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Container Recycling Institute © CONTAINER DEPOSIT LEGISLATION PastPresent Future Future
Container Recycling Institute © What is a “Bottle Bill”? A bottle bill is a law that.... Requires distributors and retailers to collect a minimum refundable deposit, usually 5-10 cents on certain beverage containers Creates a privately-funded collection infrastructure for beverage containers Makes producers and consumers responsible for their packaging waste
Container Recycling Institute © Why Beverage Containers? They are often consumed on the go - the industry estimates that one third of all soft drinks sold are consumed away from home! They compose 40-60% of litter. They consume enormous amounts of energy in the manufacturing process. Greenhouse gas emissions can be avoided by recycling beverage containers rather than manufacturing new ones.
Container Recycling Institute © How do Container Deposits Work? Distributor collects deposit when he/she delivers containers to retailer Retailer collects deposit from consumer at point of purchase Deposit is refunded to consumer when container is returned Deposit is refunded to retailer when containers are returned to distributor
Container Recycling Institute © What is the Origin of Bottle Bills? Problem: Problem: In the 50’s and 60’s, refillable ‘deposit’ bottles were replaced by throwaway, no-deposit beverage containers that created litter and wasted resources. Solution: Solution: Put a mandatory deposit on beverage containers to provide an incentive to recycle and a disincentive to litter.
Container Recycling Institute © U.S. States with Container Deposit Laws Oregon Vermont Michigan Maine Iowa Connecticut Massachusetts Delaware New York California Hawaii
Container Recycling Institute © Quebec British Columbia Newfoundland Nova Scotia Alberta New Brunswick Saskatchewan Prince Edward Island Yukon Canadian Provinces with CDL
Container Recycling Institute © Environmentalists Some beverage producers Processors of recycled materials Container manufacturing industries Manufacturers who use recyclable materials Farmers, Bicyclists and sportsmen Civic groups The general public Who supports Container Deposit Laws?
Container Recycling Institute © Supporters like CDL because it: Has recovery and recycling rates of % for beverage containers Reduces roadside litter and solid waste Conserves energy and natural resources Reduces climate-changing greenhouse gas emissions Prevents pollution from manufacturing of new containers Creates jobs and new businesses that can’t be outsourced overseas Shifts costs associated with used beverage containers to those responsible for the waste
Container Recycling Institute © Who does not support CDL? Some soft drink manufacturers and bottlers Brewers and beer distributors Grocery manufacturers and retailers Some waste haulers that profit from recyclables collection
Container Recycling Institute © Why oppose CDL? Increase costs to distributors and retailers Increase prices and lower beverage sales Only address a fraction of the waste stream Decrease jobs Are not compatible with curbside recycling Are inconvenient for consumers Opponents claim Bottle Bills:
Container Recycling Institute © Their Arguments are unfounded Cost increases can be recouped in minimal price increases that consumers barely notice, and gladly pay for their favorite beverages. Cost increases can be recouped in minimal price increases that consumers barely notice, and gladly pay for their favorite beverages. CDL is effective for beverage containers because of litter and away from home use. It only addresses this portion of the waste stream because it only targets this portion. CDL is effective for beverage containers because of litter and away from home use. It only addresses this portion of the waste stream because it only targets this portion. CDL and curbside collection are compatible, because CDL targets away from home recyclables. CDL and curbside collection are compatible, because CDL targets away from home recyclables. Consumers quickly become accustomed to returning their empties, and enjoy getting refunds. Consumers quickly become accustomed to returning their empties, and enjoy getting refunds.
Container Recycling Institute © There are societal and environmental costs associated with the manufacturing, disposal, and recycling of beverage containers. The question for policymakers is “Who should pay these costs?” – government and taxpayers or producers and consumers?
Container Recycling Institute © In 1980, Dwight Reed, President National Soft Drink Association made the following statement: “Society is telling us in unmistakable terms that we share equally with the public the responsibility for package retrieval and disposal... This industry has spent hundreds of millions of dollars... in the attempt to dispute, deflect, or evade that message...”
Container Recycling Institute © “... It is interesting to speculate on the state of our public image, and our political fortunes, had that same sum been devoted to disposal or retrieval technology.”
Container Recycling Institute © In November 2008 the Aluminum Association announced its goal to increase the recycling rate of beverage cans to 75% by 2015 saying, “Container deposit programs are a proven, sustainable method of capturing beverage cans for recycling. States that have deposit programs have the highest can recycling rates, on average at 74% or higher, while the recycling rate in non-deposits states is around 38%.”
In December 2008 the Glass Packaging Institute announced its goal to use 50% recycled glass by 2015, saying glass manufacturers “will continue to work with policymakers to improve and expand state beverage deposit programs.” Container Recycling Institute © 2009
18 The Truth about Container Deposit Legislation
Container Recycling Institute © Bottle Bills Result in Higher Beverage Container Recycling Rates Average Beverage Container Recycling Rates (By Weight) Source: CRI’s 2008 Beverage Market Data Analysis (using 2006 data)
Container Recycling Institute © Container recycling rates have declined nationally, despite continued growth in population served by curbside recycling. Source: CRI’s 2008 Beverage Market Data Analyis, 2006 data
Container Recycling Institute © Bottle Bills Reduce the Disproportionate Environmental Impacts of Beverage Container Wasting : Replacing the 141 billion Emissions: Replacing the 141 billion beverage containers wasted in 2006 emitted almost 5 million tons of Greenhouse gases - the same as 3.3 million cars in one year Wasted energy: The energy required to replace the 141 billion containers wasted in 2006 was equivalent to 336 trillion BTUs: enough to meet the total annula residential energy needs of over 3.5 million American homes. Litter: In a 1999 survey, the Solid Waste Coordinators of Kentucky found that 54% of all litter collected consisted of beverage containers, carriers, bottle caps and pull tabs. Several studies have shown that deposit systems have a ripple effect in reducing all litter.
Container Recycling Institute © Bottle Bills Reduce Litter StateBeverage Container Litter Reduced Total Litter Reduced NY %30% OR83%47% VT76%35% ME % % MI80%38% IA77%38% Source: “Trade-offs Involved in Beverage Container Deposit Legislation”, US GAO, 1990.
Container Recycling Institute © Litter on the farm: Costly damage to farmers “There is little a community can do about drought or disaster, but we can do something positive about litter from beverage containers by supporting (Sen. Jim) Jeffords' bill.” livestock deaths crop losses feed contamination equipment damage -- Larry Breech, President of the Pennsylvania Farmers Union, in an op-ed in The Philadelphia Inquirer, October 2002.
Container Recycling Institute © Bottle Bills Create Jobs New JobsSource of Data MA1,800 Report of Cabinet Task Force on Bottle Bill, Mandatory Deposit Legislation for MA. May MI4,684 US GAO, State’s Experience with Beverage Container Deposit Laws Shows Positive Benefits. Dec, NY3,800 NY Beer Wholesalers Association, NYS Returnable Container Act: A Preliminary Study, VT VT Agency for Environmental Conservation, VT 5-Cent Deposit, 1977.
Container Recycling Institute © Bottle Bills Complement Curbside Recycling More people in bottle bill states are served by curbside recycling than in states without a bottle bill. Percent Source: BioCycle 2001
Container Recycling Institute © “If the goal is to capture the maximum amount of materials possible, then curbside recycling, deposits, and drop-off centers should all be part of a well thought out pollution prevention and waste reduction plan.” Lanier Hickman Former Director Solid Waste Management Association of North America
Container Recycling Institute © In 2002 the BEAR multi- stakeholder group agreed that CDL is cost effective The 10 bottle bill states recycle 490 containers per capita per year, at a cost of 1.53 cents per unit. The 40 non-bottle bill states recycle 191 containers per capita per year, at a cost of 1.24 cents per unit. Thus, for a minimal price increase, more than two and a half times as many containers are recovered! Note: the 11th bottle bill state, Hawaii implemented their law in 2005
Container Recycling Institute © Bottle Bills Decrease Taxpayer Burden “…it (the Returnable Container Act - RCA) has internalized the cost of solid waste management for beverage containers covered by the RCA…Therefore the taxpayer does not have to subsidize the disposal of empty beverage containers.” Then-Governor of New York George Pataki Then-Governor of New York George Pataki
Container Recycling Institute © Financial Incentives are the Most Effective Way to Ensure High Container Recovery Rates Program Typical Participation & Capture Rate Financial Incentive Value Traditional66%5 cents Michigan96%10 cents California67%5-10 cents Curbside/Drop- off 34%None
Container Recycling Institute © Bottle Bills are Popular
Container Recycling Institute © Every state has attempted to pass a bottle bill.
Container Recycling Institute © FACT: Bottle Bills work, and they work everywhere! FACT: No state Bottle Bill has ever been repealed! In fact, three states have expanded their original bottle bills to include other containers. Maine California Oregon
Container Recycling Institute © What is the Future of CONTAINER DEPOSIT LEGISLATION?
Container Recycling Institute © Opportunities Urgency to conserve energy and reduce climate-changing greenhouse gas emissions Growing demand for “producer responsibility” Falling recycling rates for aluminum, glass and PET containers Increase in litter and beverage container waste New bottle bill and expanded bottle bill efforts Inadequate supply of feedstocks in the PET, glass and aluminum recycling industries New coalitions of environmentalists and businesses support container deposits Increased editorial support from major newspapers
Container Recycling Institute © Growing Beverage Container Waste = Greater Need for Bottle Bills Glass Aluminum Plastic Source: American Plastics Council, CRI, US Dept. of Commerce Billions of Units Wasted
Container Recycling Institute © Challenges Industry myths about recycling and bottle bills Special interest financing of political campaigns Declining public attention to recycling Hauling industry desire to collect valuable beverage container materials to offset their costs
Container Recycling Institute © “To reduce litter immediately, city and state leaders should push for an expanded bottle bill…It’s possible, if leaders have the courage to take on the powerful bottlers’ lobby.” Editorial New York Times, July 2002
Container Recycling Institute © Container Recycling Institute 89 East Lake Shore Trail Glastonbury, CT Visit us on the web at:
© Container Recycling Institute Rural Community Assistance Program August 23, 2005 Washington, DC BIG RETURNS Pat Franklin, Executive Director Container.
Container Recycling Institute c APR Meeting - February 18, 2002 Albuquerque, NM Can the Downward Trend of PET Recycling be Reversed? CONTAINER RECYCLING.
1Container Recycling Institute 2005 Plastic Debris – Rivers to Sea Redondo Beach, California September 7-9, 2005 Stopping Plastic Beverage Bottle Debris.
1Container Recycling Institute 2006 Potomac Watershed Trash Summit Washington, DC March 16, 2006 There ’ s Treasure in the Trash Pat Franklin Executive.
PPI webinar on EPR for Packaging Susan V. Collins Container Recycling Institute March 7, Container Recycling Institute © 2011.
The PET Supply Crisis: A Problem in Need of a Solution CONTAINER RECYCLING INSTITUTE CRI Container Recycling Institute 2006.
1Container Recycling Institute 2007 Updating the Bottle Bill A Public Forum Hartford, Connecticut March 6, 2007 Pat Franklin Executive Director Container.
Florida Waste Reduction and Recycling Initiative Surfrider Foundation Presented by Phil Leary, AICP.
BOTTLED WATER: THE IMPACT ON MUNICIPAL WASTE STREAMS Brett Rosenberg The U.S. Conference of Mayors May 1, 2008 New York City.
Beverage Container Recycling Summit Nov Blue Mountain Lake, NY The State of Wasting and Recycling Beverage Containers in America Jennifer Gitlitz,
“Conversation in Commodities” Glass Recycling Markets & Trends Indiana Recycling Coalition June 10, 2015 Lynn Bragg President, Glass Packaging Institute.
Team One Brett Baumgartner Lauren Butz Zack DeMar Katherine Hanson Phil Lewis Brian Luevano Penelope Scott Dan Sullivan 1.
Glass Packaging Institute Bryan Vickers Glass Packaging Institute Food & Beverage Packaging Value Chain Meeting Washington, DC December 12, 2013 Glass.
Container Recycling Institute c Plastic Bottles: Recycling is Down - Wasting is Up.
California Integrated Waste Management Board Sustainability and Market Development Committee Agenda Item 15 December 5, 2006
Why Recycling is Important Monroe Area High Future Business Leaders of America.
PaintCare Paint Stewardship Program Alison Keane, VP, Government Affairs, ACA General Counsel, PaintCare.
Glass Packaging Institute West Coast Protective League Meeting National Update Lynn Bragg President Glass Packaging Institute Glass is ENDLESSLY Recyclable.
EXTENDED PRODUCER RESPONSIBILITY Lynne Pledger GRRN Zero Waste Conference, October 20, 2009.
1. 2 Family/Community Involvement Health Education Health Promotion for Staff Healthy School Environment Health Services Physical Education Counseling,
Pay As You Throw – An Incentive Based System Town of West Boylston, MA.
2 Coca-Cola in Alabama There are more than 1,800 Coca-Cola associates in the state.
Glass Packaging Institute – Industry Update Bryan Vickers, GPI Carolina Recycling Association Annual Conference Myrtle Beach, SC April 10, 2013 Glass is.
The Economics of Climate Change Policy Prepared for: CEO Climate Change Task Force Meeting American Public Power Association Washington, D.C. December.
Economic and Environmental Benefits of a Deposit System for Beverage Containers in the State of Washington Dr. Jeffrey Morris, Sound Resource Mgt. Rick.
Rigid Plastic Packaging Container Conference Perspectives on the RPPC Law Tim Shestek American Plastics Council May 15, 2000.
Solid and Hazardous Waste. Solid waste : any unwanted or discarded material we produce that is not a liquid or gas. Municipal solid waste (MSW): produced.
Changing the Way South Carolina Values Trash Kristen Brown – Green Waste Solutions April 10, 2013 Turning waste into new products that can be sold to consumers.
BOTTLED WATER: BACKGROUND, HISTORY, AND ARGUMENTS.
John Davis Mojave Desert and Mountain Recycling Authority.
Angelina Pellegrini Marketing Presentation June 2010 Angelina Pellegrini Marketing Presentation June 2010 Mission Trail Waste Systems Waste Management.
The Economics of Climate Change Policy By: Dr. Margo Thorning, Ph.D. Senior Vice President and Chief Economist American Council for Capital Formation Washington,
Rigid Plastic Packaging Container Regulations Economic and Fiscal Impact Analysis Presented by: Neal Johnson March 8, 2009.
Northeast Regional Electronics Management Project Rona J. Cohen The Council of State Governments/Eastern Regional Conference Great Lakes Regional Pollution.
Municipal Solid Waste Generation, Recycling, and Disposal in the U.S. for 2006 U.S. EPA Office of Solid Waste November 2007.
TESC 211 The Science of Environmental Sustainability Autumn Quarter 2011 UWT.
Chapter 18.2 Solutions to the Solid Waste Problem source reduction defined by EPA as “the practice of designing, manufacturing, purchasing, or using materials.
A THREAT TO RURAL AMERICA Overview of EPA Proposed Rule.
What Should EPR for Packaging Look Like? Susan Hubbard, Principal, Nothing Left to Waste, CRADLE2 Steering Committee - Minneapolis, MN Eric Lombardi, Executive.
California’s Greenhouse Gas Emission Reduction Law and Nuclear Power California State Assemblyman Chuck DeVore January 26, 2009 Presented in the California.
Show-Me Recycling The Missouri Recycling Association’s statewide education campaign that showcases sustainable programs that improve the economy and community.
Eleven states united to develop and promote sustainable recycling programs. Together we can boost recycling in the Southeast.
Owens-Illinois, Inc. Beverage Container Deposit Programs Mike Smaha – O-I Manager, U.S. Government Affairs Virginia Recycling Association 2012.
EPR webconference Tues 15 Feb 2011 Jane Bickerstaffe Director INCPEN.
NRRA Recycling Jobs – Now and in the Future CRI’s Jobs Study: Returning to Work Susan V. Collins Container Recycling Institute June 5, 2012 Container Recycling.
Policy Committee Report Virginia Recycling Association Annual Members Meeting Charlottesville, Virginia November 8, VRA Policy Committee Report1.
Top Reasons Why So Many Don’t Recycle!. No Personal Incentive Unlike pop bottle returns, there’s no financial payout. Many people don’t feel compelled.
Working Together for Environmental Health. The most effective way to reduce waste is to not create it in the first place. By reducing and reusing, consumers.
American Foundry Society – Small Foundry Conference December 3-4, 2008 – Schaumburg, IL Highlight on AFS Energy Management Brian Reinke, President TDI.
Exam #2 on Oct. 11 HW #4 due same day FINAL EXAM – Monday Dec. 12 Section am Section 2 - 3:10pm.
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