Presentation on theme: "AVIAN ASCARIDIASIS A. columbae attack dove"— Presentation transcript:
1 AVIAN ASCARIDIASIS A. columbae attack dove Cause Ascaridia galli = A. lineata = A. perspicillumOthers species:A. columbae attack doveA. dissimilis attack turkeyA. compar attack others avianA. numidae attack wild avianA. razia attack domesticated dove
2 Habitat : Small intestine Route of transmission infective eggs (consists of L2) ingest by hostPathogenesis- Larvae penetrated into intestine mucosae enteritis haemorrhagiaand destroy of intestine wall.- Young avian more sensitive than the older one.- at young avian anaemia, diarrhea, anorexiaand thirsty.- the most of total amount of worms cause of obstruction intestine perforation die.Body defense depend on ages, type of sex, genetics, & gizi of the animals
3 Clinical symptom▹ Enteritis haemorhagia, anaemia, appetite ▹ fall of feather, lusterless,drooping the wing,▹ Weakness and emaciation,▹ Egg drop production stopped,▹ Broiler growth hampered thin.Diagnose- Fecal examination to examined the eggs worm (not use for chicken ages under 0-8 wks).- Postmortem to discover the worm.
4 Prevention:↬ to take care, and separate the young chicken andthe oldest one.↬ to take care the hygiene of the litter and the chickencoop material.↬ don’t use a floor of litter from a land matter↬ a periodically treatment, 1 x/month↬ giving a good feed (consists of vit A, B12,enough of minerals and proteins)Treatment☂ Piperazin adipat 300‑400 mg/kgs☂ Piperazin sitrat 400 mg/l water for 24 hrs.☂ Phenotiazin 2200 mg/kgs☂ Hygromycin-B 8 grams/ton, effective for 8 wks.
6 Other species :1. Heterakis gallinarum (syn. = H. papillosa,H. vesicularis, H. gallinae) at chicken, turkey,duck, geese, and bird2. H. brevispiculum at free range chicken/pure-bred chicken, guinea fowl3. H. isolonche at chicken, quail4. H. dispar at duck, geese5. H. beramporia, H. indica at chicken6. H. spumosa at rat
7 Pathogenesis and clinical symptom ↬ at heavy infection ⇨ thickness of caecum mucosae andhaemorrhagies.↬ Infection by H. isolonche, ⇨ bad result instead ofinfection by H. gallinarum, laesi at caecum moreprominent with nodule formed,its cause of diarrhea,cachexia and died.↬ Several stages of H. isolonche could found at lasi ofthe caecum.↬ Economically important of H. gallinarum infections:the role as a carrier for the transmission of Histomonasmeleagridis it could be cause of blackhead/enterohepatitis↬ this protozoa still survive inside the egg of H. gallinarumfor a long period
8 - Fecal examination to looking for eggs Diagnose- Fecal examination to looking for eggsHeterakis sp. A. galli- Pay attention:H. gallinarum eggs very similar withA. galli eggs (Heterakis sp. eggs smaller and more lessmore lightly, and with paralel side ).
9 Elimination- extremelly to check for the pens sanitation, and surrounding theyard.- don’t use a floor litter from a land matter to avoid from the earthworm (transport host).Treatment can use by :∝ Phenothiazin, 1 gram/tail or 1 part phenothiazine in 60 partsof feed, use for 6 days after one night fasting.∝ Piperazin isnt to efective for Heterakis sp., but if piperazinemixed with phenothiazine (1 : 7) efective for eliminationHeterakis sp and A. galli up to 90 % or more.∝ Mebenazole, 2 grams in 28 kg feed.∝ Tetramisole, conc. 10 % in the water
10 ANCYLOSTOMIASIS Cause : genus Ancylostoma Species and sensitive animals A. caninum dog, jackal, wolf, cat, & ±human. A. tubaeformae cat A. braziliense dog, cat, & man. A. duodenale man, pig andcarnivora.Predilection small intestine
12 Ancylostoma spp. blood sucking of the host anemia (essential CS) started by day ‑4 & optimal by day‑10 till 15 p i. Symptom appear more clear at puppies which infected through post partum milk. Early diarrhea appear by day ‑4 p i, at day ‑8 p i diarrhea mixed with blood and mucous. Transmission per cutane laesi at skin especially at foot as eczema till ulceration.
13 Transmission methods: Per oral ingest by L3 Per cutanelarva-3 penetrated into the hospes skin Prenatal Colostral/lactogenic infectionPathogenesis and clinical symptom The light and heavy infection depend on:- ferocity species- amount of larvae which infected the host.- host resistent depend on ages,nutrition & Fe in thebody
14 Heavy infection occasionally cause of pulmo disturbance, Heavy transmission from prenatal and colostral serious anaemia died by 3 wks post partumThe serious clinical symptom: anaemia, hidraemia, occasionally oedema, weakness, thiness, if continuing become eosinophyliaChronics infection: decrease of appetite for food,inhibiting of growth, skin condition were bad and at heavy infection by A. tubaeformae accompany with periodical diarrhea.Changes of PA Anaemia, cachexia, seldom accompany with oedema and ascites. Light brown of Liver and fatty, haemorrhagia of intestine & absces of mucosa with mucous liquid, appear red spot former bitten by a worm, be found much of worm.
15 Diagnose:To see the clinical symptom and strengthen with fecal examination to find out the eggs.Prevention:- Stable floor should dry and clean up 2 x/wks.- To kill the larvae on the floor we can use sodium borate (2 kg/m2)- Infected animals, we should use anthelmintic.
16 Treatment:~ Bephenium compound bephenium chloride bephenium bromide single dose 20 mg/Kg BW bephenium iodide hydroxy naphtoate~ Thenium (thenium chlorobenzene sulphonate) Dose: 200‑250 mg/kg BW 2x/day.~ Mebendazol Dose: 40 mg/kg BW or 10 mg/kg BW2 - 5 x / per oral.~ Thiabendazol Dose: 20 mg/kg BW per oral (PO)~ Fenbendazole Dose: 20 mg/kg BW single dose~ Tetramizole dose 7,5 and 10 mg/kg BW SC or 20mg/kg BW PO~ Pyrantel pamoate Dose: 10 mg/kg BW PO as well repeated days after
17 VPH aspect zoonosisChildren habits play with soil
18 A 30-year-old Townsville woman complained of anorexia, abdominal pains, diarrhea, and a 6-kg weight loss during a period of 4 weeks. A clinical examination was normal, but the blood eosinophil count was 2.96 x 109/L. The results of a fecal culture and microscopic examination were normal. The colonoscope was passed approximately 20 cm into the ileum. The only abnormal finding was a hookworm feeding in the cecum; it was removed with biopsy forceps and identified as a 10-mm long, adult male A. caninum, with spicules 785 and 800 microns long
20 Figure 1. Is a low power view which shows the pattern of the skin reaction. There is some oedema (fluid accumulation) at the dermo-epidermal junction and a scab on the skin surface. Presumably the scab is a result of scratching. There is an inflammatory cell infiltrate throughout the whole thickness of the dermis.Figure 2. Shows the infiltrate around sweat ducts. It consists mainly of eosinophils.Figure Figure 2
21 STEPHANOFILARIASIS Cause Stephanofilaria dedoesi Predilection, Host and DistribusionNeck skin, shoulder,back,wattles, surrounding the eyes cattle Sulawesi, Sumatra, JavaMethod of transmission:via vector Musca autumnalis, Siphona exigua, & Stomoxys calcitrans, Hematobia irritans, Lyperosia titilans, & Sarcophaga spp.
22 - Ulceration, hyperkerathosis & alopecia disturbance of hair folicle Pathogenesis :- Adult worms cause of dermatitis encrust Cascado- Papula become ulcus more large and encrust closed ulcus become wider diameter up to 25 cm.- Ulceration, hyperkerathosis & alopecia disturbance of hair folicle- Itches rub on the ulcus at the wall, wood ulcus become in serious condition- Predilection worm at the skin of epithel inflamed disturbance of cell epithel, hair folicles and skin lgl.- Ulcus at the skin consist of microfilaria and adult worm cause of secunder infection.
23 Clinical symptom: Ulcus at skin closed with encrust and show thick early stage small papula united as a large ulcus if continous as a ulcus with Ø 25 cm. Ulcus cause of S. dedoesi be found at neck, watless,shoulder, surrounding eyes, back & ear.Histopathologis pattern :- Depend on ages, process & situation of secunderinfection- be found acanthosis and hiperkeratosis with variationand infiltration of mononuclear inflamed cell &eosinophyl which disperse at skin (dermis)
24 - a part of hair folicles already change become granular tissue adults worm can find at the dermis usually in the cyst at the basic of the hair folicles- at the surrounding part of the folicles which consist parasite infiltrationeosinophyl, macrophag, fibroblast, connective tissue and larvaDiagnose: deep scrapping for the laesi after opening the encrust be found microfilaria (0,1 mm) Isolation the adult worm with using NaCl 0.90% at theslaughter animals take into NaCl 0.90% incubation 37˚C (30-60’) examine with dissectingmicroscope
25 Elimination:Control against vector (elimination to minimize the population)Treatment: Asuntol ointment 2% (Coumaphos 2%) Trichlorphon 10% in jelly petroleumor castor oil Sumithion 4%
26 EYE WORM DISEASES At the Carnivora At the Ruminants Cause and host 1. Thelazia gulosa cattle2. Thelazia rhodesii cattle,goat,sheep&buffalo3. Thelazia lacrimalis horse4. Thelazia californiensis cattle & deerAt the Carnivora1. Thelazia callipeda dog,cat,rabbit & human2. Thelazia californiensis dog & cat
27 Predilections :membrana nictitans, d. lacrimalis, d. asolacrimalis & surface of conjunctivae.Methods of transmission :via vector Musca larvipara, M. covexifrons, & M. amica.Pathogenesis : if become laesi keratitis if become laesi at one/twice side of eyes heavy infection clouded up of the cornea, lacrimation, and absces of eyes if not treated immediately ulceration of eyes ball
28 Clinical symptom: Diagnose: Keratitis & Conjuctivitis Congesti of conjunctiva &cornea Clouded up of cornea, lacrimation & abscess of eyes if serious ulceration of cornea (progresif keratitis)Diagnose: to find the adult worm inside the eyes Examined the secret of eyes to look for the larva1 st stage and the eggs worm
29 Treatment: manual method by use local anaesthesi Methyridine dose 20 ml s.c. Tetramisole dose 15 mg/kg BW p.o. / p.i. Levamisole dose 5 mg/kg BW p.o. / p.i. Levamisole dose 2 ml/kg BW under thesaccus conjunctiva eyes ointment morantel tartrat 4% or levamisole 1%
30 at Avian Cause & Host: 1. Oxyspirura mansoni chicken,turkey & avian 2. Oxyspirura parvorum chicken,turkey & avianPredilection : membrana nictitansMethod of transmission: cockroach which contents infektive larvae ingest by host
31 Pathogenese: Cause of ophthalmitis withinflammation cause of watery eyes Irritations part of eyes patients scratch theeyesDiagnose:to find adult worm in the eyes
32 Treatment: Take the adult worm with manual method Tetramisole solution 10% 1-3 drop killed the adult worm Tetramisole dose 40 mg/kg BW p.o.Elimination:- by healthy attention as a general- Control for the vector cockroach
33 Having fun with your quizz The key of success in examination : is by read ing the new edition of “Buku Ajar Ilmu Penyakit Helminth” with full of attention and couriousity
34 Thank you, and ……. Your turn to doing the quizz, please