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AVIAN ASCARIDIASIS Cause  Ascaridia galli = A. lineata = A. perspicillum Others species: A. columbae attack dove A. dissimilis attack turkey A. compar.

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Presentation on theme: "AVIAN ASCARIDIASIS Cause  Ascaridia galli = A. lineata = A. perspicillum Others species: A. columbae attack dove A. dissimilis attack turkey A. compar."— Presentation transcript:

1 AVIAN ASCARIDIASIS Cause  Ascaridia galli = A. lineata = A. perspicillum Others species: A. columbae attack dove A. dissimilis attack turkey A. compar attack others avian A. numidae attack wild avian A. razia attack domesticated dove

2 Habitat : Small intestine Route of transmission  infective eggs (consists of L2) ingest by host Pathogenesis - Larvae penetrated into intestine mucosae  enteritis haemorrhagia and destroy of intestine wall. and destroy of intestine wall. - Young avian more sensitive than the older one. - at young avian  anaemia, diarrhea, anorexia and thirsty. and thirsty. - the most of total amount of worms  cause of obstruction  intestine perforation  die.  intestine perforation  die. Body defense  depend on ages, type of sex, genetics, & gizi of the animals Body defense  depend on ages, type of sex, genetics, & gizi of the animals

3 Clinical symptom ▹ Enteritis haemorhagia, anaemia, appetite  ▹ Enteritis haemorhagia, anaemia, appetite  ▹ fall of feather, lusterless,drooping the wing, ▹ fall of feather, lusterless,drooping the wing, ▹ Weakness and emaciation, ▹ Weakness and emaciation, ▹ Egg drop production  stopped, ▹ Egg drop production  stopped, ▹ Broiler  growth hampered  thin. ▹ Broiler  growth hampered  thin.Diagnose - Fecal examination to examined the eggs worm (not use for chicken ages under 0-8 wks). - Postmortem  to discover the worm.

4 Prevention: ↬ to take care, and separate the young chicken and ↬ to take care, and separate the young chicken and the oldest one. the oldest one. ↬ to take care the hygiene of the l itter and the chicken ↬ to take care the hygiene of the l itter and the chicken coop material. coop material. ↬ don’t use a floor of litter from a land matter ↬ don’t use a floor of litter from a land matter ↬ a p eriodically treatment, 1 x/month ↬ a p eriodically treatment, 1 x/month ↬ giving a good feed (consists of vit A, B12, ↬ giving a good feed (consists of vit A, B12, enough of minerals and proteins) enough of minerals and proteins)Treatment ☂ Piperazin adipat 300 ‑ 400 mg/kgs ☂ Piperazin adipat 300 ‑ 400 mg/kgs ☂ Piperazin sitrat 400 mg/l water for 24 hrs. ☂ Piperazin sitrat 400 mg/l water for 24 hrs. ☂ Phenotiazin 2200 mg/kgs ☂ Phenotiazin 2200 mg/kgs ☂ Hygromycin-B 8 grams/ton, effective for 8 wks. ☂ Hygromycin-B 8 grams/ton, effective for 8 wks.

5 HETERAKIASIS Cause : H. gallinarum

6 Other species : 1. Heterakis gallinarum (syn. = H. papillosa, H. vesicularis, H. gallinae) at chicken, turkey, H. vesicularis, H. gallinae) at chicken, turkey, duck, geese, and bird duck, geese, and bird 2. H. brevispiculum at free range chicken/pure- bred chicken, guinea fowl bred chicken, guinea fowl 3. H. isolonche at chicken, quail 4. H. dispar at duck, geese 5. H. beramporia, H. indica at chicken 6. H. spumosa at rat

7 Pathogenesis and clinical symptom ↬ at heavy infection ⇨ thickness of caecum mucosae and haemorrhagies. haemorrhagies. ↬ Infection by H. isolonche, ⇨ bad result instead of infection by H. gallinarum, laesi at caecum more infection by H. gallinarum, laesi at caecum more prominent with nodule formed,its cause of diarrhea, prominent with nodule formed,its cause of diarrhea, cachexia and died. cachexia and died. ↬ Several stages of H. isolonche could found at lasi of ↬ Several stages of H. isolonche could found at lasi of the caecum. the caecum. ↬ Economically important of H. gallinarum infections: ↬ Economically important of H. gallinarum infections: the role as a carrier for the transmission of Histomonas the role as a carrier for the transmission of Histomonas meleagridis it could be cause of blackhead/enterohepa meleagridis it could be cause of blackhead/enterohepa titis titis ↬ this protozoa still survive inside the egg of H. gallinarum ↬ this protozoa still survive inside the egg of H. gallinarum for a long period for a long period

8 Diagnose - Fecal examination to looking for eggs Heterakis sp. A. galli Heterakis sp. A. galli - Pay attention:H. gallinarum eggs very similar with A. galli eggs (Heterakis sp. eggs smaller and more less A. galli eggs (Heterakis sp. eggs smaller and more less more lightly, and with paralel side ). more lightly, and with paralel side ).

9 Elimination - extremelly to check for the pens sanitation, and surrounding the yard. yard. - don’t use a floor litter from a land matter to avoid from the earth worm ( transport host ). worm ( transport host ). Treatment can use by : ∝ Phenothiazin, 1 gram/tail or 1 part phenothiazine in 60 parts of feed, use for 6 days after one night fasting. of feed, use for 6 days after one night fasting. ∝ Piperazin isnt to efective for Heterakis sp., but if piperazine mixed with phenothiazine (1 : 7) efective for elimination mixed with phenothiazine (1 : 7) efective for elimination Heterakis sp and A. galli up to 90 % or more. Heterakis sp and A. galli up to 90 % or more. ∝ Mebenazole, 2 grams in 28 kg feed. ∝ Mebenazole, 2 grams in 28 kg feed. ∝ Tetramisole, conc. 10 % in the water ∝ Tetramisole, conc. 10 % in the water

10 ANCYLOSTOMIASIS Cause : genus Ancylostoma Species and sensitive animals  A. caninum  dog, jackal, wolf, cat, & ±  A. caninum  dog, jackal, wolf, cat, & ± human. human.  A. tubaeformae  cat  A. tubaeformae  cat  A. braziliense  dog, cat, & man.  A. braziliense  dog, cat, & man.  A. duodenale  man, pig and  A. duodenale  man, pig and carnivora. carnivora. Predilection  small intestine

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12  Ancylostoma spp.  blood sucking of the host  anemia (essential CS)  started by day ‑ 4 & optimal by day ‑ 10 till 15 p i.  Symptom appear more clear  at puppies which infected through post partum milk.  Early diarrhea  appear by day ‑ 4 p i, at day ‑ 8 p i  diarrhea mixed with blood and mucous.  Transmission per cutane  laesi at skin especially at foot as eczema till ulceration.

13 Transmission methods:  Per oral  ingest by L3  Per oral  ingest by L3  Per cutane  larva-3 penetrated into the hospes skin  Per cutane  larva-3 penetrated into the hospes skin  Prenatal  Prenatal  Colostral/lactogenic infection  Colostral/lactogenic infection Pathogenesis and clinical symptom  The light and heavy infection depend on: - ferocity species - amount of larvae which infected the host. - host resistent  depend on ages,nutrition & Fe in the body body

14  Heavy infection  occasionally cause of pulmo disturbance,  Heavy transmission from prenatal and colostral  serious anaemia  died by 3 wks post partum The serious clinical symptom: anaemia, hidraemia, occasionally oedema, weakness, thiness, if continuing become eosinophylia The serious clinical symptom: anaemia, hidraemia, occasionally oedema, weakness, thiness, if continuing become eosinophylia Chronics infection: decrease of appetite for food,inhibiting of growth, skin condition were bad and at heavy infection by A. tubaeformae accompany with periodical diarrhea. Chronics infection: decrease of appetite for food,inhibiting of growth, skin condition were bad and at heavy infection by A. tubaeformae accompany with periodical diarrhea. Changes of PA  Anaemia, cachexia, seldom accompany with oedema and ascites. Light brown of Liver and fatty, haemorrhagia of intestine & absces of mucosa with mucous liquid, appear red spot former bitten by a worm, be found much of worm. Changes of PA  Anaemia, cachexia, seldom accompany with oedema and ascites. Light brown of Liver and fatty, haemorrhagia of intestine & absces of mucosa with mucous liquid, appear red spot former bitten by a worm, be found much of worm.

15 Diagnose: To see the clinical symptom and strengthen with fecal examination to find out the eggs. Prevention: - Stable floor should dry and clean up 2 x/wks. - To kill the larvae on the floor we can use sodium borate (2 kg/m 2 ) - Infected animals, we should use anthelmintic.

16 Treatment: ~ Bephenium compound ~ Bephenium compound  bephenium chloride  bephenium bromide single dose 20 mg/Kg BW  bephenium iodide  hydroxy naphtoate ~ Thenium (thenium chlorobenzene sulphonate)  Dose: 200 ‑ 250 mg/kg BW 2x/day. Dose: 200 ‑ 250 mg/kg BW 2x/day. ~ Mebendazol  Dose: 40 mg/kg BW or 10 mg/kg BW ~ Mebendazol  Dose: 40 mg/kg BW or 10 mg/kg BW x / per oral x / per oral. ~ Thiabendazol  Dose: 20 mg/kg BW per oral (PO) ~ Thiabendazol  Dose: 20 mg/kg BW per oral (PO) ~ Fenbendazole  Dose: 20 mg/kg BW single dose ~ Fenbendazole  Dose: 20 mg/kg BW single dose ~ Tetramizole dose  7,5 and 10 mg/kg BW SC or 20 ~ Tetramizole dose  7,5 and 10 mg/kg BW SC or 20 mg/kg BW PO mg/kg BW PO ~ Pyrantel pamoate  Dose: 10 mg/kg BW PO as well repeated days after ~ Pyrantel pamoate  Dose: 10 mg/kg BW PO as well repeated days after

17 VPH aspect  zoonosis Children habits play with soil

18 A 30-year-old Townsville woman complained of anorexia, abdominal pains, diarrhea, and a 6-kg weight loss during a period of 4 weeks. A clinical examination was normal, but the blood eosinophil count was 2.96 x 109/L. The results of a fecal culture and microscopic examination were normal. The colonoscope was passed approximately 20 cm into the ileum. The only abnormal finding was a hookworm feeding in the cecum; it was removed with biopsy forceps and identified as a 10- mm long, adult male A. caninum, with spicules 785 and 800 microns long

19 CLM = Cutaneous Larva Migrans

20 Figure 1. Is a low power view which shows the pattern of the skin reaction. There is some oedema (fluid accumulation) at the dermo-epidermal junction and a scab on the skin surface. Presumably the scab is a result of scratching. There is an inflammatory cell infiltrate throughout the whole thickness of the dermis. hows the infiltrate around sweat ducts. It consists mainly of eosinophils. Figure 2. Shows the infiltrate around sweat ducts. It consists mainly of eosinophils. Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 1 Figure 2

21 STEPHANOFILARIASIS Cause  Stephanofilaria dedoesi Predilection, Host and Distribusion Neck skin, shoulder,back,wattles, surrounding the eyes cattle  Sulawesi, Sumatra, Java Method of transmission: via vector Musca autumnalis, Siphona exigua, & Stomoxys calcitrans, Hematobia irritans, Lyperosia titilans, & Sarcophaga spp.

22 Pathogenesis : - Adult worms cause of dermatitis encrust  Cascado Cascado - Papula  become ulcus more large and encrust closed  ulcus become wider  diameter up to 25 cm. - Ulceration, hyperkerathosis & alopecia  disturbance of hair folicle - Itches  rub on the ulcus at the wall, wood  ulcus become in serious condition - Predilection worm at the skin of epithel  inflamed  disturbance of cell epithel, hair folicles and skin lgl. - Ulcus at the skin consist of microfilaria and adult worm  cause of secunder infection.

23 Clinical symptom:  Ulcus at skin closed with encrust and show thick  early stage  small papula  united as a large ulcus  if continous as a ulcus with Ø 25 cm.  Ulcus cause of S. dedoesi be found at neck, watless, shoulder, surrounding eyes, back & ear. shoulder, surrounding eyes, back & ear. Histopathologis pattern : - Depend on ages, process & situation of secunder infection infection - be found acanthosis and hiperkeratosis with variation and infiltration of mononuclear inflamed cell & and infiltration of mononuclear inflamed cell & eosinophyl which disperse at skin (dermis) eosinophyl which disperse at skin (dermis)

24 - a part of hair folicles already change become granular tissue  adults worm can find at the dermis  usually in the cyst at the basic of the hair folicles usually in the cyst at the basic of the hair folicles - at the surrounding part of the folicles which consist parasite  infiltration eosinophyl, macrophag, fibroblast, connective tissue and larva eosinophyl, macrophag, fibroblast, connective tissue and larvaDiagnose:  deep scrapping for the laesi after opening the encrust  be found microfilaria (0,1 mm)  be found microfilaria (0,1 mm)  Isolation the adult worm with using NaCl 0.90% at the slaughter animals  take into NaCl 0.90%  slaughter animals  take into NaCl 0.90%  incubation 37˚C (30-60’)  examine with dissecting incubation 37˚C (30-60’)  examine with dissecting microscope microscope

25 Elimination: Control against vector (elimination to minimize the population) Treatment:  Asuntol ointment 2% (Coumaphos 2%)  Asuntol ointment 2% (Coumaphos 2%)  Trichlorphon 10%  in jelly petroleum  Trichlorphon 10%  in jelly petroleum or castor oil or castor oil  Sumithion 4%  Sumithion 4%

26 EYE WORM DISEASES At the Ruminants Cause and host 1. Thelazia gulosa  cattle 2. Thelazia rhodesii  cattle,goat,sheep&buffalo 3. Thelazia lacrimalis  horse 4. Thelazia californiensis  cattle & deer At the Carnivora Cause and host 1. Thelazia callipeda  dog,cat,rabbit & human 2. Thelazia californiensis  dog & cat

27 Predilections : membrana nictitans, d. lacrimalis, d. asolacrimalis & surface of conjunctivae. Methods of transmission : via vector Musca larvipara, M. covexifrons, & M. amica. Pathogenesis :  if become laesi  keratitis  if become laesi  keratitis  if become laesi  at one/twice side of eyes  if become laesi  at one/twice side of eyes  heavy infection  clouded up of the cornea, lacrimation, and absces of eyes  heavy infection  clouded up of the cornea, lacrimation, and absces of eyes  if not treated immediately  ulceration of eyes ball  if not treated immediately  ulceration of eyes ball

28 Clinical symptom:  Keratitis & Conjuctivitis  Congesti of conjunctiva & cornea cornea  Clouded up of cornea, lacrimation & abscess of eyes  if serious  ulceration of cornea (progresif keratitis) Diagnose:  to find the adult worm  inside the eyes  to find the adult worm  inside the eyes  Examined the secret of eyes  to look for the larva  Examined the secret of eyes  to look for the larva 1 st stage and the eggs worm 1 st stage and the eggs worm

29 Treatment:  manual method  by use local anaesthesi  Methyridine  dose 20 ml s.c.  Tetramisole  dose 15 mg/kg BW p.o. / p.i.  Levamisole  dose 5 mg/kg BW p.o. / p.i.  Levamisole  dose 2 ml/kg BW  under the saccus conjunctiva  eyes ointment  morantel tartrat 4% or levamisole 1%

30 at Avian at Avian Cause & Host: 1. Oxyspirura mansoni  chicken,turkey & avian avian 2. Oxyspirura parvorum  chicken,turkey & avian Predilection : membrana nictitans Method of transmission: cockroach which contents infektive larvae  ingest by host

31 Pathogenese:  Cause of ophthalmitis with inflammation  cause of watery eyes inflammation  cause of watery eyes  Irritations part of eyes  patients scratch the eyes eyesDiagnose: to find adult worm  in the eyes

32 Treatment:  Take the adult worm  with manual method  Take the adult worm  with manual method  Tetramisole solution 10% 1-3 drop   Tetramisole solution 10% 1-3 drop  killed the adult worm killed the adult worm  Tetramisole  dose 40 mg/kg BW  p.o.  Tetramisole  dose 40 mg/kg BW  p.o.Elimination: - by healthy attention  as a general - Control for the vector  cockroach

33 Having fun with your quizz The key of success in examination : is by read ing the new edition of “Buku Ajar I I I Ilmu Penyakit Helminth” with full of attention and couriousity

34 Thank you, and ……. Your turn to doing the quizz, please


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