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Reformation & Religious Warfare in 16th Century

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1 Reformation & Religious Warfare in 16th Century
Chapter 13 Reformation & Religious Warfare in 16th Century

2 What were the chief ideas of the Christian humanists, and how did they differ from Protestant reformers? In the second half of the fifteenth century, the new classical learning from the Italian Renaissance spread to northern Europe and started the movement : Northern (Christian) Renaissance Humanism goal to reform Christianity Christian humanists focused on Holy Scriptures Felt a simple religion had been complicated during the Middle Ages Through education people could find true inner piety and reform – supported schools

3 Erasmus Desiderius Erasmus (1466-1535)
Formed reform program of Christian humanism Handbook of the Christian Knight (1503) “philosophy of Christ” – inner piety – not external religion like sacraments, pilgrimages, fasts, saints, relics Called for re-translation in Greek (said the Vulgate, Latin version, had errors) The Praise of Folly (1511) Criticism of most corrupt practices of society, especially abuses of clergy Work paved the way for the Reformation

4 Thomas More Thomas More (1478-1535)
Trained in law, proficient in Latin and Greek Learning should be put into the service of state Became lord chancellor of England Friend of Erasmus Wrote Utopia

5 Thomas More Utopia (1516) Account of the idealistic life and institution of community “Utopia” (Greek for nowhere) in the New World Shows concerns for economic, social, political problems New social system where cooperation and reason replaced power and fame as motivating agents in society Communal ownership rather than private property Opposed Henry VIII’s divorce from Katherine & Pope

6 The Church and Religion
Corruption in the Catholic Church was another factor inspiring reform Highest positions in Church were held by nobles or the wealthy bourgeoisie Pluralism: church officials took more than one position to make more money Indulgences: relics or payments to reduce time in purgatory

7 What were Martin Luther’s main disagreements with the RCC and why did the movement spread so quickly
Born in Germany, started as a lawyer, became a monk Focused on assurance of Salvation Became a professor of theology at the University of Wittenberg Came to believe that no human could ever DO enough to be saved JUSTIFICATION from grace through faith (not works, sacraments, penance, etc)

8 Indulgence Controversy
Pope Leo X started an Indulgence Jubilee in 1517 to pay for the building of St. Peter’s Basilica “as soon as the coin in the coffer rings, the soul from purgatory springs” Luther was distressed 95 Theses Indictment of the abuses in the sale of indulgences Thousands of copies were made and spread all Germany Luther was compared to John Hus and in Luther realized he needed to leave the RCC

9 Luther’s Writings and Consequences
Address to the Nobility of the German Nation – Luther calls for German princes to overthrow papacy The Babylonian Captivity of the Church – attacked the sacramental system as a way for the papacy to maintain control Reform of monasticism where clergy can marry On the Freedom of a Christian Man- treatise proclaiming faith alone ensures salvation 1521 – RCC excommunicates Luther Charles V called for Luther to appear before the Reichstag Luther refused Edict of Worms – made Luther an outlaw within the empire

10 Spread & Conflict Luther translated the Bible into German and his New Testament sold 200,000 copies in twelve years Preaching spread Luther’s ideas Mostly to the upper classes (the literate) Adreas Carlstadt wanted to initiate a more radical reform Abolish all relics, images, and the Mass Erasmus and other Christian Humanists left the movement because it was breaking up Christendom Peasants’ War ( ) Peasants were unhappy with position and revolted Luther issued pamphlet Against the Robbing and Murdering Hordes of Peasants “smite, slay and stab” the peasantry

11 Organizing the Church Luther got rid of all sacraments but
Baptism- rebirth through grace Communion- forgiveness of sin Luther denied Transubstantiation Believed spirit of god was present, but the bread and wine wasn’t Christ's corporal flesh Got rid of the Clergy Married a nun, Katherine von Bora as an example

12 Political turmoil allows Lutheranism to spread
1519, Charles I of Spain (grandson of Maximilian) elected Holy Roman Emperor  Charles V Spain & its overseas possessions Austrian lands Bohemia Hungary Low Countries Naples

13 Charles V’s Problems distract from Lutherans
Rivalry with Francis I, king of France Disputed territories in France, Netherlands, Rhineland, Northern Spain, Italy Habsburg-Valois Wars ( ) Papacy sided with France 1527: Charles V’s army sacked Rome By 1530 Charles V controlled much of Italy Turks overran most of Hungary, moved into Austria

14 Charles V’s Problems distract from Lutherans
Charles wanted the hundreds of German states to stay united under Catholicism Schmalkaldic League made up of German Princes and German states promised to defend each other from Charles V Schmalkaldic Wars ( ) Initially Charles V won The League allied with new French king, Henry II Charles had to call a truce Peace of Augsburg, 1555, division of Christianity acknowledged, right of each German ruler to choose the religion of his subjects Charles abdicated the throne in 1556 to live in a monastery

15 Swiss Protestantism Ulrich Zwingli (1484-1531)
Strongly influenced by Christian Humanism Became a priest in Zürich, Switzerland Reformed the church in Zürich Relics and images abolished Paintings and decorations removed Music eliminated from services Believed communion was strictly symbolic – NO physical presence of Christ Battled with rural Swiss Killed, cut up, burned, ashes scattered

16 Anabaptists Anabaptists – more radical reform movement
Advocated adult baptism Strict democracy- all believers equal Complete separation of church and state Refused to hold political office Would not bear arms Nearly wiped out in the Peasants’ War

17 Anabaptists Settled in Münster – turned to Millenarianism, belief the end of the world is at hand Took over town, burned all books but bible Kicked out and returned to pacifist ways Menno Simmons ( ) Peaceful evangelist Separation from the world to emulate Jesus Strict discipline, banned those who didn’t conform “Mennonites” Mennonites and Amish (Anabaptists) still exist today

18 John Calvin John Calvin (1509-1564)
French scholar, not safe in France, moved to Basel Institutes of the Christian Religion – synthesis of Protestant thought Justification through faith alone Predestination – God elects those who will be saved or damned before they are born In Geneva, created Ecclesiastical Ordinances- document that made a church government overseeing moral life Colors of clothing, music, church attendance, behavior

19 Create a Thesis and Outline
What were the main tenets of Lutheranism, Zwinglianism, Calvinism, and Anabaptism Create a unifying thesis – one sentence Outline three supporting paragraphs Terms, names, facts

20 Next Time: Seminar Prepare for a seminar on the Counter Reformation
Re-read section in book Look over outline You may bring note cards You will be asked specific and opinion questions Points rewarded for participation

21 English Reformation Henry VIII ( ) wanted to divorce his wife Catherine of Aragon Spanish princess to Ferdinand and Isabella Only delivered on living heir, daughter Mary Henry in love with lady-in- waiting, Anne Boleyn

22 English Reformation Henry relied on Cardinal Wolsey, the highest ranking church official in England to obtain an annulment from Pope Clement VII sack of Rome in 1527 made pope rely on Charles V (nephew of Catherine)

23 English Reformation Anne Boleyn became pregnant, Henry secretly married her in 1533 Thomas Cranmer (archbishop of Canterbury) declared Henry’s marriage to Catherine null because Catherine had been married to Henry’s brother, Arthur, first Anne gave birth to a girl, Elizabeth Act of Supremacy: Henry is the head of the Church of England Treason Act: punishable by death to deny the king had supreme head of the church Thomas More beheaded under Treason Act

24 English Reformation Under the new centralized power monasteries were closed, land and possessions were confiscated by the King Sold to nobles, gentry, merchants Henry kept looking for the perfect wife Catherine of Aragon – Mary (Catholic) Anne Boleyn – Elizabeth (Protestant) Jane Seymour – Edward (Protestant) Anne of Cleves Catherine Howard Catherine Parr

25 After Henry’s death Edward VI became king at 9 Mary I becomes queen
Cranmer and others pushed through more Protestant reforms Created unrest Edward died in 1553 Mary I becomes queen Restores Catholicism Married Phillip II of Spain (son of Charles V) “Bloody Mary” Died in 1558

26 Counter Reformation Seminar
You may use note cards, no notes Points for meaningful participation

27 What is the Catholic Reformation?
“Counter Reformation” Mid-16th century Revival of Roman Catholicism Aimed at fixing the problems pointed out Aimed at stopping spread of Protestantism

28 Was it a Catholic or Counter Reformation?
i.e. was it primarily a reformation of the church THANKS to the protestant reformation or was it an attempt to push back Protestantism?

29 What orders were created/revived during the counter-reformation, which were the most important? Why?
Carmelites- created by Spanish mystic Saint Teresa of Avila Benedictines & Dominicans- renewed Capuchins- preaching directly to the people Theatines – founded orphanages and hospitals Ursulines – schools for girls Jesuits – founded by Ignatius of Loyola Most important to counter-reformation Absolute obedience to the papacy Education to achieve goals – took over universities Military like Missionaries reached Japan & China

30 What effect will the Jesuits have on the world?

31 How did Pope Paul III reform the papacy?
Appointed a reform commission to study condition of the church Commission blamed policies on popes and cardinals Summoned Council of Trent Established the Roman Inquisition Pope Paul IV Created the Index of Forbidden Books Books Catholics weren’t allowed to read All Protestant works Erasmus

32 Which reform most shows the Catholic Church’s refusal to reform?
Reform commission, Council of Trent, Roman Inquisition & Index of Forbidden Books

33 What did the Council of Trent do?
Three sessions between Reaffirmed traditional Catholic teachings in opposition to Protestant beliefs Only the church could interpret scripture Both faith and good works needed for salvation Upheld: Seven sacraments Transubstantiation Clerical celibacy Belief in purgatory Efficacy of indulgences (prohibited sale)

34 Why did clarity from the Council of Trent help the Catholic Church?

35 Questions/Comments? Write your name at the top of a paper
Title page Counter Reformation Seminar 1-10 points – how do you think you did?

36 French Wars of Religion
Huguenots- French protestants 10% of French population 40-50% of French nobility House of Bourbon next to the Valois in the line of succession Ruled Navarre Catherine de’ Medici ( ) Henry II – killed in tournament, Catherine regent for sons Francis II, Charles IX, Henry III Tried to find compromise between powerful Guise family & protestants

37 French Wars of Religion
Groups willing to fight monarchy Towns and provinces were willing to revolt against monarchy because of centralized power Nobility willing to revolt in opposition to the crown Politiques – placed politics before religion and believed that no religious truth was worth the ravages of civil war

38 French Wars of Religion
1562: Duke of Guise massacred a peaceful group of Huguenots in Vassy 1572: Saint Bartholomew’s Day Massacre Henry of Navarre (house Bourbon) came to Paris to marry king’s sister Henry’s mother brought Protestantism to France Henry leader of Huguenots, many came for wedding Three days of killing in the bloodiest manner 3000 Huguenots dead Henry escaped by promising to become Catholic

39 French Wars of Religion
1594: Henry of Navarre made king of France (Henry IV) “Paris is worth a mass” Converted to Catholicism Edict of Nantes (1598) Acknowledged Catholicism as official religion in France Guaranteed the Huguenots the right to worship Allowed to hold public offices

40 Philip II of Spain Son of Charles V
Inherited Spain, Netherlands, possessions in Italy & New World Strict adherence to Catholicism in Philip’s holdings Aggressive use of Spanish Inquisition Strong monarchial authority Tried to be center of whole government and supervised all departments Unwilling to delegate authority Fell behind on work and focused on trivial matters

41 Philip II of Spain Wanted to make Spain a dominant power in Europe
Economy Prosperous economy fueled by gold in New World Gold and Silver also created inflation that hurt economy and production Expenses of war devastating to economy “Most Catholic King” Defeated Muslims in Cyprus Tried to crush the Netherlands

42 Revolt in Netherlands One of the richest parts of Philip’s empire
Netherlands, Belgium, Luxembourg Dutch, French, Flemish Commercial crossroads (remember Hanseatic League?) Lutheranism, Anabaptism, Calvinism taking over Philip’s rule was strongly opposed 1566 Calvinists and Nobles destroyed stained glass Philip sent Duke of Alba with 10,000 soldiers

43 Court of Blood Duke of Alba crushed rebellion
Repressive policies led merchants to join Calvinists “Council of Troubles” or “Council of Blood” created a reign of terror William of Orange wished to unite all provinces Pacification of Ghent – uniting under religious tolerance Didn’t last long – Duke of Parma came and played on religious differences South: Catholic North: Protestant under William of Orange

44 Elizabeth I Elizabeth I became queen in 1558
Daughter of Henry VIII and Anne Boleyn Protestant – moderate, between Luther & Calvin Brilliant, cautious, confident Imprisoned cousin, Mary Queen of Scots Fled Scotland from Calvinists Tried to overthrow Elizabeth many times Finally beheaded in 1587 Fought the puritans who wanted to reform the church further

45 Foreign Policy Avoided war Encouraged piracy
Supported protestants in France and Spain to weaken other monarchies Philip enraged over support to the Netherlands Believed the English would overthrow Elizabeth if he gave them a reason Sent an Armada to invade England Beaten by storms and fire ships!

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