31Limestone in Pang Nga A Famous mark in Pang Nga, deptly named Kui Lin of Thailand
32Label the diagram of Limestone features 1 Limestone pavement Stalagmite2 Scarr Pillar3 Scree Swallow hole4 Reappearance stream Well jointed rock5 Cavern Pot hole6 Stalactite Clints and GrykesChoose fromCavern, Scar, Stalagmite,Limestone plateau,reappearance stream, pot hole,Stalactite, scree, pillar,Swalow hole, clints and grykes,well jointed rock
33Clints and Grykes Grykes Clints Label the diagram Describe the main properties ofcarboniferous limestoneA hard white or grey rock. It is pervious but not porous.It is well jointed. It dissolves in weak acid (rain water)2. Which UK National parks are dominated by limestone scenery?Yorkshire dales and Peak districtDescribe a carboniferous limestone area.High plateau’s dissected by deep valleys. There is very little vegetation on the high plateau’sand there is exposed limestone pavement. On the edges of the plateau are scarrs (cliffs).At the bottom of these are scree slopes. The valleys are either dry gorges or have riversrunning in them. The vegetation is lush around the rivers.
34Limestone – Peak district Swallow holeLabel the diagramCaveDry river bedBoulder clayDry gorgeShake holesRe-appearance streamImperviousrockPavementLimestoneImpervious rockDefinitionsBoulder clay Dumped by ice during the ice ageShake holes Boulder clay sinks into hollows as limestone dissolved awayDry Gorge Formed by meltwater at end of last ice ageDry river bed Left as the river changes course in the valley floorRising/ reappearance stream Stream re-appears at the surfaceSink hole/ swallow hole Stream disappears down a crack in the limestone
35Underground featuresLabel the diagramAcid rainAbrasivestreamactionpercolationDissolvingactionDrippingaction
36Ingleton Mapwork: Limestone scenery What evidence is there that this is a limestone area?2. Find and give grid references for the following:3 pot holes (look for words ‘hole’ or ‘pot’2 disappearing streams4 scars (limestone cliffs)2 limestone pavements (look for rocky outcrops –check map key)Describe the relief and drainage of this area of map8072What facilities have been provided for tourists and/ or visitors in the areacovered by the map (give map evidence)5. Suggest why tourists and visitors are attracted here.
40Dry valleys and gorgesTheory 1At the end of the last ice age all the cracks and joints in the limestone werefilled with frozen water.This prevented water passing through the limestone.At this time the melting glaciers produced lots of water which passed over thelandscape eroding deep river valleys .As the temperatures continued to rise the underground water melted, whichmeant surface water could pass through the cracks and joints in the limestone.This left the valleys as dry valleys.Theory 2The roof on a series of underground caves collapses and leaves a gorge.
43Summary of Peak district features Complete the diagram from the power point‘White Peak’‘Dark Peak’SheepgrazingCrags(edges)Desolate rollingmoorlandTreeless rollingPlateau dissectedBy gorgesDeep narrowgorgesLimestonepavementPeat bogPeat bogDry stone wallsHardmillstonelimestoneDairyingUnderground cavesand cavernsLimestoneshale
46Complete the grid Climate and veg Soils/ physical features Land use High plateauExposed rock and limestone pavement.Very little vegetation.Not a severe climate as it is not that highThin soils. Flat toppedPot hole/ shake holesDisappearing streamsLimestone pavementRecreation (walking, pot holing, mountain biking)Plateau edgesLess exposed not very much veg because of the thin soilsSteep cliffs on the edges of the plateau called scars with large scree slopes.Thin soilsClimbing and abseiling, hang gliding).Water storage in the Dark PeakQuarryingLower slopes valley floorWarmer and less harsh climate.Deciduous woodland, Oak and Beech but has mainly been cut down now.Rivers cut through the limestone plateaus where the rock is impermeableThe soil either side of the rivers is rich and fertile.Streams reappear where impermeable rock beginsFarming (sheep in the Dark Peak and dairying in the Light Peak).Water sports on the riversSettlement and communication links.Sight seeing in towns e.g. CastletonCompletethe grid
50Mining - Tunstead Quarry Largest quarry in Europe, straddles the park boundaryLimestone is the main mineral extractionExtensions to the quarry have been resisted by the park authoritiesHope Valley cement works provides 700 jobsMining employs about 10% of the population of the peak district
51Farming Sheep rearing on the hills of the Dark Peak Dairying in the valleys of the White Peak (sheep on the hills)Moorlands are managed by burning the heather to maintainGrouse numbers for shooting
52Water storageWater storage only in the impermeable rock of the Dark peakGood water retaining quality of the PeatHigh rainfallClose to major urban areas e.g. Manchester, Sheffield, LeedsE.G. Derwent reservoir and ladybower reservoir
53Recreation and tourism 1/3 of the park is moorland. They provide some of thefinest grouse shooting in the countryThe moors have to close for a few days a year duringthe shooting seasonMoorlands are managed by burning the heather to maintainGrouse numbers for shooting
54Recreation and sightseeing Walking most popular activityOld railway lines used e.g. High peak and Tissington and Monsul trailsCycling along the Tissington and High peak trailsPennine way (Britains longest distance walk) starts in the Peak districtPony trekingHang glidingClimbing on the grit stone edgesSightseeing in towns like CastletonTourist caves – e.g. Blue John Mine
55Woodland Coniferous forest owned by forestry commission is in and around the reservoirs e.g. Snake valley,Goyt valley.Broadleaf woodland mainly on private land
56Archaeology 3500 sites dating from 1500 AD Stone age chambered tombs e.g. TaddingtonCastles e.g. Peveril castleEarly industrial remains of textile Mills
57Settlement and communication Settlement built on flat land - CastletonRoads and railways built through lowlands and valleys e.g. A57Small towns built up around bridging pointsVillages and isolated farms spread throughout the landscape
58Conservation Northern limit of Southern species and Southern limit of Northern speciesMany areas are SSSI’s e.g. Bleaklow and Kinder ScoutOver 800 listed buildingsConservation of footpaths anddry stone walls importantUnderground features
59Development opportunities 1. Complete the Diagram from the Resource sheet and slidesDevelopment opportunityExampleMiningFarmingRecreation/ sightseeingWater storageSettlement and communicationArchaeologyConservation
60Quarrying and farmersCrops (grass) does not grow as well as it is covered in dustAnimals scared by blastingAnimals scared by noise of trucksQuarrying and touristsNoise pollution effecting quiet scenery (blasting and trucks)Air pollution from dustAir pollution from trucksTrucks block roads and cause traffic tail backsCauses an ugly scar on the landscape
61Tourists and conservationists - footpaths 10,000s of walkers each year erode the footpaths and cause scarringMajor erosion on Bleaklow and Kinder ScoutPaths are closed in order to be reseededPennine Way is attempted by about 10,000 walkers each yearTourists and conservationists – traffic (Goyt Valley)Heavy traffic pressure especially at weekendsSoil erosion, litter, damage to vegetation, damage to fencesSolution – park and ride scheme at W/EsCar parks provided at either end. Only cyclists, pony trekkers, walkers allowedPicnic sites provided at main car parks and only one in valley itself
62Tourists and farmersLeaving gates open and letting animals escapeLeaving litter that animals eatClimbing over walls and fences and breaking themTaking short cuts through fieldsLetting dogs off leads that chase the sheepparking at field entrancesAccidental firesConservationists and farmersover grazing on heather moorlands causing soil erosion
63Water storage and tourists Over 50 reservoirs built in the areaAccess traditionally limitedNow 11 reservoirs open for fishing and 5 availablefor sailing and canoeing e.g. Carsington, Rudyardand Errwood reservoirsPlanning permission for sailing on Ladybower reservoirwas turned down because of concerns over the rare ducksnesting thereZoning of the reservoir has helped overcome incompatible users
64Land use conflictsThe Peak district is the busiest of all the national parks. There are many potential conflicts in the area.Usually these are overcome by negotiated agreement on access between all the land users. From readingthe information and watching the slides write down the main conflicts under the following headings.From reading the resource sheet and watching the power point write down the main conflicts under the following headings :The people involvedThe conflict with examplesQuarrying and FarmersQuarrying and touristsTourists and conservationists (footpaths)Tourists and FarmersWater storage and touristsTourists and conservationists (traffic)