2 Core Study – Bickman (1974) BATs ALL Outline Bickman’s research into obedience and the power of uniform (E)MOST - Plan and collect data on a replication of Bickman’s researchOutline limitations of Bickman's experiment (C)SOME Explain limitations of Bickman’s research (A)
3 What makes someone obey? SettingNumber of people around (consensus)CultureDoes the appearance of a person in authority make a difference?
4 Can you identify these uniforms? Who are you most likely to obey?
5 Why did each person have to dress up in each costume? Over to you ...Read pages Core Study or your topic bookletCreate a story board or mind map – there are pictures to help youStretch and ChallengeOr Fill in the Study Summary Sheet for Bickman's Field experimentWhy did each person have to dress up in each costume?
6 Why did each person have to dress up in each costume? Bickman 1974Aim – Does appearance affect how people obey others?Procedure –Field experiment3 male experimenters – each took it in turn to dress as a civilian (jacket and tie), milkman, guard uniform (looked like a police officer)Gave orders to 153 random pedestrians on a street in Brooklyn, New YorkWhy did each person have to dress up in each costume?
7 What were the orders? Picking up litter – ‘Pick up this bag for me.’ Coin and parking meter – ‘This man is overparked at the meter but doesn’t have any change – give him a dime.’Bus Stop – ‘Don’t you know you have to stand on the other side of the pole? This sign says “No Standing”.’
8 Findings of Bickman’s study 89%57%ObedienceRate (%)33%Type of Uniform
9 Do as you are told – or else!! ConclusionDemonstrated the power of certain types of uniform.Dress can suggest authority.When people think someone will punish them, they are more likely to obey.Do as you are told – or else!!
10 Core Study – Bickman (1974) BATs ALL Outline Bickman’s research into obedience and the power of uniform (E)MOST - Plan and collect data on a replication of Bickman’s researchOutline limitations of Bickman's experiment (C)SOME Explain limitations of Bickman’s research (A)
11 Limitations of the Experiment? Discuss the above question in pairs.Jot down your best idea on the whiteboardWhich were the best ideas and why?Can you explain why this is a limitation? (A)
12 Limitations of Bickman’s Study There was a lack of control over variables……factors such as crowding, weather and noise could have affected obedience rates.The study was unethical…… because participants had not given consent andmay have been caused distress, embarassment and discomfort.The confederates (wearing the uniform) were all men…… so there may have been a gender bias in results – would people react the same to women in uniforms?
13 Limitations of Bickman’s Study Pedestrians were selected by opportunity sampling –The personality or circumstances of the participants were not known. They might have been in a hurry, depressed or just absent-mindedThe study was only carried out in one city in one country –There is evidence that Culture affects obedience levels. So we can’t be sure if passers by from other cities or countries would be as obedient. Culturally Biased researchAdd the limitations to the summary sheet
14 Over to you …Imagine you were going to try to recreate Bickman’s Field Experiment in schoolHow could we do this?Use the planning sheet to help you.How could you improve on Bickman's experiment and ensure the findings would be valid and reliable?
15 Peer Assessment Activity Look at another group's planWould their plan give valid and reliable results?Would it be ethical?Give constructive feedback …2 stars (good points) and a wish (how could they improve?)
16 Analysing DataYou are going to see the results of an experiment done previously in Y10One person was dressed in prefect uniform and the other was in normal Y10 uniform10 people were asked to pick up litter in each conditionNumber of students who obeyed a normal y10Number of students who obeyed the 'Prefect'13
17 Can you come to the same conclusion as Bickman? Analysing DataFind the percentage obedience rate of each conditionnumber of those who obeyed x 100total number of people testedDraw a bar chart of your dataCan you come to the same conclusion as Bickman?
18 Extension In 3s create one street scene each from Bickman’s study Make a comic strip with cartoon and speech bubbles or do a role playSome pictures are available for you to use.
19 Plenary Share your cartoon – who did the best one? Why? Homework 3 Answer questions 1-8Stretch and Challenge – have a go at the experiment you planned and collect data