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Chapter 9 - Aggression and Antisocial Behavior Defining Aggression and Antisocial Behavior Is Aggression Innate or Learned? Inner Causes of Aggression.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 9 - Aggression and Antisocial Behavior Defining Aggression and Antisocial Behavior Is Aggression Innate or Learned? Inner Causes of Aggression."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 9 - Aggression and Antisocial Behavior Defining Aggression and Antisocial Behavior Is Aggression Innate or Learned? Inner Causes of Aggression Interpersonal Causes of Aggression External Causes of Aggression Self and Culture Other Antisocial Behavior

2 Aggression and Antisocial Behavior Saddam Hussein He was aggressive; was he antisocial? How can we understand aggressive behavior of powerful individuals or small groups of cruel people?

3 Tradeoffs - Is Military Action an Effective Way to Fight Terrorism Many countries resort to military action to fight terrorism –Effective in short-term, but in long-term creates a new pool of terrorist recruits

4 Defining Aggression Aggression –An intentional behavior –Intent is to harm –The victim wants to avoid harm Violence –Aggression, with the goal of extreme physical harm

5 Types of Aggression Hostile aggression –Hot, impulsive Instrumental aggression –Cold, premeditated Passive aggression Active aggression

6 Defining Antisocial Behavior Antisocial Behavior –Behavior that either damages interpersonal relationships or is culturally undesirable. Aggression may be social or antisocial –Behaviors in addition to aggression may be antisocial

7 Aggression and Antisocial Behavior Aggression is universal –Cultural rules restrain aggression Aggression aids social animals –Culture offers nonviolent ways of resolving conflicts and problems

8 Aggression Rules of conduct for war –Geneva Convention –Reciprocity Rules governing self-defense –Acceptable only if defender uses comparable force

9 Is Aggression Innate or Learned?

10 Instinct Theories of Aggression Freud proposed human motivational forces are based on instinct –Sex – life giving instinct – Eros –Aggression – death instinct - Thanatos

11 Learning Theories of Aggression Aggression is a learned behavior –Modeling Bandura and colleagues (1961, 1963) –Children who watched the aggressive model had the highest level of aggression If a model acts aggressively, inhibitions against aggression can be overcome

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13 Nature and Nurture Cultural socialization and learning can increase or decrease innate aggressive impulses and aggressive behaviors Both learning and instinct are relevant

14 Inner Causes of Aggression Frustration-aggression hypothesis (1939) –The occurrence of aggressive behavior always presupposes the existence of frustration –Existence of frustration always leads to some form of aggression

15 Frustration Influence on degree of frustration –Interference when closer to the goal - greater frustration You can have aggression without frustration, frustration without aggression, but aggression is increased by frustration

16 Inner Causes of Aggression Unpleasant moods increase aggression –Bad mood is not necessary for aggression Anger does not directly or inevitably cause aggression –If one believes aggression will dissipate anger, will behave more aggressively Excitation transfer may increase aggression

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18 Hostile Cognitive Biases Hostile attribution bias –Perceive ambiguous actions by others as aggressive Hostile perception bias –Perceive social interactions as being aggressive Hostile expectation bias –Assume people will react to potential conflicts with aggression

19 Hostile Cognitive Biases Aggressive people have inner biases that make them –Expect others to react aggressively –View ambiguous acts as aggressive –Assume others act purposefully when they hurt or offend them

20 Is Bad Stronger Than Good? The Magnitude Gap Victim loses more than the perpetrator gains Aggression is not a neutral exchange –It lowers the total value available Murder, theft, sex crimes

21 Age and Aggression 25% of toddler interactions in day-care settings involve physical aggression –Limited alternatives for solving conflict

22 Gender and Aggression When under stress –Males – fight or flight syndrome –Females – tend and befriend syndrome In all known societies – men just over age of puberty commit most violent crimes and acts Females exhibit more relational aggression

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24 Interpersonal Causes of Aggression

25 Selfishness and Influence Aggression –Can be a means to resolve social disputes –Can be a form of social influence Factors that encourage use of aggression –More you want the reward –Believe you will be successful –Unconcerned with morality or risk

26 Selfishness and Influence Aggression –Can be a means to resolve social disputes –Can be a form of social influence Factors that encourage use of aggression –More you want the reward –Believe you will be successful –Unconcerned with morality or risk

27 The Social Side of Sex - Sexual Aggression People use aggression and force to get sex from others Sexual coercion is often defined broadly Consequences for victim is dependent on definition of rape Profile of sexually coercive men differs from traditional stereotypes

28 Domestic and Relationship Violence Domestic violence –Occurs within the home, between people who have a close relationship Aggression is highest between siblings Surgeon General declared domestic violence the number one health risk in US (1984)

29 Domestic and Relationship Violence Domestic violence occurs all over the world It is leading cause of injuries to women Women attack relationship partners slightly more than men do, but without as much harm Physically weaker family members are at greatest risk

30 Displaced Aggression Displaced aggression –Kicking the dog effect Triggered displaced aggression –Minor triggering event increases aggression in angered participants

31 External Causes of Aggression Weapons effect –Mere presence of weapon increases aggressive behavior Mass Media –Violent media exposure increases aggression –Huesmann, et al. (2003)

32 Teach Me a Lesson PLAY VIDEO

33 External Causes of Aggression Unpleasant Environments –Hot temperatures are associated with aggression and violence –Effects of global warming –Loud noises, foul odors, air pollution, and crowding can increase aggression

34 External Causes of Aggression Chemical Influences –Testosterone Linked to increased aggression –Serotonin Low levels linked to aggression –Alcohol Linked to increased aggression

35 Alcohol and Aggression How alcohol influences aggression –Reduces inhibitions –Narrowing effect on attention –Decreases self-awareness –Disrupts executive function

36 Food for Thought - Is There a Link Between Diet and Violence? Nutrition is linked to aggression and violence –Junk food can increase violence –Vitamin supplements reduces antisocial behavior

37 Self and Culture

38 Norms and Values Running amok and aggression –Influence of culture –Cultures can promote violence –People may believe aggression is uncontrollable, but they may be mistaken

39 Self-Control Poor self-control –Is an important cause of crime –Is a predictor of violent crimes

40 Wounded Pride Violent individuals –Think they are better than other people –Have grandiose or inflated opinions of their worth

41 Wounded Pride Violent individuals typically have the trait of narcissism –Thinking oneself special –Feeling entitled to preferential treatment –Willing to exploit others –Low empathy –Grandiose fantasies

42 Wounded Pride Narcissistic Personality Inventory –High scores + blow to ego = aggression Most aggression is the result of some type of provocation –Other factors increase or decrease effect of wounded pride

43 Culture of Honor Southern US has culture of honor –Violent response to threats to one’s honor –Higher levels of violence Humiliation –Primary cause of violence and aggression in cultures of honor –May be an important cause of terrorism

44 Other Antisocial Behavior Cheating –Self-control is important predictor of cheating Stealing –People in deindividuated state more likely to steal –Diener et al. (1976)

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46 Other Antisocial Behavior Littering –When it seems everybody else is littering, people are more likely to litter too –Males litter more than females –Young people litter more than older people

47 Norms Injunctive norms –Specify what most approve or disapprove of –Can be effective in reducing litter Descriptive norms –Specify what most people do –Have not been effective in reducing litter

48 What Makes Us Human? In some ways humans are more aggressive than other animals Only humans kill for ideas Human cultures unique in attempts to restrain aggression Culture creates new opportunities for antisocial behavior


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