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Bio-Energy and P2 in Cumberland County Virginia. Bio-Energy in Cumberland, Virginia What we are told: What we are told: We are addicted to oil We are.

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Presentation on theme: "Bio-Energy and P2 in Cumberland County Virginia. Bio-Energy in Cumberland, Virginia What we are told: What we are told: We are addicted to oil We are."— Presentation transcript:

1 Bio-Energy and P2 in Cumberland County Virginia

2 Bio-Energy in Cumberland, Virginia What we are told: What we are told: We are addicted to oil We are addicted to oil This situation demands we find alternative energy sources quickly This situation demands we find alternative energy sources quickly Bio-Energy can help Bio-Energy can help Poultry-Cumberland’s largest revenue source creates potential pollution problems Poultry-Cumberland’s largest revenue source creates potential pollution problems What we know: What we know: Our addiction is based on technology over the past 120 years Our addiction is based on technology over the past 120 years Like any addiction it is going to take a great effort by many people to change Like any addiction it is going to take a great effort by many people to change People don’t like change unless they see the benefits- first change the way we think People don’t like change unless they see the benefits- first change the way we think Unified effort- to move past the present patterns of behavior Unified effort- to move past the present patterns of behavior Think win-win not win-lose Think win-win not win-lose What we don’t know but need to find out- What we don’t know but need to find out- How do we go about change so it will benefit everyone? How do we go about change so it will benefit everyone? Who are the stakeholders that need to participate to bring about change? Who are the stakeholders that need to participate to bring about change? When is the right time to change? When is the right time to change?

3 Local Concerns Soil Soil Crop profitability –tobacco, peanuts Crop profitability –tobacco, peanuts Poultry competition - limited Poultry competition - limited Increasing tax burden on the Farmer- 61% revenue from Agriculture, over 80% of that comes from poultry Increasing tax burden on the Farmer- 61% revenue from Agriculture, over 80% of that comes from poultry Land value increasing Land value increasing Increasing restrictions on land use Increasing restrictions on land use Increase in farm regulations- more to come Increase in farm regulations- more to come Pollution Prevention! Pollution Prevention!

4 Energy resources are available in Cumberland Animal Waste- Poultry, Cattle, Swine- Large number of Poultry Broiler Houses Animal Waste- Poultry, Cattle, Swine- Large number of Poultry Broiler Houses Crops- Corn, Soybeans, Switch Grass? Crops- Corn, Soybeans, Switch Grass? Landfill Gas- Landfill Gas- Grants - Grants - Visionary Leadership, Education, Research Visionary Leadership, Education, Research Va Tech- Research, Cooperative Extension Va Tech- Research, Cooperative Extension Va Dept Agriculture & Consumer Service Va Dept Agriculture & Consumer Service Benchmarking with others- WVU project, and other projects discussed today Benchmarking with others- WVU project, and other projects discussed today DMME- Robin Jones DMME- Robin Jones

5 How can we locally utilize Poultry Waste? Application on land- fertilizer, limits and concerns about run-off into streams Application on land- fertilizer, limits and concerns about run-off into streams Burning- air pollution Burning- air pollution Anaerobic Digestion- let’s look at this option Anaerobic Digestion- let’s look at this option

6 Crops - Fuel and Food Soybean oil can go on the grocery shelf or into bio- diesel in your diesel truck or car Soybean oil can go on the grocery shelf or into bio- diesel in your diesel truck or car Production of Bio-Fuels in 2005 equal nearly 2 per cent of world gasoline use. Production of Bio-Fuels in 2005 equal nearly 2 per cent of world gasoline use. From 2000 to 2005, ethanol production nearly tripled, from 4.6 billion 12.2 billion gallons From 2000 to 2005, ethanol production nearly tripled, from 4.6 billion 12.2 billion gallons The trigger in 2000 was the $40/barrel price of oil The trigger in 2000 was the $40/barrel price of oil Bio-diesel starting from a small base of 251 million gallons in 2000, climbed to an estimated 790 million gallons in 2005 Bio-diesel starting from a small base of 251 million gallons in 2000, climbed to an estimated 790 million gallons in 2005

7 Crops to Energy-Net yield** and gallons/acre Switch Grass- to Ethanol (x) …. 500-750 gallons/acre Switch Grass- to Ethanol (x) …. 500-750 gallons/acre Corn- to Ethanol 1.5 ………….. 300-400 gallons/acre Corn- to Ethanol 1.5 ………….. 300-400 gallons/acre Sugar Beets* to Ethanol 1.9 ….. 500-714 gallons/acre Sugar Beets* to Ethanol 1.9 ….. 500-714 gallons/acre Sugar Cane* to Ethanol 8.0 ….. 650-665 gallons/acre Sugar Cane* to Ethanol 8.0 ….. 650-665 gallons/acre Soybeans to Bio-diesel (3.24) …… 50-60 gallons/acre Soybeans to Bio-diesel (3.24) …… 50-60 gallons/acre *France- Beets, Brazil-Sugar Cane *France- Beets, Brazil-Sugar Cane **Net Yield is the represents the units of product for each unit invested **Net Yield is the represents the units of product for each unit invested

8 Grants- Governments support bio-fuels production because of concerns about climate change and the possible shrinkage of the flow of imported oil Governments support bio-fuels production because of concerns about climate change and the possible shrinkage of the flow of imported oil Brazil using sugarcane produces 4 billion barrels a year or 40% of it’s automotive needs as of 2004 Brazil using sugarcane produces 4 billion barrels a year or 40% of it’s automotive needs as of 2004 The US using corn produces 3.4 billion barrels or just under 2% of it’s automotive needs as of 2004 The US using corn produces 3.4 billion barrels or just under 2% of it’s automotive needs as of 2004

9 Cumberland County Bio-Energy Strategy- 3 key parts Develop a solution to the Poultry waste problem Develop a solution to the Poultry waste problem Encourage develop of new energy crop (s) with an increasing value tied to escalating energy prices Encourage develop of new energy crop (s) with an increasing value tied to escalating energy prices Review Grant opportunities Review Grant opportunities

10 We were convinced that a Poultry Digester was the best option Questions: Questions: Would it work in removing or reducing pollutants? Would it work in removing or reducing pollutants? Is it feasible Is it feasible What are the considerations and sensitivities What are the considerations and sensitivities Can we make money? Can we make money?

11 Public Health and Anaerobic Digestion-Pathogen Removal Dr David Stafford Enviro-Control Ltd

12 Agricultural Purpose in using Manures for Fertilizers. Maintain organic status of soil,. Sustainable management practices include minimum tillage and Organic Agriculture.

13 Impacts of Manure Discharges The most serious impacts are with Slaughterhouse and hog farm discharges. Topography, soil structure and shallow aquifers increases the problem of water quality.

14 Pathogens Identified Pathogens present in sewage sludges and animal manures are a potential hazard when used as fertilizer or where discharges to water-courses may infect humans and animals. Protozoan parasites (i.e.Giardia, Entamoeba) and bacteria (e.g.Salmonella) are shed by livestock or humans and acquired by humans through reservoir and recreational water.

15 Pathogens of Concern. The fate and transport of human pathogens from manures will require research followed by development of appropriate methods and information to livestock and poultry producers. Animal manures are a potential source of human and animal pathogens. Among the pathogens of concern are Escherichia coli, Salmonella, Entamoeba, Giardia, Campylobacter and Cryptosporidium.

16 Amoebiosis Entaboeba histolytica is found in polluted water in warm climates. It is a disease of large intestine and can invade the blood stream and liver forming abscesses. It is transmitted through drinking water contaminated from feces. Highly infectious.

17 Survival of E. histolytica in water courses Grows well in warm waters especially if rice grains or E.coli are present as substrates. Discharge of sewage into river waters encourages growth of the disease agent.

18 Are pathogens present in animal manures and human sewage destroyed by Anaerobic Digesters?

19 Fate of Entamoeba histolytica

20 Acetate reduces E. histolytica metabolism Increasing acetate concentrations inhibit uptake of E. coli and rice starch grains by host cells. Also inhibits metabolism of starch grains.

21 Cryptosporidium and disease The incidence of Cryptosporidium parvum in manures requires that removal is effective before use as fertilizer on land. Thermophilic anaerobic digestion offers such a potential. The intestinal parasite Cryptosporidium parvum has increased in incidence in drinking waters worldwide and requires development of control systems.

22 Question: Does Thermophilic A D remove the infective stages of Cryptosporidium and Giardia spp. from animal wastes?

23 Removal of Cryptosporidium

24 Removal of Giardia

25 Conclusions DNA Detection of Giardia muris and Cryptosporidium muris Low end detection in positive controls ranged from 1-1000 cysts No DNA signal has been recovered from digested samples for either species Does the action of Thermophilic Anaerobic Digestion remove the infective stages of Cryptosporidium and Giardia spp. from animal waste streams? YES

26 Salmonella Removal and Thermophilic Anaerobic Digestion

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28 Acetate Influence on Coliform Reduction

29 Total Coliform Reduction

30 Plant Pathogens. Use of digester material as fertilizer must be free of plant pathogens. Fusarium oxysporum -wilt fungus affecting tomatoes, potatoes and tobacco. Killed in Digesters in 4 days at mesophilic temperatures. Corynebacterium michiganense -bacterial pathogen causing vascular wilt in Solanaceae plants. Killed in 24 hours in AD.

31 Survival of Potato Root Eelworms in Digesters

32 Carbon Balance Conversion of organic carbon in waste materials using microbial anaerobic digestion processes enables the carbon to be released as CO 2 and CH 4. About 90% of the carbon energy locked in organic molecules transfer to methane during methanogenesis, (McInerney, Bryant and Stafford, 1980).

33 Anaerobic Digestion of Poultry Litter- It began with a visit to WVSU 1.On our visit to WVSU we met Dr. Mark Chatfield and John Bombardiere 2.We also learned quite a bit about digesters 3.Daryl Bishop, CEM General Manager Pepco Energy Services also attended the trip (taking pic)

34 WVSU Digester 10,000 gallon 10,000 gallon Anaerobic Anaerobic No Oxygen No Oxygen Thermophilic Thermophilic 125 -140º F 125 -140º F 10 Day HRT 10 Day HRT

35 We learned that Anaerobic Digesters Are……….. are producers of clean, renewable energy are producers of clean, renewable energy A component of waste and nutrient management systems A component of waste and nutrient management systems Pathogen and odor killers Pathogen and odor killers Biological systems- managing the “bugs” Biological systems- managing the “bugs” Proven/Mature technology for processing organic wastes, including poultry litter Proven/Mature technology for processing organic wastes, including poultry litter

36 Feedstock- Litter from Poultry Houses is a great feedstock

37 Products of Anaerobic Digestion Biogas-below being flared, we will produce electricity- methane is 21 times worse than carbon in destroying the ozone Biogas-below being flared, we will produce electricity- methane is 21 times worse than carbon in destroying the ozone Solid fertilizer and compost Solid fertilizer and compost Liquid fertilizer Liquid fertilizer

38 Poultry Litter Results Litter Conversion to Biogas Litter Conversion to Biogas Material scf biogas/ton litter CH 4 % Crust/Cake 8,000 - 9,000 60 Cleanout after one flock 8,000 - 9,000 65 Litter Shed for 4 months 5,000 - 6,000 56 Cleanout after six flocks 7,000 - 8,000 58

39 Biogas Components Methane CH 4 Methane CH 4 55% - 65% 55% - 65% Carbon Dioxide CO 2 Carbon Dioxide CO 2 33% - 43% 33% - 43% Hydrogen Sulfide H 2 S Hydrogen Sulfide H 2 S removed removed Water Water removed removed

40 Feasibility Study Grant! Working through the Cumberland Farm Bureau we have obtained a $37,000 grant to determine the feasibility of building such a digester facility in Cumberland, Virginia Working through the Cumberland Farm Bureau we have obtained a $37,000 grant to determine the feasibility of building such a digester facility in Cumberland, Virginia Many of the questions we want answers to related to the business case for the facility that would require less than 10 acres Many of the questions we want answers to related to the business case for the facility that would require less than 10 acres

41 Uses of Biogas Electricity – sold as green power for a premium Electricity – sold as green power for a premium Boiler- to preheat the digester to 134 degrees and clean trucks for bio-security Boiler- to preheat the digester to 134 degrees and clean trucks for bio-security Direct use as Natural Gas substitute- direct sale to co-located businesses or neighbors Direct use as Natural Gas substitute- direct sale to co-located businesses or neighbors

42 Potential Revenue Gas or electric sales – premium prices 7cents per kWhr- recent increase noted Gas or electric sales – premium prices 7cents per kWhr- recent increase noted Fertilizer sales- liquid effluent is high in nitrogen and no pathogens- solid as much as $125/ton Fertilizer sales- liquid effluent is high in nitrogen and no pathogens- solid as much as $125/ton Certified organic compost- pots, pellets (golf course gold) Certified organic compost- pots, pellets (golf course gold) Tipping fees – located near landfill where we could get green waste for the digester- Tipping fees – located near landfill where we could get green waste for the digester- Carbon Credits Carbon Credits

43 ECL Digester Plants- Cumberland Plant similar scale as picture on right

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