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From the Napoleonic Era to 1871

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1 From the Napoleonic Era to 1871
German Unification From the Napoleonic Era to 1871

2 Chapter 22: Section 2 Goals
Identify major events in Germany’s unification Describe the system of government of the German Empire

3 Background: Liberalism and Nationalism
The French Revolution causes the ideals of liberalism and nationalism to spread Liberty, equality, fraternity Classical Liberalism Man has inalienable rights (U.S. Declaration of Independence.) Freedom of movement, association, minimal government, could develop himself to the fullest Social Contract: Sovereignty resided in the people and rulers had to respect that.

4 *French Revolution and Nationalism
A nation of equal citizens Secular state recognizing no higher authority Citizen enjoyed certain rights but also had to give to the state (his life included)

5 Define the Following in detail in your notes
Look up the following event, person, or concept and write a brief summary of why it is important to German Unification: Include important dates when applicable Battle of Jena Stein-Hardenberg Reforms Congress of Vienna Carlsbad Decrees Hambach Festival Pan-Germanism Zollverein Frankfurt Parliament Erfurt Union Kleindeutschland-Grossdeutschland Otto Von Bismarck The Danish War The Seven Weeks’ War

6 Goal 1: Major Events *Napoleonic Wars
War with large parts of Germany by Western Germany conquered 112 German states disappeared Ideas of Nationalism and Liberalism forced on Germany *1806 Confederation of the Rhine created by Napoleon Holy Roman Empire eliminated. 15,000,000 subjects Counter to Prussian and Austrian Power

7 *Goal 1. Confederation of the Rhine
Prussia France---- Austrian Empire How would the geographic position of the Confederation aid France?

8 Goal 1. Confederation challenges Prussia
*Battle of Jena 1806 Battle of Jena: Prussia defeated Treaty of Tilsit Massive payments to be made to France (reparations) Reform necessary to pay it

9 Results: *Stein-Hardenberg Reforms goal1
Uniform tax systems Efficient Government stressed (bureaucracy developed) Education reforms encouraging the teaching of history and language Power of nobility curtailed but land left in their hands Serfs freed to encourage agricultural growth and land- ownership Guilds power broken and industrial competition encouraged *Military reform was geared toward war with France. Conscription 3 years with line regiment 2 years reserve 7 years landwehr Promotion on merit not birth

10 What does this painting tell us?
The military was held in the highest esteem in Prussia following the Napoleonic wars and Wars of Unification!

11 Goal 1: Congress of Vienna
As a result of Stein-Hardenberg, Prussian forces helped defeat Napoleon 1815 Congress of Vienna Confederation of the Rhine becomes the German Confederation Prussia most powerful N. German state Rival is Austria German Nationalism strongest in the North (Why?) Austria was divided among several nationalities 39 independent states still exist

12 *Pan-Germanism Idea of a peaceful unification of all German-speaking areas including Austria Grossdeutschland (Large Germany) *May 1832 Hambach Festival 30,000 attend to hear speeches about unification and democracy. First time in GER. Brothers Grimm!

13 Hambach

14 Goal 1: Zollverein: Analyze this!

15 *Zollverein (1834) Tariffs: tax on imported goods Hurt sales (How?)
gradually German states end tariffs and form Customs Union Lower-uniform prices Standardized weights and measures Increased Industrialization How did Stein-Hardenberg make this last bullet possible?

16 Goal 1: Technology, Finance, and Unification
Railroads: 1835 (3.5 miles of track) 1848 (3,000 miles of track) 1855 (8,500 miles of track) 1880 (1880, 9,400 locomotives pulling 43,000 passengers and 30,000 tons of freight Telegraph Stock Companies

17 Industrial Growth Coal Iron Steel Chemicals
Description of Krupp Industries: 1900; “A great city with its own streets, its own police force, fire department and traffic laws. There are 150 kilometers of rail, 60 different factory buildings, 8,500 machine tools, seven electrical stations, 140 kilometers of underground cable and 46 overhead." Population of Berlin (1907) doubles from 1,000,000 to 2,000,000 in 30 years!!!!

18 *1848 Revolutions (Wanted unification and Parliament) Confederation Dissolved
Democratic and Nationalistic Middle class and Working Class led Elected National Assembly in Frankfurt attempts to unify Germany Constitution: Kleindeutschland model Failure due to…. Rivalry between Pr. And Aus. Middle class and Working Class Rivalry

19 Erfurt Union (1849) Prussian attempts to form a union with German states excluding Austria Prussia humiliated by Austria Adds to Prussia’s desire to eliminate Austrian influence

20 Prussian Government before Unification
Frederick Wilhelm issued Prussia's first constitution in (Goal 1) two-house parliament. lower house (Landtag) elected by all taxpayers divided into three classes -votes were weighted according to the amount of taxes paid. Women and those who paid no taxes had no vote., The Upper House: Herrenhaus ("House of Lords") appointed by the king. He retained full executive authority and ministers were responsible only to him. the landowning classes, the Junkers, remained powerful


22 Otto Von Bismarck "The great questions of the time will not be resolved by speeches and majority decisions—that was the great mistake of and 1849—but by iron and blood."

23 Bismarck and Wilhelm I Prussian military reforms create a powerful force Railroads New artillery Other Weapons Long service and large reserves Telegraph Bismarck named chancellor 1862 Dryse Needle Gun

24 Uniforms of the Day Color Print Actual Photo

25 Bismarck’s Goals limit democracy Unify Germany under Prussian leadership Destroy Austrian power Believed foreign policy could unify the people or at least distract them from dissent

26 Three wars of unification
Danish War: 1864 Austria and Prussia take Schleswig- Holstein Seven Weeks War(1866) Treaty of Prague ends Austrian domination of Germany

27 What is going on here? Hint: What other traditional enemy of Austria might gain from her loss in the 7 Weeks War? Italy! The Lion of St. Mark is the symbol of Venice

28 Franco-Prussian War 1870 Spain seeks a new King related to the Prussian Royal family France protests Bismarck edits the Ems dispatch and War is declared by France Major French defeats at Metz and Sedan, Paris surrounded Reparations to be paid to Germany Alsace-Lorraine lost Large indemnity (5 billion gold francs in 5 years Pays for further growth of railroads, etc…. In Germany

29 What is happening Here?

30 January 1871 German Empire Declared

31 January 18th 1871 German Empire Declared
Analyze this…. Look closely!

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