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The Idea of Samogitian Language (žemaičių kalba) in the 19th Century Giedrius Subačius (University of Illinois at Chicago) Università di Pisa, Nov. 26,

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Presentation on theme: "The Idea of Samogitian Language (žemaičių kalba) in the 19th Century Giedrius Subačius (University of Illinois at Chicago) Università di Pisa, Nov. 26,"— Presentation transcript:

1 The Idea of Samogitian Language (žemaičių kalba) in the 19th Century Giedrius Subačius (University of Illinois at Chicago) Università di Pisa, Nov. 26, 2009

2 2 Written varieties: 18–19 th c. Eastern Highland dialect. Vilnius Eastern Highland dialect. Vilnius Central Highland dialect. Kėdainiai Central Highland dialect. Kėdainiai Western Highland dialect. Königsberg Western Highland dialect. Königsberg Western Lithuania. Lowland dialects Western Lithuania. Lowland dialects

3 3 Since mid-18 th c.

4

5 1800–1831 1832–1863 1864–1885... 5

6 1800–1831: Dionizas POŠKA Simonas STANEVIČIUS Arnulfas GIEDRAITIS 6

7 Poškas’s Dictionary

8

9 Kajetonas Nezabitauskis (and Dionizas Poška) 9

10 Kaj. Nezabitauskis digraf. ij or ji (like Poška) (South Lowland.): Kjily ~ kielė kurji ~ kurie netolji ~ netolie

11 Count Rumiancev

12 Simonas Stanevičius 12

13 dina ~ dieną kik ~ kiek lipy ~ liepė winas ~ vienas witas ~ vietas

14 Bishop Arnulfas Giedraitis

15 Highland New Testam. Lowland features present: gerans ~ geriąs imans ~ imąs iszduodans ~ išduodąs miegans ~ miegąs sakans ~ sakąs dransiasnia ~ drąsesnia dransumą ~ drąsumą

16 1832–1863: Jurgis PABRĖŽA Simonas DAUKANTAS Motiejus VALANČIUS 16

17 Pabrėža’s Sermon

18 Grammar of Kasakauskis

19 Grammar of Gross

20 Simonas Daukantas 20

21 Daukantas’s Grammar

22

23 Daukantas’s Primer

24 Daukantas’s Cultural History

25 25

26 Bishop Motiejus Valančius

27

28 1864–1885 (standard) 28

29 29 Written varieties after 1864 Central Highland dialect. Kėdainiai Central Highland dialect. Kėdainiai Western Lithuania. Lowland dialects Western Lithuania. Lowland dialects Western Highland dialect. Königsberg Western Highland dialect. Königsberg

30 30 Cyrillic letters Standard Lithuanian: Diedas šoka Standard English: An old man dances Cyrillic Lithuanian: Дедасъ шока ‘Cyrillic English’: Анъ олдъ манъ данцесъ

31 31 Cyrillic for Lithuanian 1865–1904 Standard Lithuanian: Diedas šoka Cyrillic Lithuanian: Дедасъ шока Standard Lithuanian : Diedas šoka STANDARDLITHUANIAN

32 32 Paradoxes Paradox 1. The “Polish” letters were prohibited for Lithuanians but not for the Poles. Paradox 2. The standard Lithuanian in Latin alphabet was formed in the period of drastic persecution of it. This probably demonstrates the scale and impact of illegal press the best.

33 33 Latin and Cyrillic alphabets Green – LithuaniaGreen – Lithuania Purple – Cyrillic alphabetPurple – Cyrillic alphabet Yellow – Latin and other alphabetsYellow – Latin and other alphabets

34 34 Ca. 60 Lithuanian books in Cyrillic Short Catechism, Vilnius, 1865.

35 35 Lev Tolstoj, In the Captivity of Caucasus, Vilnius, 1891. Holly history, Warsaw, 1896.

36 36 Example of Ideology: Substitution of Religion Russian authorities also preferred to promote Russian Orthodoxy along with the Cyrillic letters. In 1874 A. Lovtis rewrote it in Latin letters again and substituted to the Catholic one. In 1874 A. Lovtis rewrote it in Latin letters again and substituted to the Catholic one. In Lith. Catechism of 1865 Catholic crossing was substituted by the Orthodox one.

37 37 Historical situation Russian authorities were outraged when the insurrection against Russia took place in Poland and Lithuania in 1863. Authorities decided that they have to distract Lithuanians from the Polish cultural influence by prohibiting the usage of the so-called “Polish” script. They did not want to accept the tradition of 300 years. Instead of the traditional “Polish” script they had offered their own Cyrillic alphabet to Lithuanians. Russian authorities began publishing Lithuanian Cyrillic books at their own cost.

38 38 Alphabets Yellow is Karaliaučius (Königsberg) region in East Prussia; there was Lith. literature printed and smuggled over the border. Red is the territory where the Cyrillic script prevailed.

39 39 Statistics of Lith. publications 1865-1904 (periodicals not included) 3,953 Latin or Gothic script based Lith. publications (2,687 in East Prussia; 712 in the US.) 60 Lith. publications in Cyrillic. Thus, in 40 years there were published approximately 66 times more of Lith. publications in Latin or Gothic script than in Cyrillic.

40 40

41 41

42 42 Grammar Jonas Jablonskis published a Grammar of Lithuanian in 1901. It became a symbolical codifying book for Lithuanian.

43 43 Dictionary For 100 years Lithuanians prepared and published the biggest dictionary they ever had – a comprehensive dictionary of Lithuanian in 20 volumes. It was finished in 2002 in the Research Institute of Lithuanian in Vilnius. Since 2005 it is available online at www.lkz.lt www.lkz.lt

44 44 Daliutė Ona Matulaitė

45 45 J. Zikaras 1881–1944 Sculpture is located in Kaunas, the second largest city of Lithuania. “Book-carrier”, a sculpture by J. Zikaras, 1928

46 46 Envelopes Lithuanian envelopes of 1996 to honor Jurgis Bielinis, the most famous book-carrier. J.Zikaras sculpture is depicted.

47 47

48 48

49 49 Computer game with the book-carriers, 2004

50 50 “The Book-Carrier Grove” In 1990 the “Book-Carrier Grove” was planted in South-West Lithuania. There are 144 oaks at present, 115 of them carry a name of a book-carrier. “The Book-Carrier Grove” in 1990.

51 51 “The Book-Carrier Wall” “Book-Carrier Wall” was erected in 1940. Destroyed in 1950 by Soviets. Then in 1997 it was rebuilt again. 100 most important Lithuanian book- carrier names are listed there in three huge honorable tables. “The Book-Carrier Wall” with a group of bibliophiles.

52 52 “The Book-Carrier Wall” in 1943

53 53 Museum of book-carriers Ustronė, near Krekenava, Panevėžys county

54 54 Association of a Lithuanian book-carrier Association of a Lithuanian book-carrier is an organisation, established in 1983 and registered in 1989. President Irena Kubilienė.

55 http://tigger.uic.edu/~subacius Lecture: The idea of a Samogitian language (žemaičių kalba) in the 19th Century, Nov. 26, 2009 subacius@uic.edu

56 56 Linguistic features of standard Western Highl. long, shortmatyti ‘to see’ <ė>kėdė ‘a chair’ Lowland open, narrowmatity diphthongkiedie Central Highl.no letter matiti no letter <ė>kede Western Highl. long, short matyti ‘to see’ kėdė ‘a chair’ kėdė ‘a chair’ Lowland open, narrow matity diphthong kiedie diphthong kiedie Central Highl. no letter matiti no letter kede no letter kede


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