Presentation on theme: "BIOL 4120: Principles of Ecology Lecture 19: Decomposition and Nutrient Cycling Dafeng Hui Room: Harned Hall 320 Phone: 963-5777"— Presentation transcript:
BIOL 4120: Principles of Ecology Lecture 19: Decomposition and Nutrient Cycling Dafeng Hui Room: Harned Hall 320 Phone:
21.1 Most essential nutrients are recycled within ecosystem Internal cycling Retranslocation or reabsorption
Fast way compared to uptake
21.2 Variety of organisms involved in decomposition Decomposition is the breakdown of chemical bonds formed during the construction of plant and animal tissues. Processes: leaching, fragmentation, changes in physical and chemical structure, ingestion and excretion of waste products. Bacteria are dominant decomposer (animal) Fungi (plant) Aided by detritivores 4 major groups Microfauna(flora), mesofauna, macrofauna, and megafauna
21.3 Decomposition rate measurement Litterbag method Mesh bag Mass of remaining in the bag includes both original plant matter as well as bacteria and fungi that have colonized and grown on the plant litter. Carbon is lost to the atmosphere as CO2 in the process of respiration
Based on the data, the decomposition rate can be calculated
Decomposition rate calculated as k= wk-1 and wk-1 for two tree species
21.4 Rates of Decomposition and influencing factors Rate at which nutrients are made available to primary producers is determined largely by rate of decomposition. influenced by: temperature, moisture, chemical compositions of leaves
Influencing factors Quality of litter And (Physical environments) Proteins and soluble C are decomposed very fast, then the cellulose and hemicellulose, lignin is very difficult to decompose
Physical conditions influence litter decomposition O2 concentration Decomposition of Spartina litter is more efficient in aerobic than anaerobic conditions Lack of fungi, which require oxygen for respiration, hinders the decomposition of lignin component, slow the decomposition rate. Litter bags on the marsh surface
Changes in climate influence litter decomposition Decomposition of red maple litter at three sites (litter quality similar for three sites). Warm and wet conditions, decompose fast 7.2oC, 621 mm 12.2oC, 720 mm 14.4oC, 806 mm
Temperature influence on decomposition Diurnal changes in air temperature and decomposition in a temperature deciduous forest
21.5 Nutrients in organic matter are mineralized during decomposition Dead organic matter serve as energy source for microbial decomposer. Quality of dead OM varies greatly. Dead leaf N varies from 0.5% to 1.5% High N content means higher nutrient value for microbes and fungi that feed on the leaf.
Mineralization, immobilization and net mineralization rate Mineralization: a process that microbial decomposers –bacterial and fungi- transform nitrogen and other elements contained in organic matter compounds into inorganic (or mineral) forms. Organic N ammonia (waste product of microbial metabolism) Immobilization: uptake and assimilation of mineral nitrogen by microbial decomposer. N used by microbes to grow Net mineralization rate: different between the rate of mineralization and immobilization
Nitrogen remaining in the litter during decomposition Initial phase (A) leaching soluble N, then immobilized by microbes, then net N release from litter.
Chemical compositions of leaves in response to nutrients C:N ratio low C:N ratio – high protein level High C:N ration – low in proteins, high in lignin and secondary metabolites Leaf C:N ration is influenced by nutrients availability in the environment Leaf C:N ration influences decomposition rate and interactions with herbivores Nutrient requirements for compensatory growth
Litter bag result (winter rye in agricultural field) C:N decreases during decomposition (nitrogen is immobilized and carbon is released back to atmosphere as CO2)
N content influence the decomposition Under high N, the initial N can exceed the rate of immobilization from onset of experiment, N concentration will not increase
Patterns of immobilization and mineralization of sulfur (S), calcium (Ca), and manganese (Mn) in decomposing needles of Scots pine Five year litterbag experiment
21.7 Key ecosystem processes influence the rate of nutrient cycling Primary productivity determines rate of nutrient transform from inorganic form to organic form (nutrient uptake) Decomposition determines the rate of transformation of organic to inorganic form (N mineralization) Rate of these two determine the internal cycling
Feedback between nutrient availability, NPP and N release
Litter quality and N mineralization rate RR: red pine, RO, red oak, WO white oak, SM sugar maple, WP white pine, Hem hemlock.
21.6 Decomposition in aquatic environment Similar to terrestrial ecosystem, with major influence by water environment Permanently submerged plant litters decompose more rapidly, because of there are more accessible to detritivores and stable physical environment is more favorable to microbial decomposer
21.8 Nutrient cycling differs between terrestrial and open-water aquatic ecosystems In terrestrial ecosystem (shallow water), plants bridge the physical separation between the zones. In deep ocean, there is no direct link. Need a transport system.
Turnover of water and nutrient link two zones together
Change in T, light and nutrient influence NPP, and photosynthesis also influences nutrient availability
21.9 Water flow influences nutrient cycling in streams and rivers Nutrient spiraling Jack Webster (Virginia Tech?) Because nutrients are continuously being transported downstream, a spiral rather than a cycle better represents the cycling of nutrients. One cycle in the spiral: uptake of one nutrient atom, its passage through food chain, and its return to water, where it is available for re-use. The longer the distance required, the more open the spiral.
Why NP decrease when PPT is very high?
Outline (Chapter 21) Decomposition and Nutrient Cycling 21.1 Most essential nutrients are recycled within the ecosystem 21.2 Decomposition is a complex process involving a variety of organisms
Static deep water forms three layers Surface warm oxygen rich layer Deep cold oxygen poor layer Narrow transition zone or thermocline Mixing from weather does not affect hypolimnion However in winter, thermocline disappears Mixing vertically Thus winter replenishes the Epilimnion’s nutrients While summer depletes the Epilimnion’s nutrients
Flowing systems are different Inputs from terrestrial systems are significant Leaves, seepage, etc Spiraling Varies with speed of water Varies with biological system holding nutrients Retention of detritus can results in tighter spiral Woodland stream P moves 10.4 m/d P cycles once every 18.4 d One spiral was 190 m
Where terrestrial and open water system join Influenced by both systems Meeting of fresh and salt water Creates nutrient trap Limits release of nutrients into sea Coastal areas Upwelling Equatorial Coriolis force causes by counter currents at equator Upwelling between Coastal Coriiolis force wind causes offshore currents and upwelling at continental edge