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CHAPTER 13 Reformation & Religious Warfare in 16 th Century.

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Presentation on theme: "CHAPTER 13 Reformation & Religious Warfare in 16 th Century."— Presentation transcript:

1 CHAPTER 13 Reformation & Religious Warfare in 16 th Century

2 What were the chief ideas of the Christian humanists, and how did they differ from Protestant reformers?

3 Erasmus

4 Thomas More


6 The Church and Religion

7 What were Martin Luther’s main disagreements with the RCC and why did the movement spread so quickly

8 Indulgence Controversy

9 Luther’s Writings and Consequences

10 Spread & Conflict

11 Organizing the Church

12 Political turmoil allows Lutheranism to spread 11519, Charles I of Spain (grandson of Maximilian) elected Holy Roman Emperor  Charles V SSpain & its overseas possessions AAustrian lands BBohemia HHungary LLow Countries NNaples

13 Charles V’s Problems distract from Lutherans


15 Swiss Protestantism UUlrich Zwingli (1484-1531) SStrongly influenced by Christian Humanism BBecame a priest in Zürich, Switzerland RReformed the church in Zürich Relics and images abolished Paintings and decorations removed Music eliminated from services Believed communion was strictly symbolic – NO physical presence of Christ BBattled with rural Swiss Killed, cut up, burned, ashes scattered

16 Anabaptists


18 John Calvin

19 Create a Thesis and Outline  What were the main tenets of Lutheranism, Zwinglianism, Calvinism, and Anabaptism  Create a unifying thesis – one sentence  Outline three supporting paragraphs  Terms, names, facts

20 Next Time: Seminar  Prepare for a seminar on the Counter Reformation  Re-read section in book  Look over outline  You may bring note cards  You will be asked specific and opinion questions  Points rewarded for participation

21 English Reformation HHenry VIII (1509-1547) wanted to divorce his wife Catherine of Aragon SSpanish princess to Ferdinand and Isabella OOnly delivered on living heir, daughter Mary HHenry in love with lady-in- waiting, Anne Boleyn

22 HHenry relied on Cardinal Wolsey, the highest ranking church official in England to obtain an annulment from Pope Clement VII ssack of Rome in 1527 made pope rely on Charles V ((nephew of Catherine)


24 UUnder the new centralized power monasteries were closed, land and possessions were confiscated by the King SSold to nobles, gentry, merchants HHenry kept looking for the perfect wife CCatherine of Aragon – Mary (Catholic) AAnne Boleyn – Elizabeth (Protestant) JJane Seymour – Edward (Protestant) AAnne of Cleves CCatherine Howard CCatherine Parr

25 After Henry’s death EEdward VI became king at 9 CCranmer and others pushed through more Protestant reforms CCreated unrest EEdward died in 1553 MMary I becomes queen RRestores Catholicism MMarried Phillip II of Spain (son of Charles V) ““Bloody Mary” DDied in 1558

26 You may use note cards, no notes Points for meaningful participation Counter Reformation Seminar

27 What is the Catholic Reformation? ““Counter Reformation” MMid-16 th century RRevival of Roman Catholicism AAimed at fixing the problems pointed out AAimed at stopping spread of Protestantism

28 i.e. was it primarily a reformation of the church THANKS to the protestant reformation or was it an attempt to push back Protestantism? Was it a Catholic or Counter Reformation?

29 What orders were created/revived during the counter- reformation, which were the most important? Why?

30 What effect will the Jesuits have on the world?

31 How did Pope Paul III reform the papacy? AAppointed a reform commission to study condition of the church CCommission blamed policies on popes and cardinals SSummoned Council of Trent EEstablished the Roman Inquisition PPope Paul IV CCreated the Index of Forbidden Books Books Catholics weren’t allowed to read All Protestant works Erasmus

32 Reform commission, Council of Trent, Roman Inquisition & Index of Forbidden Books Which reform most shows the Catholic Church’s refusal to reform?

33 What did the Council of Trent do? TThree sessions between 1545-1563 RReaffirmed traditional Catholic teachings in opposition to Protestant beliefs OOnly the church could interpret scripture BBoth faith and good works needed for salvation UUpheld: SSeven sacraments TTransubstantiation CClerical celibacy BBelief in purgatory EEfficacy of indulgences (prohibited sale)

34 Why did clarity from the Council of Trent help the Catholic Church?

35 Write your name at the top of a paper Title page Counter Reformation Seminar 1-10 points – how do you think you did? Questions/Comments?

36 French Wars of Religion


38 11562: Duke of Guise massacred a peaceful group of Huguenots in Vassy 11572: Saint Bartholomew’s Day Massacre HHenry of Navarre (house Bourbon) came to Paris to marry king’s sister HHenry’s mother brought Protestantism to France HHenry leader of Huguenots, many came for wedding TThree days of killing in the bloodiest manner 33000 Huguenots dead HHenry escaped by promising to become Catholic

39  1594: Henry of Navarre made king of France (Henry IV)  “Paris is worth a mass”  Converted to Catholicism  Edict of Nantes (1598)  Acknowledged Catholicism as official religion in France  Guaranteed the Huguenots the right to worship  Allowed to hold public offices

40 Philip II of Spain SSon of Charles V IInherited Spain, Netherlands, possessions in Italy & New World SStrict adherence to Catholicism in Philip’s holdings AAggressive use of Spanish Inquisition SStrong monarchial authority Tried to be center of whole government and supervised all departments Unwilling to delegate authority Fell behind on work and focused on trivial matters

41  Wanted to make Spain a dominant power in Europe  Economy  Prosperous economy fueled by gold in New World  Gold and Silver also created inflation that hurt economy and production  Expenses of war devastating to economy  “Most Catholic King”  Defeated Muslims in Cyprus  Tried to crush the Netherlands

42 Revolt in Netherlands OOne of the richest parts of Philip’s empire NNetherlands, Belgium, Luxembourg DDutch, French, Flemish CCommercial crossroads (remember Hanseatic League?) LLutheranism, Anabaptism, Calvinism taking over PPhilip’s rule was strongly opposed 11566 Calvinists and Nobles destroyed stained glass PPhilip sent Duke of Alba with 10,000 soldiers

43 Court of Blood

44 Elizabeth I

45 Foreign Policy AAvoided war EEncouraged piracy SSupported protestants in France and Spain to weaken other monarchies PPhilip enraged over support to the Netherlands BBelieved the English would overthrow Elizabeth if he gave them a reason SSent an Armada to invade England BBeaten by storms and fire ships!

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