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1 MASSACHUSETTS ANIMAL COALITION SEPTEMBER 20, 2009 SHELTER OVERPOPULATION QUIZ BY: PETER MARSH.

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Presentation on theme: "1 MASSACHUSETTS ANIMAL COALITION SEPTEMBER 20, 2009 SHELTER OVERPOPULATION QUIZ BY: PETER MARSH."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 MASSACHUSETTS ANIMAL COALITION SEPTEMBER 20, 2009 SHELTER OVERPOPULATION QUIZ BY: PETER MARSH

2 2 (1). What is the difference in the sterilization rate of cats living in households in the United States with annual incomes of $35,000 or less compared to those living in households with higher incomes (for example, if 70% of the cats living in the lower-income households were sterilized compared to 80% of the cats living in households with higher incomes, the difference would be 10%)? (A). There is no difference in sterilization rates; (B). Low-income households are about 10% lower; (C). Low-income households are about 20% lower; (D). Low-income households are about 30% lower; (E). Low-income households are about 40% lower.

3 3 ANSWER: 1 (E). Low-income households are about 40% lower. SOURCE: Chu K, Anderson WM & Rieser MY (2009). Population characteristics and neuter status of cats living in households in the United States. J. Am.Vet. Med. Assoc. 234 (8):

4 4 (2). Are caretakers of dogs more likely to say they haven’t had their pet sterilized because of the cost than cat caretakers, are cat caretakers more likely to say that than dog caretakers, or is there no difference between the two? (A). Dog caretakers are more likely to say cost is a reason for not having had a pet sterilized; (B). Cat caretakers are more likely to say cost is a reason for not having had a pet sterilized; (C). There is no difference between the two groups.

5 5 ANSWER: 2 (B). Cat caretakers are more likely to say cost is a reason for not having had a pet sterilized. In a 1996 national survey, almost three times as many caretakers with intact cats as those with intact dogs said cost was a factor in their decision not to have the pet sterilized. In a 1991 telephone survey of Massachusetts pet caretakers, 22% of those with intact cats said cost was a factor but not a single dog caretaker. SOURCES: New, Jr. J.C., Kelch W.J., Hutchinson J.M., Salman M.D., King M., Scarlett J.M., & Kass P.H. (2004). Birth and death rate estimates of cats and dogs in U.S. households and related factors. J. Appl. Animal Welfare Sci. 7 (4): ; Dorr Research Corporation (1991). Massachusetts Public Opinion Study on Spaying and Neutering of Pets Summary.

6 6 (3). What percentage of litters of kittens born in U.S. households is unplanned or unintended by the caretaker of the mother cat? (A). About 50% are unplanned; (B). About 60% are unplanned; (C). About 70% are unplanned; (D). About 80% are unplanned.

7 7 ANSWER: 3 (D): About 80% are unplanned. In a 1996 national survey, 76% of the kittens born were unplanned or unintended by the caretakers. A survey of pets in St. Joseph County (Indiana) found that 88.9% of litters of kittens were unplanned. SOURCES: New, Jr. J.C., Kelch W.J., Hutchinson J.M., Salman M.D., King M., Scarlett J.M., & Kass P.H. (2004). Birth and death rate estimates of cats and dogs in U.S. households and related factors. J. Appl. Animal Welfare Sci. 7 (4): ; Patronek G.J., Beck A.M. & Glickman L.T. (1997). Dynamics of cat and dog populations in a community. J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. 210 (5):

8 8 (4). If a shelter replaces a neutering deposit adoption policy with a pre-release sterilization program, it will likely reduce its future shelter intake rate. (A). True. (B). False.

9 9 ANSWER: 4 (A). True. COUNTY ’00 INTAKE ’05 INTAKE % CHANGE LOS ANGELES 193, , ORANGE 44,200 41, SAN DIEGO 50,798 43, RIVERSIDE 55,947 42, SANTA CLARA 30,114 22, FRESNO 51,963 48, TOTAL 426, , Source: California Department of Health Services. Veterinary Public Health Section, Annual Reports of Local Rabies Control Activities. 2000; 2005.

10 10 (5). If a shelter replaces a neutering deposit adoption policy with a pre-release sterilization program, it will likely increase the rate at which the cats and dogs it places are successfully retained in their adoptive homes. (A). True. (B). False.

11 11 ANSWER: 5 (A). True. A pre-release sterilization program increases the rate at which adopted pets are sterilized and a 1996 survey of twelve shelters in four regions of the country found that sterilized dogs have one-half the risk of being relinquished as intact dogs and sterilized cats have one third the risk of being relinquished as intact ones. SOURCE: New Jr. J.C., Salman M.D., King M., Scarlett J.M., Kass P.H., & Hutchinson J.M. (2000). Characteristics of shelter-relinquished animals and their owners compared with animals and their owners in U.S. pet-owning households. J. Appl. Animal Welfare Sci. 3 (3):

12 12 (6). Compared to cats that have remained intact, to what extent is the risk of developing mammary gland cancer reduced if a female cat is sterilized before her first estrus? (A). Not at all; (B). By about 50%; (C). By about 70%; (D). By about 90%.

13 13 ANSWER: 6 (D). By about 90%. A 2005 study found that cats sterilized before their first estrus had 9% of the risk of developing mammary gland cancer as that of cats which remained intact. SOURCE: Overly B, Shofer FS, Goldschmidt DS & Sorenino KU (2005). Association between ovariohysterectomy and feline mammary carcinoma. J. Vet. Internal Med. 19: 561.

14 14 (7). What is the most common reason caretakers in the U.S. cite as a reason they have not had an intact cat sterilized? (A). They think the procedure would cost too much; (B). They plan to breed the cat or might possibly breed her; (C). They believe that a female cat would be better off by having a litter before being sterilized.

15 15 ANSWER: 7 (C). They believe that a female cat would be better off by having a litter before being sterilized. In a 2007 national survey, 40.7 % of caretakers who maintained an intact cat said that they had not had the cat sterilized because they believed a female cat would be better off having one litter before being sterilized compared to 38.8 % who cited cost as a factor and 20% who said they may breed the cat. SOURCE: Chu K, Anderson WM & Rieser MY (2009). Population characteristics and neuter status of cats living in households in the United States. J. Am.Vet. Med. Assoc. 234 (8):

16 16 (8). What percentage of cat and dog caretakers in the United States believe that a female cat or dog would be better off by having a litter before being sterilized or do not know whether she would be better off or not? (A). About 10%; (B). About 30%; (C). About 50%; (D). About 70%.

17 17 ANSWER: 8 (C). About 50%; A 1998 national survey found that 51.2% of all dog caretakers and 49.3% of cat caretakers either believed that a female cat or dog would benefit by having one litter before being sterilized or did not know whether she would benefit or not. SOURCE: New Jr. J.C., Salman M.D., King M., Scarlett J.M., Kass P.H., & Hutchinson J.M. (2000). Characteristics of shelter- relinquished animals and their owners compared with animals and their owners in U.S. pet-owning households. J. Appl. Animal Welfare Sci. 3 (3):

18 18 (9). What percentage of litters of household cats and dogs born in the United States come from mothers that are sterilized after having had at least one litter rather than to females that are never sterilized? (A). About 20%; (B). About 40%; (C). About 60%; (D). About 80%.

19 19 ANSWER: 9 (D). About 80%. A 1991 survey of cat and dog populations in four Massachusetts town found that cats and dogs that remained intact accounted for 13% of all litters of kittens and puppies while cats and dogs that had been sterilized after having at least one litter had given birth to 87% of the litters. SOURCE: Manning MM & Rowan AN (1992). Companion animal demographics and sterilization status: Results from a survey in four Massachusetts towns. Anthrozoos 5 (3):

20 20 (10). Unless the rate at which sterilized cats have litters of kittens before being sterilized is reduced from its current level, we could sterilize 100% of all household cats in the United States and there would still be more kittens born in U.S. households each year than the number of household cats who die that year. (A). True; (B). False.

21 21 ANSWER: 10 (A). True. Data regarding the number of litters born to 3,222 female cats sterilized through a Tennessee pet sterilization program between July of 2007 and May of 2009 showed that on average each cat had 2.46 kittens before having been sterilized. The percentage cats spayed through this program that had a litter before being sterilized (24.7%) was similar to that found in a 1991 survey of households in Massachusetts (20%). SOURCE: Dorr Research Corporation. (1991). MSPCA spay/neuter survey summary. Boston: Massachusetts Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals; Intake Summaries 7/07—5/09, Spay Shuttle Program, Knoxville, TN.

22 22 (11). What percentage of feral cats admitted to TNR programs in the United States has previously been sterilized? (A). 5% or less; (B). About 10%; (C). 20% or more.

23 23 ANSWER: 11 (A). 5% or less; Of 103,643 feral cats admitted to seven TNR programs in the United States from 1993 through 2004, only 2.3% were found to have previously been sterilized. SOURCE: Wallace JL & Levy JK (2006). Population characteristics of feral cats admitted to seven trap-neuter- return programs in the United States. J. Fel. Med. & Surgery 8:

24 24 (12). For a TNR program to successfully manage the size of a feral cat population, it is usually necessary to also manage the rate at which household cats are abandoned by or migrate from households in the area. (A). True; (B). False.

25 25 ANSWER: 12 (A). True. Data from TNR programs in the United States and Italy show that abandonment of household cats and their migration from households can substantially increase the size of free-roaming populations. SOURCES: Natoli E, Maraliano L, Cariola G, Faini A, Bonanni R, Cafazzo S & Fantini C (2006) Management of feral domestic cats in the urban environment of Rome (Italy) Prev Vet Med 77 (3-4): ; Levy JK & Crawford PC(2004) Humane strategies for controlling feral cat populations. J. Am.Vet. Med. Assoc. 225 (9):

26 26 (13). Compared to the number of cats Americans adopt from animal shelters, how many non-sheltered stray and homeless cats do they take into their homes? (A). They take far fewer stray cats into their homes than the number of cats they adopt from shelters; (B). They take about the same number of stray cats into their homes as the number of cats they adopt from shelters; (C). They take far more stray cats into their homes than the number of cats they adopt from shelters.

27 27 ANSWER: 13 (C). They take far more stray cats into their homes than the number of cats they adopt from shelters. In 1996, Americans took 2,070,000 stray and homeless cats into their homes and adopted 820,000 cats from animal shelters. A 1984 study found that stray cats made up made up 14.5% of all cat acquisitions in the Las Vegas area while adoptions from local shelters made up 10.35% of all cat acquisitions. SOURCES: Nassar R, Mosier JE & Williams LW (1994). Study of the feline and canine populations in the Greater Las Vegas area. Am J Vet Research 54 (2): ; New, Jr. J.C., Kelch W.J., Hutchinson J.M., Salman M.D., King M., Scarlett J.M., & Kass P.H. (2004). Birth and death rate estimates of cats and dogs in U.S. households and related factors. J. Appl. Animal Welfare Sci. 7 (4):

28 28 (14). The progress we’ve made over the past 30 years in reducing the number of cats and dogs put to death in U.S. animal shelters has mostly come from: (A). An increase in the space available to maintain homeless cats and dogs in shelters and sanctuaries; (B). An increase in the rate at which people adopt cats and dogs from shelters and rescue groups; (C). A drop in the rate at which cats and dogs enter animal shelters.

29 29 ANSWER: 14 (C). A drop in the rate at which cats and dogs enter animal shelters.

30 30

31 31 (15). Which costs the least: (1). to maintain a homeless cat or dog in a sanctuary for the rest of the animal’s life; (2). to impound, shelter, and adopt out a homeless cat or dog; or (3). to reduce local shelter intakes by one cat or dog through an effective pet sterilization subsidy program. (A). To maintain a homeless cat or dog in a sanctuary for the rest of the animal’s life; (B). To impound, shelter and adopt out a homeless cat or dog; (C). To reduce local shelter intakes by one cat or dog through an effective pet sterilization subsidy program.

32 32 ANSWER: 15 (C). To reduce local shelter intakes by one cat or dog through an effective pet sterilization subsidy program.  Assuming an average life expectancy of five years and an annual cost of $3,000 a year to support an animal in a sanctuary, it would cost $15,000 to maintain a cat or dog in a sanctuary for the rest of his or her life.  In 1998, public and private shelters in the United States spent more than $1,400,000,000 to impound almost 7,900,000 cats and dogs and adopted out 2,400,000 of them, an average cost of $176 per impounded animal and $583 per adopted animal.  During the first six years that pet sterilization subsidy programs operated in New Hampshire, 30,985 fewer cats and dogs entered its shelters than in the six years before these programs began, an average of less than $40 per reduced intake.

33 33 (16). Compared to the amount of money spent in the United States to shelter homeless cats and dogs and maintain them in sanctuaries, how much do we spend on pet sterilization programs? (A). We spend far less on pet sterilization programs; (B). We spend about the same amount on pet sterilization programs; (C). We spend far more on pet sterilization programs.

34 34 ANSWER: 16 (A). We spend far less on pet sterilization programs.  In 1998, shelters in the United States spent more than $1,400,000,000 to impound and shelter homeless animals.  In 2006, shelters and rescue groups helped sterilize 2,112,000 cats and dogs. At an average subsidy cost of $100 per surgery, this would have cost $211, or about one-seventh of the amount spent on sheltering and impoundment in SOURCES: Wenstrup J. & Dowidchuk A. (1999). Pet overpopulation: data and measurement issues in shelters. J.Appl. Animal Welfare Sci. 2 (4): ; Briggs J (2006). Analysis of the Annual Spay/Neuter Surgeries in the United States, Proceedings of the Third International Symposium on Non Surgical Sterilization.

35 35 In the decade before 1993, no pet sterilization program in New Hampshire was affordable for indigent pet caretakers. During this period, shelter intake rates did not change much from year to year.

36 36 During the first six years after an affordable pet sterilization subsidy program was established in 1994, shelter euthanasias in New Hampshire dropped by more than 75%.

37 37 GUIDING PRINCIPLE: THE MOST EFFECTIVE SHELTER OVERPOPULATION PROGRAMS ARE BASED ON INFORMATION FROM RESEARCH STUDIES AND LOCAL SHELTER STATISTICS. PERSIAN PROVERB: UNLESS MOVED BY OUR HEART, WE ARE LAME. UNLESS GUIDED BY OUR HEAD, WE ARE BLIND.


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