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Presented by Edwin J. J. Momoh Graduate Internship Programme Presented by Edwin J. J. Momoh Graduate Internship Programme
“I ain’t what I write, it’s the way I write it” Jack Kerouac “And as imagination bodies forth, the form of things unknown, the poet’s pen turns them to shapes and gives to airy nothing, a local habitation and name” William Shakespeare – Midsummer Night Dream
Communication is a dynamic process… through this process we convey a thought or feeling to someone else. how it is received depends on a set of events, stimuli, that person is exposed to. how you say what you say plays an important role in communication.
The purpose of communication is to get your message across to others. This is a process that involves both the sender of the message and the receiver. The is always room for error, with messages often misinterpreted by one or more of the parties involved. This causes unnecessary confusion and counter productivity.
In fact, a message is successful only when both the sender and the receiver perceive it in the same way.
Communication barriers can pop-up at every stage of the communication process (which consists of sender, message, channel, receiver, feedback and context ) and have the potential to create misunderstanding and confusion.
What are the most common ways we communicate? Oral Presentation Audience Awareness Critical Listening Body Language Non-Verbal Audience Awareness Personal Presentation Body Language Written Academic Writing Revision and Editing Critical Reading Presentation of Data
Written Communication Oral Communication Face-to-face Communication Visual Communication Audio-Visual Communication Computer based Communication Silence
Includes letters, circulars, memos, reports, forms and manuals, etc. Everything that has to be written and transmitted in the written form falls in the area of written communication.
Merits Precise Permanent record Legal document Can reach large no. of people simultaneously. Helps to fix responsibility
Demerits Time consuming Expensive Quick clarification not possible
Includes face-to-face conversation, Conversation over phone, radio, interviews, group discussion, meetings, conferences, seminars, etc.
Merits Saves time Saves money More forceful Conveys shades of meaning Immediate clarification Immediate feedback Can be informal More effective with groups
Demerits Not possible for distant people in the absence of mechanical devices Unsuitable for lengthy messages Messages cannot be retained for long No legal validity Greater chances of misunderstanding
Types of Communication Downward Communication :Highly Directive, from Senior to subordinates, to assign duties, give instructions, to inform, to offer feed back, approval, to highlight problems etc. Upward Communications :It is non directive in nature from down below, to give feedback, to inform about progress/problems, seeking approvals. Lateral or Horizontal Communication :Among colleagues, peers at same level for information level for information sharing for coordination, to save time.
Passive Hesitates, apologizes, gives in or says nothing. Makes little eye contact, frowns. Speaks in a shy or timid voice, or mumbles.
Aggressive Interrupts, exaggerates, blames, makes demands; uses sarcasm. Makes glaring eye contact. Yells, swears, calls names, clenches fist. Ignores feelings of others.
Passive-Aggressive Initially apologizes, then makes plan to get even. Avoids eye contact. Expresses anger through body language or actions (e.g. facial expression or slamming a door) instead of through words. Ignores the problem for the present but there may be an argument later.
Assertive Speaks clearly and firmly using statements. Shows respect for self and for others. Makes steady eye contact. Uses an upright confident body posture and a pleasant, firm voice.
You express your feelings and your rights clearly. You act in your own best interests but still consider the needs and rights of others. You develop trust and equality in your relationships. You ask for help when you need it.
Not willing to say things differently Not willing to relate to others differently Not willing to learn new approaches Lack of Self-Confidence Lack of Enthusiasm The Quality of Voice Prejudice
Lack of Feedback Lack of Motivation and Training Language and Vocabulary Level Lack of Self Awareness Negative Self Image
Selective Perception Not willing to Change Lack of Interest in the Topic/Subject Prejudice & Belief System Rebuttal Instincts Personal Value System Internal & external factors
Environment The venue The effect of noise Temperature in the room Other People – Status, Education Time
(P)OSTURES & GESTURES How do you use hand gestures? Stance? (E)YE CONTACT How’s your “Lighthouse”? (O)RIENTATION How do you position yourself? (P)RESENTATION How do you deliver your message? (L)OOKS Are your looks, appearance, dress important? (E)XPRESSIONS OF EMOTION Are you using facial expressions to express emotion?
ESSENTIALS OF COMMUNICATION - The Dos - Always think ahead about what you are going to say. Use simple words and phrases that are understood by every body. Increase your knowledge on all subjects you are required to speak. Speak clearly and audibly. Check twice with the listener whether you have been understood accurately or not
ESSENTIALS OF COMMUNICATION - The Dos - In case you are interrupted, always do a little recap of what has been already said. Always pay undivided attention to the speaker while listening. While listening, always make notes of important points.
ESSENTIALS OF COMMUNICATION - The Dos - Always ask for clarification if you have failed to grasp other’s point of view. Repeat what the speaker has said to check whether you have understood accurately.
ESSENTIALS OF COMMUNICATION - The Don’ts - Do not instantly react and mutter something in anger. Do not use technical terms & terminologies not understood by majority of people. Do not speak too fast or too slow.
ESSENTIALS OF COMMUNICATION - The Don’ts - Do not speak in inaudible surroundings, as you won’t be heard. Do not assume that every body understands you. While listening do not glance here and there as it might distract the speaker.
ESSENTIALS OF COMMUNICATION - The Don’ts - Do not interrupt the speaker. Do not jump to the conclusion that you have understood every thing.
How to Improve Existing Level of COMMUNICATION? Improve language. Improve pronunciation. Work on voice modulation. Work on body language. Read more Listen more
How to Improve Existing Level of COMMUNICATION? Avoid reading or watching or listening unwanted literature, gossip, media presentation etc. Interact with qualitative people. Improve on you topic of discussion, Practice meditation & good thoughts. Think and speak.
How to Improve Existing Level of COMMUNICATION? Do not speak too fast. Use simple vocabulary. Do not speak only to impress someone. Look presentable and confident.
Processing ideas in your head at same time as trying to get down on paper Reveals problems that can then disrupt writing
There is no one best way to write! Individuals adopt very different approaches depending on psychological preferences e.g. ‘Skeleton’ structure, than ‘hang’ key words/authors on it Ideas map (‘spider’s web’) Free-form/stream of consciousness, then edit
When you write, consider the following: Who is the audience? What format is required – essay or report or reflection on experience? Academic styles of writing – writing in a logical and `objective’ way Vs. writing from personal experience Academic conventions – referencing and plagiarism
Preparation and planning Drafting Re-drafting and polishing Editing and proofreading Reflecting on feedback
Good structure: clear introduction, well crafted middle, clear and appropriate conclusion Clear argument: progression through ideas with clear signposting Well supported by relevant evidence
Well written: grammatical; correct spelling and punctuation; good sentence structure, paragraphing and use of linking words and phrases Fully referenced using Harvard or appropriate system
DOS Prepare well in advance Write a first draft, leave and come back to it later Keep your focus on the question Edit carefully for sense, spelling, grammar and punctuation
DONTS Write all you know about a topic Leave till the last minute
“Writing is easy. You only need to stare at a blank piece of paper until drops of blood form on your forehead” Glen Fowler
Ben Martin, Techniques for Improving Reading and Writing Skills. SPRU The Freeman Centre