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Chapter 19 Ecosystems. Ecosystem  All the living and nonliving elements in a given place.  Ex: Marsh, coral reef, rain forest, and a city.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 19 Ecosystems. Ecosystem  All the living and nonliving elements in a given place.  Ex: Marsh, coral reef, rain forest, and a city."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 19 Ecosystems

2 Ecosystem  All the living and nonliving elements in a given place.  Ex: Marsh, coral reef, rain forest, and a city.





7 Ecosystem  They are not all the same size. –Ex. Can be as big as the Earth, or as small as the tip of your finger.  Living things are adapted to their ecosystems.

8 Not Adapted

9 Community  All the animals and plants living in one area within an ecosystem.  Several communities can be in one ecosystem.  Members of an ecosystem can belong to multiple communities.

10 Ecological Pyramid  Ecosystem (biggest)  Community  Population (one species)  Organism (smallest)

11 Balanced Ecosystems  Balance ecosystems remain stable.  Predator and prey populations will always be in balance  Interrelatedness –A change or removal of one feature in an ecosystem may affect the entire system.

12 Interrelatedness


14 Predator vs Prey

15 Ecosystem Recovery  Succession -The gradual repopulating of a community by different species over a period of time.

16 Succession of a Forest


18 Ecosystem Changes 1.Short-Term (few months) –Quick succession –Ex. Change in seasons 2. Long-Term (many years) –Ex. Slow succession –volcanic eruptions/natural forest fires –global climate changes –Human activities –Introduction of nonnative species

19 Short-Term Season Change

20 Long-term Climate Change


22 The Jurassic Era’s Al Gore Long-term Climate Change

23 Long-term Human Activities  Human caused forest fires  Pollution entering ecosystems  Over development (building roads, logging, over irrigating)  Over hunting (bringing species near extinction)

24 Long-term Over Development

25 Long-term Pollution

26 Long-term Over Hunting


28 Long-term Introduction of Nonnative Species  They may have no natural predators to keep population in check.  Brings in unnatural food and habitat competition  They may become an unnatural predator, and wipe out another species.

29 Long-term Introduction of a Nonnative Species

30 Energy and Resources 19.2

31 Need for Energy

32 The Earth at Night

33 Sources of Energy 1. Fossil fuels (most common) 2. Sun 3. Wind 4. Water 5. Geothermal 6. Nuclear Alternative Sources

34 How We Use Our Sources

35 1. Fossil Fuels  Any carbon based fuel formed from the remains of plant and animal life.  Coal, oil, and natural gas  Nonrenewable Resources -any resource that is used faster than it can be replaced.  We are running out of them  Inefficient, dirty energy source


37 2. Solar Power  The sun produces enough energy a day, to power the USA for one year.  Solar power is renewable –Any resource that can be continually replaced.  Harnesses the energy by using solar cells  The problem is storing the energy.

38 Solar Cells


40 3. Wind Power  Oldest source of alternative energy  Collected by windmills.  Very low cost.  Problem is that wind can be unpredictable.

41 Wind Farms



44 4. Water Power  Dams are built on fast moving rivers to create large holding places for water.  Running water spins the turbines to generate clean efficient hydroelectric power.  The building of dams can be very destructive to the near by ecosystems.


46 Water’s other Source?

47 Is Water a Renewable Resource? Thirst for WATER.PPS

48 5. Geothermal Energy  The energy from heated steam/water within Earth’s crust near beds of molten magma.  Hot steam and water are used to turn turbines to generate power.  Problem is only a few areas of the world have access to this form of energy.

49 Geothermal Power Plant


51 6. Nuclear Power  Use nuclear fission.  Reaction produces tremendous energy to heat water to turn a turbine.  Very efficient energy  little fuel is needed compared to coal.  No air pollution




55 Nuclear Power  BAD NEWS -radioactive waste which can’t be disposed -power plants only last 30 years, then need to be completely shutdown -fear of meltdown

56 Efficiency of Energy  Energy is lost each time it is converted to another form.  Fossil fuel burning plants only 30-40% efficient.

57 How Can We Be More Efficient?  Use alternative energy  Use and Make vehicles that are more fuel efficient.  Make Mass Transit more available  Use energy efficient appliances.  Be aware about how you are using your electricity at home.

58 Energy Efficient Home

59 Pollution and Recycling 19.3

60 What is Pollution?  Contamination of the air, water, or soil from: –Litter –Smog and smoke –Dust and gases –Chemicals poured out

61 Litter

62 Litter

63 Litter

64 Smog and Gases


66 Chemicals in the water

67 Pollution  Two Types: –natural  Volcanic eruptions and natural fires –Manmade  More common

68 Natural Pollution

69 Manmade Air Pollution 1. Particulates (PM) -dust, smoke, asbestos 2. CO and CO 2 gases -products of any combustible fossil fuel 3. NO 2 and SO 2 –formed from burning fossil fuels which lead to acid rain. 4. VOCs and ozone –volatile compounds that can cause breathing and health problems -increase in smog

70 Particulates

71 CO 2 is on the rise.

72 The affects of acid rain

73 VOCs

74 Manmade Water Pollution  Water is our most vulnerable resource that is polluted by: –Industrial Waste –Pesticides (DDT) –Fertilizers (causes Eutrophication) –Boat oil/gasoline spills –Pouring chemicals down a drain. –Flushing the toilet

75 Industrial Waste

76 DDT

77 Eutrophication


79 Oil Spills

80 Manmade Land Pollution  Litter  Contaminants in the soil (Hg and Pb)  Running out of room for our garbage.

81 Litter ex. cigarettes ex. cigarettes

82 Garbage  The average person throws away a half a ton a garbage a year.  Towns tax residents based on how much garbage they produce.

83 Where do we put our garbage?

84 Reducing Pollution  Using non-fossil fuel burning efficient energy.  Reducing Use –save electricity, carpool, buy less  Reusable Products  Recycling –Town make money from people recycling more, reducing taxes. –Buy materials made from recycled materials

85 Recycling  Batteries  Paper  Glass and cans  Most plastics (check for the triangle)

86 What else can we do?  Reuse!!!!  Compost  Use less plastic (green bags instead)  Think how “Stuff Happens” after we do things.  Remember in the words of Bill Nye, –WE CAN CHANGE THE WORLD

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