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Technology Summit-Pathways to Energy. St Petersburg, FL May 21-23, 2008 Poultry Litter: the next generation biofuel feedstock? Foster A Agblevor Department.

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Presentation on theme: "Technology Summit-Pathways to Energy. St Petersburg, FL May 21-23, 2008 Poultry Litter: the next generation biofuel feedstock? Foster A Agblevor Department."— Presentation transcript:

1 Technology Summit-Pathways to Energy. St Petersburg, FL May 21-23, 2008 Poultry Litter: the next generation biofuel feedstock? Foster A Agblevor Department of Biological Systems Engineering, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA 24061

2 What is pyrolysis? Pyrolysis is the thermal conversion of organic materials in the absence of oxidizing agents such as oxygen. Pyrolysis leads to thermochemical decomposition of organic materials into a complex mixture of compounds

3 Schematic depiction of Biomass pyrolysis

4 What is pyrolysis? Pyrolysis products are usually not well defined especially when applied to complex natural materials such as biomass. The pyrolysis phenomena can be divided into several regimes depending on the heating rate Slow pyrolysis, fast pyrolysis, ultrafast pyrolysis, vacuum pyrolysis and high pressure pyrolysis

5 Fast pyrolysis Vapor residence time 1 { "@context": "", "@type": "ImageObject", "contentUrl": "", "name": "Fast pyrolysis Vapor residence time 1

6 Environmental applications of pyrolysis Poultry litter pyrolysis


8 Reasons for Pyrolysis of Poultry Litter Traditionally, poultry litter is disposed by land application and used as cattle feed Disposal of poultry litter in the U.S. poultry industry is becoming a major challenge because of : –Excess nutrient in the soil due to land application –Contamination of drinking water –Eutrophication of surface waters –Ammonia emission from poultry houses –Soil acidification through nitrification and leaching –Biosecurity concerns

9 Broiler chicken litter

10 Feedstock analysis (dry basis) SampleC (%)H (%)N (%)S (%)Cl (%)Ash (%) HHV (MJ/kg) Chicken bedding 47.245.94<0.5<0.282 ppm 1.3619.25 Flock-1 litter 34.054.422.890.630.7415.3315.47 Flock-2 litter 36.845.003.941.021.1416.0515.65 Flock-3 litter 35.335.404.100.70n/a21.1714.37 Starter turkey litter 43.655.712.570.360.205.4218.47

11 Figure 3 Pretreated corn cobs Amosoak Sample

12 Fluidized bed pyrolysis unit

13 Broiler litter biooil

14 Poultry litter biooil

15 Products yield from fluidized bed reactor Sample Temperature, ℃ Yield, wt% OilGasChar Chicken bedding 50063.3±11.3n/a12.7± Flock-1 litter50045.7±2.913.6±5.740.6±6.2 Flocks-2 litter50036.8±1.222.3±2.540.8±1.9 Flock-3 litter50043.5±5.123.6±6.432.9±3.7 Starter Turkey litter 50050.2±1.621.7±1.9

16 Bio-oil properties SampleC (%) H (%) O (%) N (%) S (%)Moit (%) pHAsh (%) HHV (MJ/kg Chicken bedding 55.256.5437.58<0.5<<0.0822.64 Flock-1 litter 63.247.2223.895.050.464.66.1<0.0928.25 Flock-2 litter 64.068.1422.274.940.414.66.3<0.0928.0 Flock-362.848.3120.727.23< Starter turkey litter 64.908.4420.315.600.


18 Potential Applications of bio-oil

19 Poultry Powered!!!

20 Pyrolysis Char of Broiler Litter

21 Comparison of ash contents of raw and pyrolyzed material SampleRaw litter Ash (wt%) Pyrolysis char Ash (wt%) Chicken bedding 1.36 Flock-115.3360.12 Flock-216.0552.03 Broiler21.1752.40 Starter Turkey5.4228.42

22 Element/CompoundWt% Total N2.84 P2O5P2O5 2.68 K2OK2O4.19 Ca7.5 Mg1.54 S0.99 Al0.54 B0.01 Cu0.11 Fe0.54 Mn0.12 Element Na, (wt%)2.05 Zn, (wt%)0.1 Cd, mg/kg1.0 Ni, mg/kg40.0 Pb, mg/kg37.0 As, mg/kg42.5 Hg, mg/kgDL Se, mg/kg1.9 Mo, mg/kg16.0 Co, mg/kg5.0 Nutrient Composition Broiler char

23 Variation in phosphorous content of ash with temperature

24 Variation in potassium content of ash with increasing temperature

25 Leaching Results

26 Demonstration Unit We propose to use the funding from the National Fish and Wildlife Federation to build a transportable pyrolysis unit to convert poultry litter into bio-oil and slow-release fertilizer in the Shenandoah Valley. Pyrolysis demonstration is in progress. A demonstration unit is on the farm of Mr Oren Heatwole, Poultry Specialties Inc, Dayton, VA.

27 Poultry Litter Fluidized Bed Pyrolysis Reactor Hot Filtration Cyclone Filter System Pyrolysis Oil Condensation System ESP and Coalescing System LBG Compression LBG Reheat Burner Poultry Litter Feeding System Compresse d Air Startup LPG Raw Oil Product Ash and Char Dolomite Excess LBG to Feed Dryer Coolin g Tower Exhaust to Atmosphere Flow chart of transportable pyrolysis unit





32 Rockingham County Cooperator A pilot pyrolysis unit will be demonstrated on the property of our cooperator, Mr. Oren Heatwole. The unit will be transportable from farm to farm, but most of the initial research will be done on-site. Poultry litter from a neighboring farm will be used as the feedstock for the pilot project.

33 Modified Furnace for Using Bio- Oil

34 ADI Thermal Power Corp Goal:Develop the unique features of ADI’s dual shell Stirling engine into an engine/generator system for the multi-billion dollar distributed power market. Product : - 25 kW single cylinder Dual Shell Stirling engine - Expandable to 4 cylinder 100 kW version - Engine / generator with grid interconnect - Natural Gas - Skid mount with easy installation for fuel, electricity, and hot water Unique features: Provide clean and quiet electric power above diesel engine efficiencies at competitive costs. This is a breakthrough technology. Market: $5 Billion dollar annual distributed power market. Onsite power generation for both continuous and standby power. Markets currently dominated by diesel engines. Customers: Focus on industrial and commercial applications such as food industry, industrial parks, hotels, schools, and medical facilities Sales: Combination of Heating and A/C System installers and ADI demonstration sites Technical Support: Provide 5 year full maintenance agreement to accelerate market acceptance.

35 ADI Stirling Engine System Fuel Flexible Natural gas Propane Ethyl alcohol Biomass Hydrogen Waste heat Solar Heat Output shaft power to Generator Highest Efficiency of all heat engines with patented “Dual Shell Pressure Balancing Technology” Runs on Heat Replace diesel generators for distributed power market Quiet

36 Acknowledgement We greatly appreciate the contribution of Virginia Poultry Federation, Chesapeake Bay Foundation and Shenandoah RC & Council for their foresight and initial funding support. Farm Pilot Projects Coordination Inc (FPPC) for funding support National Fish and Wildlife Federation for Scale-up funding support Blue Moon Fund Program for funding support Mr Robert Clark for initiating the project, collecting samples and getting the growers in the Valley involved in the project Waste Solutions Forum for promoting the project

37 Thank you Questions?

38 Transportable pyrolysis unit


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