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Baby Pig Management. Swine Care and management of the sow signs at farrowing nervous and uneasy enlarged vulva mucouse discharge milk letdown pawing (making.

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Presentation on theme: "Baby Pig Management. Swine Care and management of the sow signs at farrowing nervous and uneasy enlarged vulva mucouse discharge milk letdown pawing (making."— Presentation transcript:

1 Baby Pig Management

2 Swine Care and management of the sow signs at farrowing nervous and uneasy enlarged vulva mucouse discharge milk letdown pawing (making a bed)

3 3 Care and management is major influence on number of pigs weaned PigCHAMP records – 12.27% preweaning mortality Leading causes of preweaning deaths Laid on by sow (approx. 50%) Starvation (approx. 20%) Over half of deaths occur during first 2-3 days after farrowing

4 4 Two Classes of Piglets at Birth Normal Up and moving quickly Nursing within 10-15 minutes Thrive without much help Disadvantaged Lightweight – less than 2½ to 2¾ pounds Slow in getting to the udder Chilled – thermal requirements not met Weakened during the birth process

5 5 Goals 3 to 3.5# pig birth weight – best odds for survival to weaning Small pigs have higher “surface area” relative to their body weight (lose heat rapidly) < 10% preweaning mortality Weaning weight 3-week weaning -- > 12 lbs. 4-week weaning -- > 16 lbs.

6 The Newborn Pig Has no antibodies against pathogens No transfer of antibodies prepartum Colostrum only way of getting passive immunity

7 The Newborn Pig Has only 1-2% body fat little insulation to prevent body heat loss Limited ability for gluconeogenesis Cannot produce glucose from AA or glycerol 7

8 The Newborn Pig, cont. Glycogen stores lasts for less than 24 h Needs energy right away Limited ability to regulate body temp. Needs additional heat Born wet looses more body heat

9 Normal Born Piglets Normal pigs will be on their feet within 1-2 min after being born Within 2-5 min they will be suckling The first born piglets will get most colostrum Between meal, piglets will sleep Normal piglets don’t need much care

10 10 Baby Pigs Shortly After Birth First 12 Hours Learn to walk, find a teat, learn to nurse Stay close to the udder Second Day Front teats are preferred Greater milk supply Lower incidence of mastitis Less chance of being kicked by sow

11 11 Colostrum First and highest quality milk – quality declines over time Drops by 50% within 6 hours Disease-preventing immunity Most important factor in piglet’s survival and long- term health First-born piglets “hog” the best colostrum Assist disadvantaged piglets Collect colostrum and “tube” disadvantaged piglets

12 12 Factors Limiting Colostrum Intake Cold stress right after birth Large litters which limit access to teats Poor nutrition of the sow – fat improves quality of milk Cold environment that keeps pigs inactive and huddled for warmth

13 Weak Piglets Often born last in litter get less colostrum Often have low birth weight difficulty competing for teat receive less colostrum Deprived of oxygen

14 It takes a dedicated herdsman to secure survival of weak piglets 14

15 How to help weak piglets Help them get started suckling Stomach feed with colostrum or milkreplacer (or cow colostrum) 15-20 ml per feeding warm to 35 o C Inject glucose intraperitoneal 15 - 20 ml per injection warm to 35 o C

16 Avoid Chilling Cold pigs can be warmed in water dry them afterwards Zone heating essential 32-33 o C (heat lamp)

17 17 Crossfostering Lowest preweaning mortality is in heaviest birth weight litters with lowest variation Use crossfostering to even up litters and match number of pigs with the sow’s ability to raise them Management Tips Colostrum from their dam before moving Crossfoster with 24-48 hours to maintain teat order Standardize by number and size

18 Crossfostering/Standardizing Reduce weight variation in litters Match number of piglets to sows ability to nurse usually 10-12 pigs/sow All small pigs are placed on the same sow

19 Crossfostering, cont. Not before 12 h All pigs should have had colostrum from dam Not after 48 h Piglets establish teat identity after 48 h Later crossfostering increases spread of diseases

20 The more pigs that can stay with their mother, the better it is. Nurse sows: Used if average number of liveborns is higher than average holding capacity of sows 20

21 Nurse sows, new borns Use 2nd. Litter sow - 14 d past farrowing Wean her own piglets Give new 24-48 h old pigs to this sow Give Oxytocin before introducing piglets

22 Nurse sows, older pigs Pigs in a litter that are starving should be moved to nurse sow Runt pigs at weaning can be placed on nurse sow Same procedure for selecting nurse sows Make sure that nurse pigs don’t compromise overall health status

23 Bench marking for mortality On the best farms, pre-weaning mortality is between 6 an 9 %

24 Processing of new born piglets and daily management

25 25 Processing Piglets Process varies from farm to farm Clipping needle teeth Treating umbilical cord Iron Tail docking Identification Scours prevention/treatment Castration

26 Processing, Day 1/ within 24 hours Medication IPD 1.5 cc Number with a majic marker Take birth weight Umbilical cord disinfection 26

27 Processing, Day 1 after 24 hours Teeth clipping Tail docking Tape spray legged pigs Ear notching

28 Ear Notching- Swine

29

30 Swine Reproduction Ear Notching

31 31 Universal Ear Notching System Right ear = litter Left ear = pig

32 Swine Reproduction Ear Notching

33 33

34 Swine Reproduction Ear Notching Quiz

35 Swine Reproduction Ear Notching The right (litter) ear is equal to 9+3+3+1=16 The left (pig) ear is equal to 3 This is the 16-3 pig.

36 Processing, Day 3-5 Castration Scours ???

37 Needle Teeth Clipping

38 38 Early Castration Less stress, less bleeding, less tissue damage One person can perform the operation alone Young pigs heal faster and cleaner than older pigs May be stressful to weak pigs Castration may result in infection if pigs are scouring

39 39 Baby Pig Anemia Pig is born with low body stores of Fe Born with 40 mg, uses 7 mg daily Sow’s milk is low in Fe content Attempts to increase are not successful No contact with soil in today’s systems Rapid growth of baby pig

40 40 Preweaning Growth Rate

41 41 Symptoms of Anemia Poor growth Listlessness, weak Rough hair coat Pale Labored breathing Prevention Oral iron Injection – usually 200 mg

42 42 Baby Pig Scours Big production headache Watery feces, wet tails, dehydration Viruses still cause major problems TGE, rotavirus (combination with other pathogens) E. coli – most common cause of scours Affect the intestines, causing diarrhea Cause significant death loss Vaccinate sows with strain on the farm AIAO, sanitation Various treatment regimens

43 Daily Management Get all piglets up and running around Look for diarrhea Look for pigs that are limping Look for pigs that are starving Look for pigs that stay under the heat lamp

44 Daily Management, cont. Treat sick pigs immediately Use effective antibiotics Grow strains to check efficiency Move pigs that are starving to nurse sow Keep pen clean

45 Common diseases in nursery pigs Diarrhea Joint problems Strep Suis Undernurished

46 Keep track of mortality Record number of pigs dead in each litter On a weekly basis, record number of pigs dead in farrowing room Record reasons why each piglet died Make decisions on how to improve management

47 Managing the Weaning Weight

48 Improving the weaning weights Pigs with high weaning weights are easier to wean grow faster after weaning are less likely to get sick requires less expensive feed

49 Objectives for weaning weights

50 Ways to improve weaning weights Improve milk yield of sow add fat to lactation diet feed tree times a day liquid feed the sow if possible cull sows with low milk yield avoid fat sows in farrowing barn Wet feed with water

51 Ways to improve weaning weights, cont. Crossfoster and manage according to protocol Reduce disease pressure as much as possible Assist weak and small piglets if needed Milk replacer to small pigs

52 52 Creep Feeding Sow’s milk usually declines at 12-16 days Start at 10 – 12 days Use palatable feed – flavoring agents Make water available Feed on mat or in shallow pan and keep fresh Some debate on value if pigs are weaned at < 21 days

53 Creep Feeding Use phase 1 pre-starter diet Start around day 8 or 10 ??? Feed in little trough under heat lamp Feed 2 times a day Keep clean all time Helps piglets get used to dry feed

54 Water Always have fresh and clean water available for piglets From water cup let run at all times

55 Split Weaning Wean 1 or 2 biggest pigs after 14 d Give more room and milk for remaining pigs in litter Can improve litter weaning weights.

56 56 Records Farrowing date Total number, NBA Pedigree information, teat count Number weaned Birth weight, weaning weight Medications given Observation notes Sow’s disposition Possible replacement females


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