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FYM as a component of INM Next. FYM is one of the oldest manure used by the farmers in growing crops because of its easy availability and presence of.

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Presentation on theme: "FYM as a component of INM Next. FYM is one of the oldest manure used by the farmers in growing crops because of its easy availability and presence of."— Presentation transcript:

1 FYM as a component of INM Next

2 FYM is one of the oldest manure used by the farmers in growing crops because of its easy availability and presence of all the nutrients required by the plants. Farmyard manure refers to the decomposed mixture of dung and urine of farm animals along with their litter and left over material from roughages or fodder fed to the cattle. FYM is one of the components of INM as it a cheap and easily available source of organic nutrients. Integrating FYM with inorganic fertilizer, scientists are getting very good response of the crop. Application of this source of organic improves physical, chemical and biological condition of the soils. FYM can supply all the nutrients required by the plant, however with low quantity. Farm Yard Manure (FYM) Next End

3 The composition of FYM is shown below: Nutritional status of FYM (%): Content (%) Nutrient Nitrogen 0.5 Phosphorus 0.25 Potassium 0.4 Sodium 0.08 Sulphur 0.02 Zinc Copper Manganese Iron 0.45 Farm Yard Manure (FYM) Next Previous End

4 Methods of preparation of FYM a) Pit Method : This method is commercially adopted by farmers usually pits of 8m x 2m x 1m dimensions are prepared, which are filled in layers by the mixture of dung, urine and litter up to about 50 cm above ground level. The top is nicely filled, pits is covered by dry soil and then plastered by mud paste. One pit is needed every after two adult animals, the manure became ready after about 150 to 180 days of plastering. Usually tones of FYM obtained/pit or every animal gives out about 5 to 6 tones of FYM /year. Farm Yard Manure (FYM) Next Previous End

5 b)Trench Method : This method is also called as Dr.C.N.Acharya method. In this method trenches of 6 to 8 m length, 1.5 to 2 m width, and 1 to 1.25 m depth are prepared. Mixture of dung and urine soaked litter is deposited in layers in these trenches until it becomes 50 cm above the ground layer. Now it is covered with 50 cm deep soil or wood ash- soil layer and then plastered by mud paste. Manure becomes ready for use after about 150 – 160 days of plastering. Farm Yard Manure (FYM) Next Previous End

6 c)Heap Method : Most commonly used by the farmers. Every day sweepings, cow dung and litter are collected and heaped at any fixed place. After about 6 to 9 months, the rotten manure is used. According to an estimate, about 30 to 35% N 2, 20 to 25% P 2 O 5 & 4-6% potassium are lost during preparation of manure due to leaching, washing and volatilization. Farm Yard Manure (FYM) Next Previous End

7 Methods of FYM Application : FYM should be uniformly spread over soil surface and mixed thoroughly. It should be applied days before sowing or transplanting so that manure goes under ammonification and nitrification process. Application of undecomposed manure should not be applied. Soil should have sufficient moisture at the time of application so that proper microbial activity takes place. Usual rate of application ranges between 2-5 tones/ha for most of the crops. But it may show high as 50 to 100 tones/ha for vegetable, sugarcane etc. For best response it must be well powdered and it should be sieved, especially for use in nursery. Farm Yard Manure (FYM) Next Previous End

8 Beneficial Effects of FYM : FYM is rich in nutrients A small amount of N is directly available to the plants while a larger portion is made available as and when the FYM decomposes. When cow dung and urine are mixed, a balanced nutrition is made available to the plants. Application of FYM improves soil fertility. It has spectacular beneficial effect on physical, chemical & biological properties of soil. Farm Yard Manure (FYM) Next Previous End

9 Disadvantages: It introduces used problem in field Its decomposition releases harmful gases which polluted atmosphere. Reduces availability of certain micronutrients Needs more cost/unit weight of nutrients during handling, storage and application as compared to fertilizer. Farm Yard Manure (FYM) Next Previous End


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