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Learn to find measures of variability. Box-and-whisker Plots

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The table below summarizes a veterinarian’s records for kitten litters born in a given year. Litter Size23456 Number of Litters 168111 While central tendency describes the middle of a data set, variability describes how spread out the data is. The range of a data set is the largest value minus the smallest value. Quartiles divide a data set into four equal parts.

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Litter Size23456 Number of Litters 168111 The range of a data set is the largest value minus the smallest value. For the kitten data, the range is 6 — 2 = 4. The range is affected by outliers, so another measure is often used. Quartiles divide a data set into four equal parts. Kitten Data 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 6 Lower halfUpper half First quartile: 3 median of lower half Third quartile: 5 median of upper half Median: 4 (second quartile)

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1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 A box-and-whisker plot shows the distribution of data. The middle half of the data is represented by a “box” with a vertical line at the median. The lower fourth and upper fourth quarters are represented by “whiskers” that extend to the smallest and largest values. First quartile Third quartile Median

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23 24 26 29 31 31 33 35 Use the given data to make a box- and-whisker plot. 31, 23, 33, 35, 26, 24, 31, 29 Try This: Step 1. Order the data and find the smallest value, first quartile, median, third quartile, and largest value. smallest value: 23 largest value: 35 first quartile: = 25 24 + 26 2 third quartile: = 32 31 + 33 2 median: = 30 29 + 31 2

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Use the given data to make a box-and- whisker plot. 22 24 26 28 30 32 34 36 38 Step 2. Draw a number line and plot a point above each value. 23 24 26 29 31 31 33 35

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Step 2. Draw a number line and plot a point above each value. Use the given data to make a box-and-whisker plot. 22 24 26 28 30 32 34 36 38 Step 3. Draw the box and whiskers. 23 24 26 29 31 31 33 35

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Find the range and the first and third quartiles for the data set. Finding Measures of Variability A. 15, 83, 75, 12, 19, 74, 21 12 15 19 21 74 75 83 Order the values. range: 83 – 12 = 71 first quartile: 15 third quartile: 75

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Find the range and the first and third quartiles for the data set. Finding Measures of Variability B. 75, 61, 88, 79, 79, 99, 63, 77 61 63 75 77 79 79 88 99 range: 99 – 61 = 38 first quartile: = 69 63 + 75 2 third quartile: = 83.5 79 + 88 2 Order the values.

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Use the given data to make a box-and-whisker plot: 21, 25, 15, 13, 17, 19, 19, 21 Making a Box-and-Whisker Plot Step 1. Order the data and find the smallest value, first quartile, median, third quartile, and largest value. 13 15 17 19 19 21 21 25 smallest value: 13 largest value: 25 first quartile: = 16 15 + 17 2 third quartile: = 21 21 + 21 2 median: = 19 19 + 19 2

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Step 1. Order the data and find the smallest value, first quartile, median, third quartile, and largest value. Use the given data to make a box-and-whisker plot. 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 Step 2. Draw a number line and plot a point above each value from step 1. smallest value 13 13 15 17 19 19 21 21 25 first quartile 16 median 19 third quartile 21 largest value 25 Continued:

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Step 2. Draw a number line and plot a point above each value. Use the given data to make a box-and-whisker plot. 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 Step 3. Draw the box and whiskers. 13 15 17 19 19 21 21 25 Continued:

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Lesson Quiz Use the following data for problems 3 and 4. 91, 87, 98, 93, 89, 78, 94 1. Make a box-and-whisker plot 2. What are the 3 quartiles? 87, 91, 94 78 87 91 94 98

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