Presentation on theme: "Topic C2. Carbon stocks assessment in tropical peat swamp forests J Boone Kauffman and Mathew Warren."— Presentation transcript:
Topic C2. Carbon stocks assessment in tropical peat swamp forests J Boone Kauffman and Mathew Warren
Introduction C stocks assessment scheme General layout Aboveground biomass Belowground biomass Dead wood and litter sampling Soil sampling Long-term monitoring Contents Topic C2. Slide 2 of 27
Peatlands cover 3% of the earth’s land area but contain about 30% of the planet’s soil carbon (C) and about 20% of the earth’s terrestrial fixed C Ecosystem C pools of tropical peat forests are among the largest terrestrial C pools on earth; some sites exceed 2000 tC/ha Disturbances from land-use change and climate change in these unique ecosystems results in exceptionally high GHG emissions These unique ecosystems provide services, such as: biological diversity; biological diversity; maintenance of water quality and timing; maintenance of water quality and timing; forest and non-timber forest products; forest and non-timber forest products; aesthetic and ecotourism values; aesthetic and ecotourism values; carbon sinks (important for climate mitigation strategies). carbon sinks (important for climate mitigation strategies). Why do we care about peatlands? Topic C2. Slide 3 of 27
Forest carbon stocks Topic C2. Slide 4 of 27 Sources: IPCC (2001); Donato et al. (2011)
Threats to tropical peat swamp forests: Deforestation, drainage and fire from land-use and land-use change Topic C2. Slide 5 of 27
Carbon stocks assessment scheme Topic C2. Slide 6 of 27 Tropical peat forest ecosystem Trees >1.3m ht Aboveground pools Belowground pools Shrubs Seedlings pneumatophores Roots Peat soil 100-200 cm Downed wood Litter 0.67-2.54 cm diam. 0.67cm diam 2.54-7.6 cm diam. >7.6cm diam rottensound DeadLive by species >100 cm dbh 50-100 cm dbh 30-50cm dbh 10-30 cm dbh 0-10 cm dbh Palms Herbs 30-50 cm 10-30 cm 50-100cm 0-10cm depth 300-500cm >500cm
General plot layout Topic C2. Slide 7 of 27 10 m 50m Peat forest ecotone Wood debris transects (4 per plot, all plots) A B C D 12 m Plot: 123456 Understory/litt er sample (2 per plot, all plots) Trees >5 cm dbh measured in 10 m radius (all plots) Trees <5 cm dbh measured in 2 m radius (all plots) R= 2m 3 soil depth measurements and 1 nutrient core (all plots) General plot layout to quantify ecosystem C pools in tropical peat forests
Trees Topic C2. Slide 8 of 27
The circular plots Topic C2. Slide 9 of 27 Trees >5 cm dbh measured in 10 m radius (all plots) Trees <5 cm dbh measured in 2 m radius nested plots 10 m 2 m
Topic C2. Slide 10 of 27 Tree diameter
Tree biomass - allometric equations, Topic C2. Slide 11 of 27 AGB= ρ × exp(-1.239 + 1.98ln(D) + 0.207(ln(D)) 2 -0.0281(ln(D)) 3 ) Source: Chave et al. (2005)
Belowground biomass Topic C2. Slide 12 of 27 Following Cairns et al. (1997): Root : shoot ratio for tropical forests biomass: mean = 0.26; median = 0.21, LQ = 0.14, UQ = 0.31 Root biomass density for tropical forest biomass: RBD = exp (-1.085+0.9256 (lnAGB)); where AGB is aboveground biomass (Mg/ha). Multiply belowground biomass by 0.39 to convert to belowground C stock. Note: since the C fraction of belowground biomass is different from aboveground biomass, the simple root : shoot ratio cannot be applied to estimate belowground C directly.
Belowground carbon Topic C2. Slide 13 of 27 Belowground C can be calculated directly using the equation: BGC=AGC × 0.216 Where: BGC=belowground C AGC=aboveground C, 0.216 is the ratio of BGC to AGC (Calculated from Cairns et al. (1997) default root:shoot of 0.26, default %C AGB=0.47 and default %C BGB=0.39)
Dead trees Topic C2. Slide 14 of 27 Live Status 1 Status 2 Status 3 For Status 1 and 2 trees, biomass lost from leaves (2.5%) or branches+leaves (15– 18%) is subtracted from the total tree biomass estimated using an allometric equation. Status 3 dead tree biomass and C are estimated using appropriate volumetric formulas (i.e. cylinder or frustrum of a cone) multiplied by wood density and C fraction.
Dead wood Topic C2. Slide 15 of 27
Planar intercept Topic C2. Slide 16 of 27 Suggestions for wood debris Measure only wood categories >7.6 cm diameter (2–14 m on tape) 2.5–7.6 diameter for 5 m (9–14 m) Small wood (<2.5 cm in litter plot) Pieces 2.5–7.6 cm measured here 0 m9 m 14 m 2 m Pieces >7.6 cm measured here
Dead or downed wood Topic C2. Slide 17 of 27 Equation to determine volume of fine, small and medium wood size classes: Volume (m 3 ha -1 ) = π 2 × (N i * QMD i 2 / 8 * L) Where N i = the count of intersecting woody debris pieces in size class i ; QMD i = the quadratic mean diameter of size class i (cm): QMD = L=transect length (m) Equation for calculating the volume of large (>7.6 cm diam.) downed wood: Volume (m 3 ha -1 ) = π 2 × (d 1 2 + d 2 2 + d 3 2 + …..d n 2 / 8 * L) Whered 1,..d n, = diameters of intersecting pieces of large deadwood (cm). L = the length of the transect line for large size class (m). Woody debris mass is calculated as the volume multiplied by its mean specific gravity and converted to Mg ha -1. Generally there will be specific gravity measurements for “sound” and “rotten” decay classes. Dead wood mass is multiplied by its C fraction to determine C stock.
Litter Topic C2. Slide 18 of 27 Three values are needed: Fresh weight of the litter sample (FW), Fresh weight of a litter subsample (FW s ) and Dry weight of the litter subsample (Dw s ). A moisture correction factor (M) is calculated based on the H 2 O (g) lost from the dried litter subsample: (Dws/FwsxFW=DW). C stock is estimated as C litter = DW × 0.45. Litter C stock must then be scaled to the standard unit Mg/ha by converting the area of the sampling frame to ha, and the weight of the sample to Mg. For example, a 250g dry litter sample from a 0.25m 2 (50cm × 50cm sampling frame) would scale to 10Mg/ha.
Litter sampling in 2 microplots Topic C2. Slide 19 of 27 Two 50 x 50 cm micro-plots per subplot Includes identifiable organic materials e.g. leaves, twigs, wood/bark fragments, flowers, fruits, seeds, etc. Usually collected 7 to 10 m away from plot center Wood debris transects (4 per plot, all plots) A B C D 12 m Understory/litter sample (2 per plot, all plots, if relevant)
Soil Topic C2. Slide 20 of 27 0–15 cm depth 15–30 cm 30–50 cm 50–100 cm 100–300 cm >300 cm
Soil sampling Topic C2. Slide 21 of 27 3 soil depth measurements and 1 nutrient core (all plots) Shallow peats (<2 m) sample soil beneath peat; be sure to mark the peat depth Carefully label cans and collect samples Samples for bulk density/carbon concentration should be at least 50 g – about 5 cm in depth Samples should be collected at the mid point of the sample depth (e.g. 7.5 cm, 22.5 cm, 40 cm, 75 cm, 200 cm) Soil depth are the Δ’s. The soil core is collected in an undisturbed place near the plot center.
Soil Use an auger or sampling device designed to sample organic soils (Russian style or peat augers) Topic C2. Slide 22 of 27 A B C D A: Measuring and cutting the sample from the core at the appropriate location. B: Carefully collecting the sample in a labeled aluminum tin. C: Collected 5 cm sample. D: Sample and tin are wrapped in aluminum foil and sealed in a labeled plastic bag.
Soils are dried at 60 o C in the lab Topic C2. Slide 23 of 27 Important parameters: Soil Bulk Density (g cm -3 ), % Organic C content, Depth of peat layer Organic soil C stocks are estimated by calculating the C density (Cd) of soil samples (Cd = Bulk Density × %C) and scaling up to Mg/ha. Multiply the Cd of each soil sample by the volume of soil it represents per ha. For example, consider a soil sample from the 0–15cm increment, with BD=160 kg/m 3 and %C=48. Cd = 76.8 kg C/m 3. Total soil volume per surface m 2 for this layer is 1m × 1m × 0.15m = 0.15m 3, so 76.8 × 0.15 kg C/m 3 = 11.5 kg C per m 2 for the 0–15cm depth increment. Scaled up, the C stock of this layer is 115 Mg/ha. Sum the C stock from each soil layer to calculate the total soil C pool in Mg/ha.
GPS coordinates are critical Tree heights Hard to accurately and rapidly measure To facilitate future monitoring via remote sensing tools (e.g. LIDAR, etc.) So that diameter-height regressions can be built for all trees Canopy cover Using a densiometer Purpose: To monitor forest canopy cover and to intersect with remote sensing data Photo documentation Systematic photopoints at center of each plot Reporting purposes, visualization Other aspects for long-term monitoring Topic C2. Slide 24 of 27
Chave J, Réjou-Méchain M, Búrquez A, Chidumayo E, Colgan MS, Delitti WB, Duque A, Eid T, Fearnside PM, Goodman RC, et al. 2014. Improved allometric models to estimate the aboveground biomass of tropical trees. Global Change Biology. Donato DC, Kauffman JB, Murdiyarso D, Kurnianto S, Stidham M, and Kanninen M. 2011. Mangroves among the most carbon-rich forests in the tropics. Nature Geosciences 4:293–297. doi: 10.1038/NGEO1123. Howard J, Hoyt, S, Isensee K, Telszewski M, Pidgeon E (eds.). 2014. Coastal Blue Carbon: Methods for assessing carbon stocks and emissions factors in mangroves, tidal salt marshes,and seagrasses. Arlington, Virginia, USA: Conservation International, Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission of UNESCO, International Union for Conservation of Nature. [IPCC] Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. 2003. Good practice guidance for land use, land-use change, and forestry. Penman J, Gytarsky M, Hiraishi T, Krug Thelma, Kruger D, Pipatti R, Buendia L, Miwa K, Ngara T, Tanabe K, et al, eds. Japan: Institute for Global Environmental Strategies. Topic C2. Slide 25 of 27 References
Kauffman JB, Arifanti VB, Basuki,I, Kurnianto S, Novita N, Murdiyarso D, Donato D, Warren MW (2015). Protocols for the Measurement, Monitoring, & Reporting of Structure, Biomass and Carbon Stocks in Tropical Peat Swamp Forest. CIFOR Working paper (In preparation). Kauffman JB and Donato DC. 2012. Protocols for the Measurement, Monitoring, & Reporting of Structure, Biomass and Carbon Stocks in Mangrove Forests. Working Paper 86. Bogor: Center for International Forest Research. Manuri S, Brack C, Nugroho NP, Hergoualc’h K, Novita N, Dotzauer H, Verchot L, Agung C, Putra S, and Widyasari E. 2014. Tree biomass equations for tropical peat swamp forest ecosystems in Indonesia. Forest Ecology and Management 334(2014):241–253. [UNEP] United Nations Environment Programme. 2014. The Importance of Mangroves to People: A Call to Action. van Bochove J, Sullivan E, Nakamura T, eds. Cambridge: United Nations Environment Programme World Conservation Monitoring Centre, Cambridge. Warren MW, Kauffman JB, Murdiyarso, D. Anshari G, Hergoulac’h K, Kurnianto S, Purbopuspito J, Gusmayanti E, Afifudin M, Rahajoe J, et al. 2012. A cost-efficient method to assess carbon stocks in tropical peat soil. Biogeosciences Discuss 9:7049-7071. www.biogeosciences-discuss.net/9/7049/2012/. doi:10.5194/bgd-9- 7049-2012.www.biogeosciences-discuss.net/9/7049/2012/ References Topic C2. Slide 26 of 27
The Sustainable Wetlands Adaptation and Mitigation Program (SWAMP) is a collaborative effort by CIFOR, the USDA Forest Service, and the Oregon State University with support from USAID. How to cite this file Murdiyarso M and Kauffman B. 2015. Carbon stocks assessment in tropical peat swamp forest [PowerPoint presentation]. In: SWAMP toolbox: Theme C section C2 Retrieved from Photo credit Boone Kauffman/Oregon State University, Daniel Murdiyarso/CIFOR, Matt Warren/USFS, Neil Palmer/CIAT. Thank you