Two target areas for influencing behavior: Before it happens (Antecedent) After it happens (Consequence)
Behaviors are all the observable things we do. Inappropriate Appropriate What should students be doing? Create a list of behaviors you want to see (classroom rules). Example: Students will be sitting in their seats when the bell rings. Be sure that you are stating what students SHOULD be doing. A B C: Behavior
Antecedent: What happens before a behavior occurs. Set the stage for increasing the likelihood that students will display the behaviors you want to see. Promote appropriate behavior Minimize inappropriate behavior How do we do this? A BC: Antecedent
Physical SpaceVisual Aids ARRANGE THE ENVIRONMENT
A BC: Antecedent COMMUNICATE CLEAR EXPECTATIONS Develop Classroom Rules Create Schedules and Routines
A BC: Antecedent WATCH FOR TRIGGERS Distract Redirect
Consequence: What happens after a behavior occurs. Consequences can- Reinforce a behavior (increase the likelihood it will occur again) Punish a behavior (decrease the likelihood it will occur again) AB C : Consequence
We want to reinforce appropriate behavior Positive reinforcement: add something to increase behavior Negative reinforcement: remove something to increase behavior Refrain from reinforcing inappropriate behavior (extinction) Use punishment sparingly AB C : Consequence
AB C : Consequence Reinforcement ideas for rule-following behavior Specific teacher praiseNonverbal approval (e.g., smile) Student of the dayStructured free time Tokens, points, check marks, starsStudent choice of activity Lunch with teacher or friendFree reading time Positive note or email homePositive referral to the office Line leaderFree homework pass Teacher assistantSpecial seat Extra computer timeName of board Smith, S. W., & Yell, M. L. (2012). Structuring and organizing the classroom. A teachers guide to preventing behavior problems in the elementary classroom (p.48).
AB C : Consequence EXTINCTION (REMOVE REINFORCEMENT) Time out (for attention seeking behavior) Time in (for escape or avoidant behaviors) Ignoring (for minor attention seeking behavior)
AB C : Consequence Punishments for rule-violating behavior Stay after classRestitution (e.g., if you break it, you have to fix it) Loss of privileges: class job, extra free-time Missed opportunity to earn points, stickers, stars, tangible rewards Smith, S. W., & Yell, M. L. (2012). Structuring and organizing the classroom. A teachers guide to preventing behavior problems in the elementary classroom (p.49).
"One can picture a good life by analyzing one's feelings, but one can only achieve it by arranging environmental contingencies." -B.F. Skinner, 1983, Notebooks, p 125