Presentation on theme: "CHAPTER 13 Reformation & Religious Warfare in 16 th Century."— Presentation transcript:
CHAPTER 13 Reformation & Religious Warfare in 16 th Century
What were the chief ideas of the Christian humanists, and how did they differ from Protestant reformers?
The Church and Religion
What were Martin Luther’s main disagreements with the RCC and why did the movement spread so quickly
Luther’s Writings and Consequences
Spread & Conflict
Organizing the Church
Political turmoil allows Lutheranism to spread 11519, Charles I of Spain (grandson of Maximilian) elected Holy Roman Emperor Charles V SSpain & its overseas possessions AAustrian lands BBohemia HHungary LLow Countries NNaples
Charles V’s Problems distract from Lutherans
Swiss Protestantism UUlrich Zwingli ( ) SStrongly influenced by Christian Humanism BBecame a priest in Zürich, Switzerland RReformed the church in Zürich Relics and images abolished Paintings and decorations removed Music eliminated from services Believed communion was strictly symbolic – NO physical presence of Christ BBattled with rural Swiss Killed, cut up, burned, ashes scattered
Create a Thesis and Outline What were the main tenets of Lutheranism, Zwinglianism, Calvinism, and Anabaptism Create a unifying thesis – one sentence Outline three supporting paragraphs Terms, names, facts
Next Time: Seminar Prepare for a seminar on the Counter Reformation Re-read section in book Look over outline You may bring note cards You will be asked specific and opinion questions Points rewarded for participation
English Reformation HHenry VIII ( ) wanted to divorce his wife Catherine of Aragon SSpanish princess to Ferdinand and Isabella OOnly delivered on living heir, daughter Mary HHenry in love with lady-in- waiting, Anne Boleyn
HHenry relied on Cardinal Wolsey, the highest ranking church official in England to obtain an annulment from Pope Clement VII ssack of Rome in 1527 made pope rely on Charles V ((nephew of Catherine)
UUnder the new centralized power monasteries were closed, land and possessions were confiscated by the King SSold to nobles, gentry, merchants HHenry kept looking for the perfect wife CCatherine of Aragon – Mary (Catholic) AAnne Boleyn – Elizabeth (Protestant) JJane Seymour – Edward (Protestant) AAnne of Cleves CCatherine Howard CCatherine Parr
After Henry’s death EEdward VI became king at 9 CCranmer and others pushed through more Protestant reforms CCreated unrest EEdward died in 1553 MMary I becomes queen RRestores Catholicism MMarried Phillip II of Spain (son of Charles V) ““Bloody Mary” DDied in 1558
You may use note cards, no notes Points for meaningful participation Counter Reformation Seminar
What is the Catholic Reformation? ““Counter Reformation” MMid-16 th century RRevival of Roman Catholicism AAimed at fixing the problems pointed out AAimed at stopping spread of Protestantism
i.e. was it primarily a reformation of the church THANKS to the protestant reformation or was it an attempt to push back Protestantism? Was it a Catholic or Counter Reformation?
What orders were created/revived during the counter- reformation, which were the most important? Why?
What effect will the Jesuits have on the world?
How did Pope Paul III reform the papacy? AAppointed a reform commission to study condition of the church CCommission blamed policies on popes and cardinals SSummoned Council of Trent EEstablished the Roman Inquisition PPope Paul IV CCreated the Index of Forbidden Books Books Catholics weren’t allowed to read All Protestant works Erasmus
Reform commission, Council of Trent, Roman Inquisition & Index of Forbidden Books Which reform most shows the Catholic Church’s refusal to reform?
What did the Council of Trent do? TThree sessions between RReaffirmed traditional Catholic teachings in opposition to Protestant beliefs OOnly the church could interpret scripture BBoth faith and good works needed for salvation UUpheld: SSeven sacraments TTransubstantiation CClerical celibacy BBelief in purgatory EEfficacy of indulgences (prohibited sale)
Why did clarity from the Council of Trent help the Catholic Church?
Write your name at the top of a paper Title page Counter Reformation Seminar 1-10 points – how do you think you did? Questions/Comments?
French Wars of Religion
11562: Duke of Guise massacred a peaceful group of Huguenots in Vassy 11572: Saint Bartholomew’s Day Massacre HHenry of Navarre (house Bourbon) came to Paris to marry king’s sister HHenry’s mother brought Protestantism to France HHenry leader of Huguenots, many came for wedding TThree days of killing in the bloodiest manner 33000 Huguenots dead HHenry escaped by promising to become Catholic
1594: Henry of Navarre made king of France (Henry IV) “Paris is worth a mass” Converted to Catholicism Edict of Nantes (1598) Acknowledged Catholicism as official religion in France Guaranteed the Huguenots the right to worship Allowed to hold public offices
Philip II of Spain SSon of Charles V IInherited Spain, Netherlands, possessions in Italy & New World SStrict adherence to Catholicism in Philip’s holdings AAggressive use of Spanish Inquisition SStrong monarchial authority Tried to be center of whole government and supervised all departments Unwilling to delegate authority Fell behind on work and focused on trivial matters
Wanted to make Spain a dominant power in Europe Economy Prosperous economy fueled by gold in New World Gold and Silver also created inflation that hurt economy and production Expenses of war devastating to economy “Most Catholic King” Defeated Muslims in Cyprus Tried to crush the Netherlands
Revolt in Netherlands OOne of the richest parts of Philip’s empire NNetherlands, Belgium, Luxembourg DDutch, French, Flemish CCommercial crossroads (remember Hanseatic League?) LLutheranism, Anabaptism, Calvinism taking over PPhilip’s rule was strongly opposed 11566 Calvinists and Nobles destroyed stained glass PPhilip sent Duke of Alba with 10,000 soldiers
Court of Blood
Foreign Policy AAvoided war EEncouraged piracy SSupported protestants in France and Spain to weaken other monarchies PPhilip enraged over support to the Netherlands BBelieved the English would overthrow Elizabeth if he gave them a reason SSent an Armada to invade England BBeaten by storms and fire ships!