision by all staff (Scan, move, interact)Precorrections & remindersPositive reinforcementFAMILY ENGAGEMENTContinuum of positive behavior support for all familiesFrequent, regular positive contacts, communications, & acknowledgementsFormal & active participation & involvement as equal partnerAccess to system of integrated school & community resources
4418 School-wide Leadership team Behavior purpose statement Set of positive expectations & behaviorsProcedures for teaching SW & classroom-wide expected behaviorContinuum of procedures for encouraging expected behaviorContinuum of procedures for discouraging rule violationsProcedures for on-going data-based monitoring & evaluation
45RCT & Group Design PBIS Studies Bradshaw, C.P., Koth, C. W., Thornton, L. A., & Leaf, P. J. (2009). Altering school climate through school-wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports: Findings from a group-randomized effectiveness trial. Prevention Science, 10(2), Bradshaw, C. P., Koth, C. W., Bevans, K. B., Ialongo, N., & Leaf, P. J. (2008). The impact of school-wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (PBIS) on the organizational health of elementary schools. School Psychology Quarterly, 23(4), Bradshaw, C. P., Mitchell, M. M., & Leaf, P. J. (2010). Examining the effects of School-Wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports on student outcomes: Results from a randomized controlled effectiveness trial in elementary schools. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 12, Bradshaw, C. P., Reinke, W. M., Brown, L. D., Bevans, K. B., & Leaf, P. J. (2008). Implementation of school-wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (PBIS) in elementary schools: Observations from a randomized trial. Education & Treatment of Children, 31, Horner, R., Sugai, G., Smolkowski, K., Eber, L., Nakasato, J., Todd, A., & Esperanza, J., (2009). A randomized, wait-list controlled effectiveness trial assessing school-wide positive behavior support in elementary schools. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 11, Horner, R. H., Sugai, G., & Anderson, C. M. (2010). Examining the evidence base for school-wide positive behavior support. Focus on Exceptionality, 42(8), Waasdorp, T. E., Bradshaw, C. P., & Leaf, P. J. (in press). The impact of school-wide positive behavioral interventions and supports (SWPBIS) on bullying and peer rejection: A randomized controlled effectiveness trial.Reduced major disciplinary infractionsImprovements in academic achievementEnhanced perception of organizational health & safetyImproved school climateReductions in teacher reported bullying behavior & peer rejection
47Data Decision Making Educationally relevant outcomes Implementation fidelityClearly defined & relevant indicatorsSystem for easy input & outputData rules for decision makingTeam-based mechanism for action planningData Decision Making
48✔ ✔ Data Assessment & Evaluation Tools External Tier I implementation School-wide Evaluation ToolSelf-assessmentTeam Implementation ChecklistTeam/coach self-assessmentBenchmarks of QualityCoach/team assessmentTiers II/IIIBenchmarks of Advanced TiersTier II/III implementationExternal assessmentIndividual Student Support Evaluation Tool✔✔
49Gawande, A. (2009). The checklist manifesto. NY: MacMillan
50Non-Classroom Management: Self-Assessment Name______________________________Date_____________Setting □ Hallway □ Entrance □ Cafeteria□ Playground □ Other_______________Time Start_________Time End _________Tally each Positive Student ContactsTotal #Ratio of Positives to Negatives: _____: 1Tally each Negative Student Contacts
51Did I have at least 4 positive for 1 negative student contacts? Yes No2. Did I move throughout the area I was supervising?3. Did I frequently scan the area I was supervising?4. Did I positively interact with most of the students in the area?5. Did I handle most minor rule violations quickly and quietly?6. Did I follow school procedures for handling major rule violations?7. Do I know our school-wide expectations (positively stated rules)?8. Did I positively acknowledge at least 5 different students for displaying our school-wide expectations?Overall active supervision score:7-8 “yes” = “Super Supervision”5-6 “yes” = “So-So Supervision”<5 “yes” = “Improvement Needed”# Yes______
52Classroom Management: Self-Assessment Teacher__________________________ Rater_______________________Date___________Instructional ActivityTime Start_______Time End________Tally each Positive Student ContactsTotal #Tally each Negative Student ContactsRatio of Positives to Negatives: _____ to 1
53Classroom Management Practice Rating1. I have arranged my classroom to minimize crowding and distractionYes No2. I have maximized structure and predictability in my classroom (e.g., explicit classroom routines, specific directions, etc.).3. I have posted, taught, reviewed, and reinforced 3-5 positively stated expectations (or rules).4. I provided more frequent acknowledgement for appropriate behaviors than inappropriate behaviors (See top of page).5. I provided each student with multiple opportunities to respond and participate during instruction.Yes No6. My instruction actively engaged students in observable ways (e.g., writing, verbalizing)7. I actively supervised my classroom (e.g., moving, scanning) during instruction.8. I ignored or provided quick, direct, explicit reprimands/redirections in response to inappropriate behavior.9. I have multiple strategies/systems in place to acknowledge appropriate behavior (e.g., class point systems, praise, etc.).10. In general, I have provided specific feedback in response to social and academic behavior errors and correct responses.Overall classroom management score:10-8 “yes” = “Super” “yes” = “So-So” <5 “yes” = “Improvement Needed”# Yes___
55Culture is the extent to which a group of individuals engage in overt & verbal behavior reflecting shared behavioral learning histories, serving to differentiate the group from other groups, & predicting how individuals within the group act in specific setting conditions.That is, culture reflects a collection of common verbal & overt behaviors that are learned & maintained by a set of similar social & environmental contingencies (i.e., learning history).Emphasis is on applied settings with recognition that group membership is (a) flexible & dynamic, & (b) changed & shaped over time, across generations, & from one setting to another.
62NW PBIS Implementation Forum Upcoming EventsAssociation for PBSAtlanta, GA15-26 Mar 2012NW PBIS Implementation ForumPortland, OR1-2 Mar 2012NE PBIS LeadershipCromwell, CT17-18 May 2012PBIS LeadershipChicago, IL18-19 Oct 2012