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Information Communication Technology Pradeep Jobanputra.

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1 Information Communication Technology Pradeep Jobanputra

2 information Data that has been verified to be accurate and timely, is specific and organized for a purpose, is presented within a context that gives it meaning and relevance, and that can lead to an increase in understanding and decrease in uncertainty.

3 The value of information The value of information lies solely in its ability to affect a behaviour, decision, or outcome. A piece of information is considered valueless if, after receiving it, things remain unchanged

4 Communication Communication is giving, receiving or exchanging ideas, information, signals or messages through appropriate media, enabling individuals or groups to persuade, to seek information, to give information or to express emotions.

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6 INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY “Scientific, technological and engineering disciplines and management techniques used in information handling and processing, their application, computers and their interaction with men and machines, and associated social, economical and cultural matters”. UNESCO

7 INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY a mosaic of technologies, products and techniques have combined to provide new electronic dimensions to information management. – Smith & Cambell (1982)

8 INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY a term – used to cover technologies used in the collection, processing and transmission of information. It includes micro-electronic and info-electronic based technologies incorporated in many products and production processes and increasingly affecting the service sector. It covers inter alias computers, electronic office equipment, telecommunication, industrial robot and computer controlled machine, electronic components and software products.” OECD (1987)

9 INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY IT was limited only to the textual mode of transmission of information with ease and fast. But the information not only in textual form but in audio, video or any other media is also to be transmitted to the users. Thus, The ICT = IT + Other media.

10 What Is Learning? Learning Learning is a relatively permanent change in human capabilities that is not a result of growth processes. These capabilities are related to specific learning outcomes.

11 Do you think Learning process should be changed…?

12 new avenues Online learning e-learning Virtual University e-coaching e-education e-journal,

13 How its All Changed! Over the last twenty years, technology has reorganized how we live, how we communicate, and how we learn.

14 Only 40 years ago Learners would complete the required schooling and enter a career that would often last a lifetime. Information development was slow.

15 KNOWLEDGE HAS a HALF-LIFE The half-life of knowledge was measured in decades. Today, these foundational principles have been altered. Knowledge is growing exponentially. In many fields the half-life of knowledge is now measured in minutes, months and years.

16 Gonzalez (2004) “One of the most persuasive factors is the shrinking half-life of knowledge. The “half-life of knowledge” is the time span from when knowledge is gained to when it becomes obsolete…

17 No Way to KNOW it All…...Half of what is known today was not known 10 years ago. The amount of knowledge in the world has doubled in the past 10 years and is doubling every 18 months according to the American Society of Training and Documentation (ASTD).

18 NEW WAYS OF TEACHING To combat the shrinking half-life of knowledge, organizations have been forced to develop new methods of deploying instruction.”

19 LEARNING takes place MOSTLY Informally– Outside the Classroom Informal learning is a significant aspect of our learning experience. Formal education no longer comprises the majority of our learning. Learning now occurs in a variety of ways – through communities of practice (peer sharing), personal networks (chat, blogs, , research), and through completion of work-related tasks (hands-on learning).

20 LEARNING NEVER ENDS Learning is a continual process, coursing a lifetime. Learning and work related activities are no longer separate. In many situations, they are the same.

21 Some questions to explore in relation to learning theories and the impact of technology and new sciences (chaos and networks) on learning: Technology is altering (rewiring) our brains. The tools we use define and shape our thinking. Many of the processes previously handled by learning can now be off- loaded to, or supported by, technology. Know-how and know-what is being supplemented with know-where (the understanding of where to find knowledge needed). THE TECHNOLOGY THAT LEARNS

22 CLASSROOMS ARE DIFFERENT How is learning impacted when knowledge is no longer acquired in the linear manner? Our brains are parallel processors. Our students are learning to multi- task by using computers. New career requirements will demand parallel thinking in high information flow processes.

23 CURRENT & RELEVANT? What adjustments need to made with teaching strategies when technology performs many of the cognitive operations previously performed by learners (information storage and retrieval). How can we continue to stay current in a rapidly evolving information society?

24 How is Classroom Changed?

25 NEW SKILLS Currently the most valuable skills to industry include complex pattern recognition and interpretation of diverse futuristic scenarios. Increased recognition of interconnections in differing fields of knowledge allows hardware systems to have “knowledge.” How are we preparing students to succeed?

26 Alternative Ways of Thinking “Connection making” as a learning activity begins to define learning in the digital age. New theories in education concede that we can no longer personally experience everything OR acquire all the information that we need to act effectively.

27 3 Cs We will derive our competence from forming connections—networking with other people or other resources. We will need collaboration, community, and connectivity to be effective, current, and knowledgeable.

28 Karen Stephenson states: “Experience has long been considered the best teacher of knowledge. Since we cannot experience everything, other people’s experiences, and hence other people, become substitutes for knowledge.

29 Woodrow Wilson “I not only use all my own brain power, but all the brain power I can borrow from anyone else.”

30 NEW WAYS OF THINKING… ScienceWeek (2004) quotes Nigel Calder Today’s Complex Information appears as “a cryptic form of order”. Meaning exists – the learner's challenge is to decode or recognize the patterns which appear to be hidden.

31 FINDING MEANING IN CHAOS Meaning-making and forming connections between specialized information sources (collaboration, community, and connectivity) are now vital activities.

32 THINKING… recognizes the connection of everything to everything. Gleick (1987) states: “In weather, for example, this translates into what is only half-jokingly known as the Butterfly Effect – the notion that a butterfly stirring the air today in Peking can transform storm systems next month in New York” (p. 8).

33 A Network can simply be defined as connections between entities. Computer networks, power grids, and social networks all function on the simple principle that people, groups, systems, nodes, entities can be connected to create an integrated whole.

34 Ripple Effects Alterations within the network have ripple effects on the whole. Literally, we ARE all connected. Understanding how and taking advantage of that fact will be a new way of thinking, teaching, and learning.

35 Nodes (information transfer stations) “always compete for connections because links represent survival in an interconnected world” Nodes that successfully acquire greater profile will be more successful at acquiring additional connections. In a learning sense, the likelihood that a concept of learning will be linked depends on how well it is currently linked—how well it is being given attention

36 Teachers, Ideas, Databases Nodes (can be teachers, ideas, communities) that specialize and gain recognition for their expertise. Anyone that has a greater chance of connectivity and recognition will have a greater influence on the learning communities. Isn’t that what every teacher wants? To gain a greater chance of making a difference? Teachers, however, are competing with all other nodes in the community (games, chat, blogs, etc.).

37 The Ability to KNOW New information is continually being generated & acquired. The ability to draw distinctions between important and unimportant information is vital. The ability to recognize when new information alters the landscape based on decisions made yesterday is also critical. One must detect what is OLD and what is current information.

38 Principles of Connectivism: Learning and knowledge rests in the diversity of opinions. The more heads we put together with different points-of-view (diversity), the better our solution is likely to be. Collaboration makes it possible for students to learn different points-of- view.

39 CAPACITY The Capacity to know more is more critical than what is currently known Nurturing and maintaining connections (collaborations, community) is needed to facilitate continual learning. Ability to see connections between facts, ideas, and concepts is a core skill.

40 BEING CURRENT Currency (accurate, up-to-date knowledge) is the intent of all connectivist learning activities. Decision-making is itself a learning process. Choosing what to learn and the meaning of incoming information are seen through the lens of a shifting reality.

41 Solutions change While there is a right answer now, it may be wrong tomorrow…. due to alterations in time and situations…. therefore LEARNING CANNOT STOP.

42 Connectivity must be Constant Knowledge that resides in a database needs to be connected with the right people in the right context, at the right time in order to be classified as learning. Staying connected means constantly updating our knowledge. Staying current is the only way to stay knowledgeable.

43 Information Flow= , Web,etc. Information flow within an organization is an important element in organizational effectiveness. In a knowledge economy, the flow of information is the equivalent of the oil pipe in an industrial economy.

44 WHY ClassServer? Creating, preserving, and utilizing information flow should be a key organizational activity.

45 HEALTH of a LEARNING Community The health of the learning community depends on effective nurturing of information flow. Within social networks, “Hubs” are well-connected people who are able to foster and maintain knowledge flow. “Change Agents” create effective knowledge flow, enabling understanding of critical information that supports change.

46 PERSONAL LEARNING We, personally, can learn exponentially when we make connections to our own “small worlds of knowledge” through collaboration, community, and connectivity. Pattern recognition (making sense out of mounds of data) is the key to digital information resources.

47 School Example At Maricopa County Community College a system project links senior citizens with elementary school students in a mentor program. The children “listen to these “grandparents” better than they do their own parents, the mentoring really helps the teachers…the small efforts of the many- the seniors – complement the large efforts of the few – the teachers.” (2002).

48 Multi-generational Connectivity This amplification of learning, knowledge and understanding through the extension of a personal network is the epitome of Connectivism.

49 Conclusion: Our ability to learn what we need for tomorrow is more important than what we know today. When knowledge is needed, but not known, the ability to plug into sources to meet the requirements becomes a vital skill.

50 Life-long Learning Skills As knowledge continues to grow and evolve, access to what is needed is more important than what the learner currently possesses. Information Literacy & Research are life-long survival skills. Teaching SCANS in all areas of the curriculum will be valuable to all students for a life time.

51 The Seven Learning Styles Visual (spatial):You prefer using pictures, images, and spatial understanding. Visual Aural (auditory-musical): You prefer using sound and music. Aural Verbal (linguistic): You prefer using words, both in speech and writing. Verbal Physical (kinesthetic): You prefer using your body, hands and sense of touch. Physical Logical (mathematical): You prefer using logic, reasoning and systems. Logical Social (interpersonal): You prefer to learn in groups or with other people. Social Solitary (intrapersonal): You prefer to work alone and use self-study. Solitary

52 Each learning style is associated with both left- and right-brain learners. Left-brain learners are logical, rational, sequential, serial, verbal learners. Right-brain learners are intuitive, emotional, holistic, parallel, and tactile learners. left- and right-brain learners

53 STEPLEFT MODERIGHT MODE WHY? (Motivate and Develop Meaning) 1 Create an experience (CONNECT) 2 Analyze/reflect about the experience (EXAMINE) WHAT? (Reflection and Concept Development) 3 Integrate reflective analysis into concepts (IMAGE) 4 Develop concepts/skills (DEFINE) HOW? (Usefulness & Skill Development) 5 Practice defined "givens" (BY) 6 Practice and add something of oneself (EXTEND) IF? (Adaptations) 7 Analyze application for relevance (REFINE) 8 Do it and apply to more complex experience (INTEGRATE)

54 areas Teaching Diagnostic Testing Remedial Teaching Evaluation Psychological Testing Development of Virtual Laboratory Online Tutoring Development of Reasoning & Thinking Instructional Material Development

55 USE OF ICT IN TEACHING developing understanding and application of the concepts developing expression power developing reasoning and thinking power development of judgment and decision making ability improving comprehension, speed and vocabulary developing self-concept and value clarification developing proper study habits developing tolerance and ambiguity, risk taking capacity, scientific temper, etc.

56 USE OF ICT IN DIAGNOSTIC TESTING They do not require any special setting or arrangement. The only requirement is computer systems and software. The student can use it even from home if made available on school website. They do not need any special assistance from teacher. Unlike the paper-pencil test, it does not require paper setting and paper correction on the part of the teacher.

57 USE OF ICT IN DIAGNOSTIC TESTING It saves time on the part of the teacher and students. The feedback is given immediately after the test is over, which gives an intrinsic reinforcement to the student. The student finds it more interesting and motivating as compared to the paper-pencil diagnostic test. It can be updated from time to time. It is economical in terms of money as it requires only one time investment.

58 limitations of Computer Based Diagnostic Testing (CBDT) The learner might find it uninteresting or monotonous as compared to paper pencil test. The teacher might find CBDT difficult to administer if he / she is not a computer savvy. It faces certain constraints, like, power cut, when it is being administered. The learner might not take it seriously as he / she is used to the traditional paper and pencil tests. The development of CBDT is costly and tedious as compared to paper and pencil test.

59 limitations of Computer Based Diagnostic Testing (CBDT) The use of CBDT requires many computers which may not be available in all the schools. The learners who are not computer friendly might not feel at ease while giving the test on Computer. Certain technical problems might crop up which can distract the learner while giving the test. All teachers may not be competent to develop diagnostic test and especially CBDT. Teacher may not know computer languages that may be used for developing CBDT.

60 USE OF ICT IN REMEDIAL TEACHING The Remedial Teaching can be done by the teacher if some common mistakes are identified. It may not be feasible to organize Remedial programme for individual students. At this point, the ICT can be used for giving individual Remedial Programme. It may be Online or off line. The instructional material if designed specifically for meeting the individual needs of students and uploaded on the School website and then the ICT can be used for providing Remedial teaching Programme.

61 USE OF ICT IN EVALUATION

62 teacher’s training

63 USE OF ICT IN PSYCHOLOGICAL TESTING

64 USE OF ICT IN DEVELPING VIRTUAL LABORATORY

65 USE OF ICT IN ONLINE TUTORING

66 USE OF ICT IN DEVELOPING REASONING & THINKING

67 USE OF ICT IN DEVELOPING INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIAL


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