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Practice with the Argument- Rhetorical Appeals

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Presentation on theme: "Practice with the Argument- Rhetorical Appeals"— Presentation transcript:

1 Practice with the Argument- Rhetorical Appeals

2 Rhetorical Triangle Definition
The Rhetorical Triangle is defined as a diagram showing the relations of writer /speaker, reader/listener (audience) and text (subject) in a rhetorical situation.

3 Rhetorical Triangle- Examples
The ETHOS of a speaker or writer means that he or she must establish credibility and a sense of fairness. The PATHOS or reaching out to the audience is done through diction, imagery, and syntax. The LOGOS or message is the logic of the argument where diction and syntax is used to create logic.

4 Example- Actor Will Smith at the Live 8 Concert (2005)
Click picture for YouTube Clip (10 minutes)

5 Pathos and Ethos Will Smith wears a Nelson Mandela shirt which elicits an emotional appeal from the audience. Smith establishes credibility with the crowd as a political speaker for an ethical cause.

6 Pathos and Ethos Next to a reproduction of the Declaration of Independence -- signed in Philadelphia, the venue of the Live 8 concert -- Will Smith appeals to the crowd’s emotions. Smith, who is from Philly, establishes that he is the best speaker to deliver the message.

7 Logos Smith uses the phrases “declaration of interdependence” and “we find these truths to be self-evident” thus alluding to the Founding Fathers’ document to create a logical connection between his message and the American purpose.

8 Logos and Pathos Smith employs a clever use of the number three, a number that has been used by speakers since the age of Aristotle to reach an audience. “Every three seconds a child in the world dies of preventable diseases.” Using logic and emotion, Smith delivers his message.

9 Ethos- Kinesthetic Connection
Will Smith snaps his fingers every three seconds to announce another tragic death of a child. The audience mimics his physical action by snapping with Smith.

10 Making a Claim Smith states his claim that he is not asking for money from the audience just signatures for a petition. His use of numbers----eight men making the difference for billions of people---employs a logical appeal to reach the audience.

11 Snap, Snap, Snap

12 Ethos and Pathos-Film A short film with actors, musicians and celebrities from different races, countries and political beliefs follows Smith’s speech to emphasize the fact that the issue Smith speaks about is global and is everyone’s problem.

13 The Singer Solution to World Poverty
What are your thoughts when you examine these images? Images from the article originally published in New York Magazine.

14 The Singer Solution to World Poverty
Read the article from Peter Singer, “The Singer Solution to World Poverty” (Click on the hyperlink to access the article). Images from the article originally published in New York Magazine.

15 The Dora Dilemma Was Dora right to sell the child “into adoption” and buy a television set with the proceeds? Since the circumstances changed, discuss Dora’s decision to track down the boy and steal him back. The Brazilian film “Central Station” Peter Singer Dora and the boy

16 The Bob Dilemma Now that you have heard (and read) Peter Singer’s thoughts, do we, as a society, act like Bob? Did Bob make an ethical, emotional or logical choice? Was his choice right or wrong? The Bugatti from the film clip A train switching tracks Simon Cowell’s Bugatti


18 Assessment 1. What does Singer use to lead into his main argument?
A. An example from a film B. A quote from a poem C. A lyric from a song D. A statistic from Save the Children 2. How does Singer describe himself? A. as a utilitarian romantic B. as a heartless romantic C. as a utilitarian philosopher D. a Third World crusader 3. When Peter Singer states: "Whatever money you're spending on luxuries, not necessities, should be given away," this is his: A. creed for all living in America B. introduction C. epilogue D. thesis (claim)

19 Assessment 4. Singer makes a basic ASSUMPTION about the affluence of his audience. This assumption is based on which premise? A. Americans will support his right to free speech. B. The article was originally published in the New York Times Magazine, normally an educated and affluent readership. C. Most people who read this article will give to charity . D. His pathos (emotional appeal) will reach his audience. 5. In the essay, why does Peter Singer use the phrase "fair share?” Read paragraph 19-20: beginning with the sentence, “At this point various objections may crop up”. A. to espouse socialist views B. because it is a familiar phrase accepted for standard behavior C. to point out the extreme injustice in this world D. to infuriate the reader

20 Assessment 6. Re-read the final two paragraphs of the essay. As suggested by these paragraphs, Singer's true purpose is : A. to have all people donate all the extra money they have B. to have us think twice about spending on luxuries knowing the money can be used for other purpose s C. to change the resources and wealth as it exists so that poor nations are equal to rich nations - D. to present utilitarian philosophy 7. What do paragraphs (read below) contribute to Singer's argument? Beginning with paragraph that contains the sentence, “Isn't it counterproductive to ask people to do so much?” Read that paragraph and then the next two and ending with the sentence, “That would be taking fairness too far.” A. Demonstrates examples to support his thesis B. Creates doubt in the reader's mind C. Raises objections readers will make to his proposal D. All of the above

21 Assessment 8. Where in the essay does Singer use COMPARISON and CONTRAST? I. between financially comfortable U.S. readers and Dora, the Central Station character. II. between the readers and Bob, the Bugatti owner III. between Dora and Bob A. I only B. II only C. I and II only D. I, II, and III 9. What is Singer's point in taking the example of Bob to the extreme? A. Singer encourages the readers to rethink luxuries when people are starving. B. Singer demonizes Bob for his choice of sacrificing the child. C. Singer points out how wrong it is to have rich and poor countries. D. Singer feels that only in tragedy can there be understanding of life.

22 AP Language Argument Essay
The College Board used Peter Singer’s “The Singer Solution to World Poverty” for the 2005 Open Response Essay Question. Click on the hyperlinks to access the prompt, rubric, and sample essays. Prompt (It is the third question) Rubric (It is the third rubric) Sample Essays and Key (It is the third question)

23 Common Core ELA Standards
W  Write arguments to support claims in an analysis of substantive topics or texts, using valid reasoning and relevant and sufficient evidence. Introduce precise, knowledgeable claim(s), establish the significance of the claim(s), distinguish the claim(s) from alternate or opposing claims, and create an organization that logically sequences claim(s), counterclaims, reasons, and evidence. Develop claim(s) and counterclaims fairly and thoroughly, supplying the most relevant evidence for each while pointing out the strengths and limitations of both in a manner that anticipates the audience’s knowledge level, concerns, values, and possible biases. Use words, phrases, and clauses as well as varied syntax to link the major sections of the text, create cohesion, and clarify the relationships between claim(s) and reasons, between reasons and evidence, and between claim(s) and counterclaims. Establish and maintain a formal style and objective tone while attending to the norms and conventions of the discipline in which they are writing. Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from and supports the argument presented. RI  Determine two or more central ideas of a text and analyze their development over the course of the text, including how they interact and build on one another to provide a complex analysis; provide an objective summary of the text. RI  Analyze a complex set of ideas or sequence of events and explain how specific individuals, ideas, or events interact and develop over the course of the text. RI  Analyze and evaluate the effectiveness of the structure an author uses in his or her exposition or argument, including whether the structure makes points clear, convincing, and engaging. RI  Determine an author’s point of view or purpose in a text in which the rhetoric is particularly effective, analyzing how style and content contribute to the power, persuasiveness or beauty of the text.

24 Works Cited Barrera, Carlos. "Will Smith and Black Eyed Peas Live 8." YouTube. YouTube, 05 June Web. . <>. The College Board. "AP English Language and Composition 2005 Free-Response Questions." AP Central. The College Board, Web. < ory/_ap05_frq_englishlang_45428.pdf>. "Rhetorical Triangle." Rhetorical Triangle. N.p., n.d. Web. <>.

25 Works Cited "Rhetorical Triangle." Rhetorical Triangle. N.p., n.d. Web. . <>. Rozkelly, Hepzibah. "What Do Students Need to Know About Rhetoric?" AP Central. The College Board, n.d. Web. < _englang_roskelly_50098.pdf>. Singer, Peter. "The Singer Solution to World Poverty." New York Times Sunday Magazine- New York Times on the Web. Brandeis University Department of Philosophy, <>. "World Poverty Infographic." Behance Network. N.p., n.d. Web. < Infographic/ >. Answers to Assessment: 1. A, 2. C, 3. D, 4. B, 5. B, 6. B, 7. C, 8. D, 9. A

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