Presentation on theme: "From the Napoleonic Era to 1871"— Presentation transcript:
1From the Napoleonic Era to 1871 German UnificationFrom the Napoleonic Era to 1871
2Chapter 22: Section 2 Goals Identify major events in Germany’s unificationDescribe the system of government of the German Empire
3Background: Liberalism and Nationalism The French Revolution causes the ideals of liberalism and nationalism to spreadLiberty, equality, fraternityClassical LiberalismMan has inalienable rights (U.S. Declaration of Independence.) Freedom of movement, association, minimal government, could develop himself to the fullestSocial Contract: Sovereignty resided in the people and rulers had to respect that.
4*French Revolution and Nationalism A nation of equal citizensSecular state recognizing no higher authorityCitizen enjoyed certain rights but also had to give to the state (his life included)
5Define the Following in detail in your notes Look up the following event, person, or concept and write a brief summary of why it is important to German Unification: Include important dates when applicableBattle of JenaStein-Hardenberg ReformsCongress of ViennaCarlsbad DecreesHambach FestivalPan-GermanismZollvereinFrankfurt ParliamentErfurt UnionKleindeutschland-GrossdeutschlandOtto Von BismarckThe Danish WarThe Seven Weeks’ War
6Goal 1: Major Events *Napoleonic Wars War with large parts of Germany byWestern Germany conquered112 German states disappearedIdeas of Nationalism and Liberalism forced on Germany*1806 Confederation of the Rhine created by NapoleonHoly Roman Empire eliminated.15,000,000 subjectsCounter to Prussian and Austrian Power
7*Goal 1. Confederation of the Rhine PrussiaFrance----Austrian EmpireHow would the geographic position of the Confederation aid France?
8Goal 1. Confederation challenges Prussia *Battle of Jena1806 Battle of Jena: Prussia defeatedTreaty of TilsitMassive payments to be made to France (reparations)Reform necessary to pay it
9Results: *Stein-Hardenberg Reforms goal1 Uniform tax systemsEfficient Government stressed (bureaucracy developed)Education reforms encouraging the teaching of history and languagePower of nobility curtailed but land left in their handsSerfs freed to encourage agricultural growth and land- ownershipGuilds power broken and industrial competition encouraged*Military reform was geared toward war with France.Conscription3 years with line regiment2 years reserve7 years landwehrPromotion on merit not birth
10What does this painting tell us? The military was held in the highest esteem in Prussia following the Napoleonic wars and Wars of Unification!
11Goal 1: Congress of Vienna As a result of Stein-Hardenberg, Prussian forces helped defeat Napoleon1815 Congress of ViennaConfederation of the Rhine becomes the German ConfederationPrussia most powerful N. German stateRival is AustriaGerman Nationalism strongest in the North (Why?)Austria was divided among several nationalities39 independent states still exist
12*Pan-GermanismIdea of a peaceful unification of all German-speaking areas including AustriaGrossdeutschland (Large Germany)*May 1832 Hambach Festival30,000 attend to hear speeches about unification and democracy. First time in GER.Brothers Grimm!
15*Zollverein (1834) Tariffs: tax on imported goods Hurt sales (How?) gradually German states end tariffs and form Customs UnionLower-uniform pricesStandardized weights and measuresIncreased IndustrializationHow did Stein-Hardenberg make this last bullet possible?
16Goal 1: Technology, Finance, and Unification Railroads:1835 (3.5 miles of track)1848 (3,000 miles of track)1855 (8,500 miles of track)1880 (1880, 9,400 locomotives pulling 43,000 passengers and 30,000 tons of freightTelegraphStock Companies
17Industrial Growth Coal Iron Steel Chemicals Description of Krupp Industries: 1900;“A great city with its own streets, its own police force, fire department and traffic laws. There are 150 kilometers of rail, 60 different factory buildings, 8,500 machine tools, seven electrical stations, 140 kilometers of underground cable and 46 overhead."Population of Berlin (1907) doubles from 1,000,000 to 2,000,000 in 30 years!!!!
18*1848 Revolutions (Wanted unification and Parliament) Confederation Dissolved Democratic and NationalisticMiddle class and Working Class ledElected National Assembly in Frankfurt attempts to unify GermanyConstitution: Kleindeutschland modelFailure due to….Rivalry between Pr. And Aus.Middle class and Working Class Rivalry
19Erfurt Union (1849)Prussian attempts to form a union with German states excluding AustriaPrussia humiliated by AustriaAdds to Prussia’s desire to eliminate Austrian influence
20Prussian Government before Unification Frederick Wilhelm issued Prussia's first constitution in (Goal 1)two-house parliament.lower house (Landtag) elected by all taxpayersdivided into three classes -votes were weighted according to the amount of taxes paid.Women and those who paid no taxes had no vote.,The Upper House: Herrenhaus ("House of Lords") appointed by the king. He retained full executive authority and ministers were responsible only to him.the landowning classes, the Junkers, remained powerful
25Bismarck’s Goalslimit democracyUnify Germany under Prussian leadershipDestroy Austrian powerBelieved foreign policy could unify the people or at least distract them from dissent
26Three wars of unification Danish War: 1864Austria and Prussia take Schleswig- HolsteinSeven Weeks War(1866)Treaty of Prague ends Austrian domination of Germany
27What is going on here?Hint: What other traditional enemy of Austria might gain from her loss in the 7 Weeks War?Italy! The Lion of St. Mark is the symbol of Venice
28Franco-Prussian War1870 Spain seeks a new King related to the Prussian Royal familyFrance protestsBismarck edits the Ems dispatch and War is declared by FranceMajor French defeats at Metz and Sedan, Paris surroundedReparations to be paid to GermanyAlsace-Lorraine lostLarge indemnity (5 billion gold francs in 5 yearsPays for further growth of railroads, etc…. In Germany