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An argument Persuades the audience to believe in your opinion on the topic. Uses reasoning, facts, examples, and quotes to convince the reader.

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Presentation on theme: "An argument Persuades the audience to believe in your opinion on the topic. Uses reasoning, facts, examples, and quotes to convince the reader."— Presentation transcript:

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3 An argument Persuades the audience to believe in your opinion on the topic. Uses reasoning, facts, examples, and quotes to convince the reader.

4 4A36&playnext=1&playnext_from=PL&index=15 4A36&playnext=1&playnext_from=PL&index=15 In an episode of “Everybody Loves Raymond,” Marie writes a persuasive letter to the FBI interviewer whom is interviewing Robert (her son)… What is the issue that Marie is arguing to the FBI boss? What reasons/examples does she use in her letter to persuade the boss?

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6 FIRST ASK YOURSELF :  How will this situation/controversy affect me?  How will it affect my family?  How will it affect my school/peers?  How will it affect my community?  How will it affect our society?  How will it affect us physically, emotionally, financially, and socially?

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8 Pick your position: which side of the problem/issue are you on? Phillies Blackberry Giants Yankees iPhone Jets SUPPORTAGAINST

9 FIRST BODY PARAGRAPH:  Transition Word: ______  First Body Paragraph Reason  Supporting Detail 1  Supporting Detail 2  Supporting Detail 3  SECOND PARAGRAPH:  Transition Word: ______  Second Body Paragraph Reason  Supporting Detail 1  Supporting Detail 2  Supporting Detail 3  INTRODUCTION PARAGRAPH: List your hook, opinion and 3 reasons  THIRD BODY PARAGRAPH:  Transition Word: ______  Third Body Paragraph Reason  Supporting Detail 1  Supporting Detail 2  Supporting Detail 3 CONCLUSION :  Can you state a possible alternative? (Another option)  Restate your opinion with your three reasons.  End with a closing, thought-provoking sentence.

10 PERSUASIVE ESSAY Next Step After Brainstorming it is important we clearly identify and understand who our audience is for this particular topic.

11 Identify in the “WRITING TASK” If you’re writing a letter and to whom. “Write a letter to the newspaper” = Dear Editor, “Write a letter to board members” = Dear Board of Education Members, “Write a letter to your principal” = Dear Principal, “Write a letter to the mayor” = Dear Mayor, “Write an essay” = You do not need an opening salutation

12 INTRODUCTION H OOK H OOK  S TARTLING S TATISTIC /F ACT  I NTERESTING Q UOTE  S TRONG /I NTERESTING STATEMENT  E XAMPLE ( EXPLAIN IN DETAIL ) OR “I MAGINE I F ….”  R ELATE TO EVERYDAY LIFE  A THOUGHT PROVOKING OR RHETORICAL QUESTION  A NECDOTE ( VERY BRIEF, SOMETIMES FUNNY STORY RELATING TO YOUR TOPIC.) S TATE THE S ITUATION S TATE THE S ITUATION  W HAT IS THE PROBLEM / SITUATION ? (Y OU CAN PULL FROM THE PROMPT ) S TATE YOUR OPINION WITH YOUR 3 REASONS S TATE YOUR OPINION WITH YOUR 3 REASONS  = THESIS STATEMENT REMEMBER: You must connect your HOOK to the writing situation. They can’t remain separate. There must be a sentence linking the two thoughts together.

13 Common Transition words or phrases: Therefore Furthermore Also In addition On the other hand (to show the opposite side) For example Moreover As a result Finally Similarly Likewise SEE ATTACHED SHEET FOR MORE TRANSITION WORDS/PHRASES

14 E XAMPLE : Imagine opening your closet to find something to wear to school, and all you can find are khaki pants and white shirts. Does that sound like a nightmare? Well, for many public school students in America, it is a reality! TOPIC: Should students be forced to wear uniforms?

15 I am going to tell you about… Once upon a time… This is an essay about… The assignment says I have to write about… FIRE! Now that I have your attention… (Attention-getter has to relate to thesis.) My first main idea is…

16 TRANSITION WORDS WORDS THAT CAN BE USED TO SHOW LOCATION: AboveAcrossAgainstAlongAmongAroundBehindBelowBeneath BesideBetweenBeyondByDownIn back ofIn front ofInsideInto NearOffOntoOutsideOverThroughoutTo the right Underunderneath WORDS USED THAT CAN BE USED TO SHOW TIME: WhileAfterAtBeforeDuringFirstSecondThird NowUntilMeanwhileTodayTomorrowNext weekYesterdaySoon LaterAfterwardAboutFinallyThenNextAs soon asWhen suddenly WORDS THAT CAN BE USED TO COMPARE TWO THINGS: LikewiseAlsoWhileIn the same way LikeAsSimilarly

17 TRANSITION WORDS WORDS THAT CAN BE USED TO CONTRAST TWO THINGS: ButStillAlthoughOn the other hand HoweverYetOtherwiseEven though WORDS THAT CAN BE USED TO CLARIFY: That isFor instanceIn other words WORDS THAT CAN BE USED TO EMPHASIZE A POINT AgainTrulyEspeciallyFor this reason To repeatIn factTo emphasize WORDS THAT CAN BE USED TO ADD INFORMATION AgainAnotherFor instanceFor example AlsoAs wellNextAnd BesidesFinallyMoreoverAlong with In additionFor exampleAdditionallyOther

18 Concluding Transitions C learly H ence E vidently Ergo (a continuing thought) Thus Therefore As one can see CHEETTA

19 NO SECOND PERSON PRONOUNS! “YOU” “YOUR “YOURS” SHOULD NOT BE USED IN FORMAL WRITING! “You” is sometimes acceptable in the introduction paragraph for your HOOK only, but nowhere else. It is considered informal. We should NOT write how we speak, put your tuxedo and best dress on when you write! Use “we, us, our, ours” or “one” or “students”

20 First Body Paragraph ALWAYS NEED A TRANSITION WORD/PHRASE:ALWAYS NEED A TRANSITION WORD/PHRASE: S TATE ONE REASON WHY YOU AGREE OR DISAGREE S TATE ONE REASON WHY YOU AGREE OR DISAGREE CAN APPEAL TO THE AUDIENCE ’ S LOGIC, EMOTIONS, OR MORALS CAN APPEAL TO THE AUDIENCE ’ S LOGIC, EMOTIONS, OR MORALS E XPLAIN 3 SUPPORTING DETAILS TO SUPPORT / PROVE YOUR REASON : E XPLAIN 3 SUPPORTING DETAILS TO SUPPORT / PROVE YOUR REASON :  S UPPORTING DETAIL Include specific examples and allusions. BONUS POINTS!

21 Types of Arguments L OGOS (logic) means an argument based on reason. P ATHOS (passion or emotions) is the use of emotional arguments to get the audience to accept one’s viewpoint. It is intended that the message inspire followers. E THOS (ethics or morals) is a moral or ethical argument that appeals to the reader’s morals or values; what the reader believes is morally or ethically right. Aristotle called it the “moral rightness” of an argument.

22 Rhetoric = The Art of Persuasion The history of rhetoric and the concepts of ethos, pathos and logos began in Greece.

23 Who was Aristotle? Aristotle was a famous Greeek philosopher who studied the art of persuasion. Plato, another famous Greek philosopher, was his teacher.

24 Ethos, Logos and Pathos In approximately 300 B.C.E. Aristotle, who was a famous Greek philosopher, wrote a book entitled, “The Art of Rhetoric.” In his book, Aristotle identified the three methods of persuasion. He called them ethos, pathos and logos.

25 Ethos = a MORAL argument The word "ethos" came from the Greek word “ethikos” meaning moral or showing moral character. An “ethos” argument demonstrates a moral or ethical argument that appeals to the reader’s morals or values; what the reader believes is morally or ethically right. For example: If your friend did something to offend you (hurt you) your mother or father may argue that forgiveness is the right or moral path to choose and that holding a grudge or showing resentment will get you nowhere.

26 Pathos = an EMOTIONAL argument An effective use of “pathos” will alter the mindsets of the audience through the use of emotional appeal. Appeals to pathos touch a nerve and compel people to not only listen, but to also take the next step and act in the world. Those who wish to persuade you will play with your emotions. They may persuade you with fear, love, patriotism, guilt, hate or joy.

27 Logos Logos means logic Logos refers to any attempt to appeal to the intellect OR, our brains. Logos appeals to the left side of the audience's brain. The audience relies on reasoning and facts to make its decision. – Numbers, polls and statistics are also examples of the persuasive use of logic.

28 Logos (logic) Support your reasons with proof. –Facts - can be proven. –Expert opinions or quotations –Definitions - statement of meaning of word or phrase –Statistics – number facts; offer scientific support –Examples - powerful illustrations –Anecdote - incident, often based on writer's personal experiences –Present opposition - and give reasons and evidence to prove the opposition (the other side) wrong

29 REVIEW Ethos, Pathos and Logos 1.ETHOS= an ethical or moral argument 2.PATHOS= an emotional argument 3.LOGOS= a logical argument

30 Logos (logic) means an argument based on reason. Examples: – “OnStar service inside your car is better than carrying a cell phone because a cell phone can’t call for you when you’re injured.” – “There was no discernible difference in the ACT scores of graduating seniors who wore school uniforms and those who didn’t.” – “Stand firm, parents. If you say ‘no’ at first and then give in later, you are only teaching your children to beg, whine and pester you.”

31 P ATHOS (passion or emotions) is the use of emotional arguments to get the audience to accept one’s viewpoint. It is intended that the message inspire followers. Examples: – A politician says that we have to fight the war “over” there so that we don’t have to fight it here at home. – A newspaper editorial for private-school vouchers states that our public schools are “dens of thieves and thugs”. – If you loved me you would do this. – Persuading lower gas prices might want some anger in the current prices or the frustration in nothing being done about

32 E THOS (ethics or morals) is a moral or ethical argument that appeals to the reader’s morals or values; what the reader believes is morally or ethically right. Examples: – “Ask not what your country can do for you; ask what you can do for your country.” — John Fitzgerald Kennedy – “The way ahead is not easy. We shall need all the wisdom, imagination, and courage we can muster. We must and shall guarantee the civil rights of all our citizens.” – Harry Truman addressing the NAACP

33 Ethos, Pathos, or Logos? Identify what type of argument matches each statement. Write your answer beneath the quote. “We are the only company who will roll over and save your unused phone minutes each month.” LOGOS!! “I have a dream that my four little children will one day live in a nation where they will not be judged by the color of their skin but by the content of their character.” – Martin Luther King Jr. ETHOS !! A high school runs an article about drinking and driving with detailed descriptions and graphic pictures of automobile crashes. PATHOS!!

34 How to Build Strong Body Paragraphs

35 Real-Life Examples & Allusions in Body Paragraphs It is also important that we try to include “real-life” examples in our body paragraphs. Including real-life examples will enhance your writing. SAMPLE: –T–Topic: Athlete's are overpaid. –R–Real life example in body paragraph: I remember my thirteenth birthday party like it was yesterday. It was a wonderful day until my father informed me that he could not afford to purchase the tickets to the Giant’s game I wanted so badly to attend. At first I became angry, but then I realized that the tickets were over $200 each for average seats. I then realized I could enjoy the game more with my family at home and big bowl of popcorn.

36 Allusion – Reference to something outside the text. Including allusions in our writing can also enhance our essays. – Historical figures – A time period in history – Current event in the media – Literary character – Movie – Book – Poem – Song – Quote by another author Real-Life Examples & Allusions in Body Paragraphs

37 Second Body Paragraph ALWAYS NEED A TRANSITION WORD/PHRASE:ALWAYS NEED A TRANSITION WORD/PHRASE: S TATE ONE REASON WHY YOU AGREE OR DISAGREE S TATE ONE REASON WHY YOU AGREE OR DISAGREE CAN APPEAL TO THE AUDIENCE ’ S LOGIC, EMOTIONS, OR MORALS CAN APPEAL TO THE AUDIENCE ’ S LOGIC, EMOTIONS, OR MORALS E XPLAIN 3 SUPPORTING DETAILS TO SUPPORT / PROVE YOUR REASON : E XPLAIN 3 SUPPORTING DETAILS TO SUPPORT / PROVE YOUR REASON :  S UPPORTING DETAIL Include specific examples and allusions. BONUS POINTS!

38 Third Body ParagraphALWAYS NEED A TRANSITION WORD/PHRASE: S STATE ONE REASON WHY YOU AGREE OR DISAGREE CAN APPEAL TO THE AUDIENCE’S LOGIC, EMOTIONS, OR MORALS EXPLAIN 3 SUPPORTING DETAILS TO SUPPORT/PROVE YOUR REASON:  S S S SUPPORTING DETAIL  S S S SUPPORTING DETAIL  S S S SUPPORTING DETAIL This is where you can acknowledge the opposition. Prove the other side is wrong. Choose one argument from the other side and prove it is wrong. Include specific, real-life examples and allusions. BONUS POINTS! 1.What does it mean to “negate/acknowledge the opposition”? _______________________________________________________________________________________

39 Explain and refute the opposite view within your essay. To “negate or acknowledge the opposition” means to prove the other side is wrong and give a stronger reason of your own. These newscasters argue that cell phones SHOULDN’T be allowed in schools. One newscaster tries to refute or negate their argument, but she doesn’t do a great job. What other argument could you use to “negate the opposition” (prove the other side wrong). How would you refute or negate the two newscasters’ opinion that cell phones shouldn’t be permitted in schools?

40 CONCLUSION PARAGRAPH T RANSITION P HRASE : “A S ONE CAN SEE …..”T RANSITION P HRASE : “A S ONE CAN SEE …..” 1. R ESTATE YOUR OPINION AND THREE REASONS.1. R ESTATE YOUR OPINION AND THREE REASONS.  S TATE A POSSIBLE ALTERNATIVE  { ANOTHER OPTION THAT YOU CAN PRESENT TO THE READER }. (N OT IN EVERY ESSAY )  E XAMPLE : I F YOU ARE AGAINST HAVING CELL PHONES IN THE CLASSROOM, AS AN ALTERNATIVE YOU COULD TELL THE READER THAT PERHAPS STUDENTS COULD BRING THE CELL PHONES TO SCHOOL AND LEAVE THEM IN THEIR LOCKER FOR EMERGENCY PURPOSES ONLY. 2. I NCLUDE A SENTENCE OR A QUESTION TO BRING CLOSURE.  T HOUGHT - PROVOKING STATEMENT OR QUESTION

41 Final Thoughts… Wrap up your final thoughts, and restate your opinions in the last paragraph on the essay. Restate (in a creative way) the important points/main idea in the essay Regain your audience’s interest in your ideas Address your audience with a call of action or question Most important part of the essay: Spend time editing and planning your conclusion carefully!! CONCLUSION

42 Reasons to Know How to Write a Persuasive Essay… Emphasizes critical thinking and analysis skills Relativity: Writing to a newspaper on a local/national issue that concerns you  Or to sway a institution/company’s decision Provides practice for college admissions/cover letter writing Required to demonstrate this skill on the Standardized Testing

43 Persuasive Techniques are Everywhere! -s&feature=related -s&feature=related

44 Bringing Life to Persuasive Writing That’s SO TRUE! Who CARES?

45 Having a Strong VOICE in your Writing You feel a strong connection to the writer’s… –Emotion –Energy –Conviction –Integrity feel –…you feel SOMETHING!

46 Voice is… Person behind the words Reader Writer Involvement Awareness of audience Individualistic Expressive

47 Who’s Voice is This? 8:00 am – Dog food! My favorite thing! 9:30 am – A car ride! My favorite thing! 9:40 am – A walk in the park! My favorite thing! 10:30 am – Got rubbed and petted! My favorite thing! 12:00 pm – Lunch! My favorite thing! 1:00 pm – Played in the yard! My favorite thing! 3:00 pm – Wagged my tail! My favorite thing! 5:00 pm – Milk bones! My favorite thing! 7:00 pm – Got to play ball! My favorite thing! 8:00 pm – Wow! Watched TV with the people! My favorite thing! 11:00 pm – Sleeping on the bed! My favorite thing!

48 Who’s Voice is This? Day 983 of my captivity. My captors continue to taunt me with bizarre little dangling objects. They dine lavishly on fresh meat, while the other inmates and I are fed hash or some sort of dry nuggets. Although I make my contempt for the rations perfectly clear, I nevertheless must eat something in order to keep up my strength. The only thing that keeps me going is my dream of escape. In an attempt to disgust them I once again vomit on the carpet. Today I decapitated a mouse and dropped its headless body at their feet. I had hoped this would strike fear into their hearts, since it clearly demonstrates what I am capable of. However, they merely made condescending comments about what a ‘good little hunter’ I am. There was some sort of assembly of their accomplices tonight.

49 Who’s Voice is This? I was placed in solitary confinement for the duration of the event. However, I could hear the noises and smell the food. I overheard that my confinement was due to the power of ‘allergies.’ I must learn what this means and how to use it to my advantage… Today I was almost successful in an attempt to assassinate one of my tormentors by weaving around his feet as he was walking. I must try this again tomorrow – but at the top of the stairs. I am convinced that the other prisoners here are flunkies and snitches. The dog receives special privileges. He is regularly released – and seems to be more than willing to return. He is obviously an idiot. The bird has got to be an informant. I observe him communicating with the guards regularly. I am certain that he reports my every move. My captors have arranged protective custody for him in an elevated cell, so he is safe. For now…

50 Be certain to: Read each paragraph carefully more than once to see what makes this sample essay a good one. Review actual graded NJ ASK persuasive essays on the class website. Note the scores and understand WHY they received them. Note the strengths AND the weaknesses!! Be certain to: Read each paragraph carefully more than once to see what makes this sample essay a good one. Review actual graded NJ ASK persuasive essays on the class website. Note the scores and understand WHY they received them. Note the strengths AND the weaknesses!!

51 School Year-Round: 45 days on and 15 days off, or 10 months on and 2 months off Student Example – INTRODUCTION paragraph Schools should continue using the traditional calendar and not a year- round schedule (position). It has no positive effects on education (1)it adds to costs (2), it disrupts the long-awaited summer vacation (3) The final bell rings. It’s the last day of school, and summer has finally come! Students don’t have to think about school for at least another 2 1/2 months. That is the way it should always be. Schools should continue using the traditional calendar and not a year- round schedule (position). There are numerous downsides to year-round schooling. It has no positive effects on education (1), it adds to costs (2), and it disrupts the long-awaited summer vacation (3). Student’s Opinion Student’s 3 reasons OPINION + 3 REASONS = THESIS STATEMENT

52 Paragraph 2 – Reason 1 = Student Example Contrary to the well-accepted belief, year- round schooling has no constructive impact on education. (1) (2) (3) why is the change necessary? Contrary to the well-accepted belief, year- round schooling has no constructive impact on education. (1) Most year-round schedules use the method: 45 days of school followed by 15 days off. Because of this, there are many first and last days of school. All those transitions disrupt the learning process. Also, (2) there is no evidence of higher test scores. Due to that, many schools that change to year-round schedules end up switching back. For example, (3) since 1980, 95 percent of schools that tried the year-round schedule changed back to a traditional calendar. It is obvious that changing to year-round schooling does not help students; therefore, why is the change necessary? Reason 1 Supporting Detail 2 Supporting Detail 1 Supporting Detail 3 Get the reader thinking with a thought-provoking question.

53 Paragraph 3 – Reason 2 - Student Example Like any other facility, keeping a school open requires a great deal of money. (1) (2) (3) Is year-round school really where the money should go? Like any other facility, keeping a school open requires a great deal of money. When a school changes to a year-round schedule, the costs skyrocket. (1) Keeping school open in the middle of summer requires air conditioning, and that adds significantly to the school’s expenses. The usual utility bills grow because of the additional open-school time. Finally, (2) teachers must be paid for all the weeks they are working. With all these factors, the cost of keeping schools open becomes immensely high. For example, (3) a high school in Arizona had a cost increase of $157,000 when they switched to year-round schooling. Some schools may not be able to handle such increases, and other schools that can handle these expenses could be doing better things with the money. Is year-round school really where the money should go? Reason 2 Supporting Detail 3 Supporting Detail 2 Supporting Detail 1

54 Paragraph 4 – Reason 3 - Student Example An important part of a child’s life is summertime. With year-round schedules, students would hardly have any time to relax. (1) (2) (3) (4) Why should this invaluable part of a young person’s life be taken away? An important part of a child’s life is summertime. With year-round schedules, students would hardly have any time to relax. (1) During the 15-day breaks, they would be thinking about their quick return to school. (2) It would also be difficult to coordinate family vacations with parents’ work schedules. (3) Similarly, children would not be able to go to most summer camps. (4) One expert, Dr. Peter Scales, says, “The biggest plus of camp is that camps help young people discover and explore their talents, interests, and values. Most schools don’t satisfy all these needs. Kids who have these kinds of [camp] experiences end up being healthier and have fewer problems.” Obviously, the summer is crucial to a child’s learning and development. Why should this invaluable part of a young person’s life be taken away? Reason 3 Supporting Detail 1 & 2 Supporting Detail 3 & 4 Get the reader thinking with a thought-provoking question.

55 Paragraph 4 Reason 3 (also includes negating the opposition) Despite my personal opinion, I understand that some may not fully agree with the idea of continuing the traditional ten month school year. Nevertheless, for those who believe adjusting the school calendar is beneficial for all students and can contribute to a consistent learning process, I have two words for you: overwhelming anxiety. Students are in need of an elongated summer break to ensure they can eliminate the anxiety and stress associated with school and enjoy time with their families. Even my mother and father take the time to vacation in the summer in order to get away. By stepping away from the traditional school calendar we will create more havoc in the lives of our families and in all students’ lives creating overwhelming anxiety for all involved.

56 Paragraph 5 – Conclusion - Student Example As one can see, it is evident that year- round schooling is not the best option for the school calendar. There is absolutely nothing wrong with the traditional school year year-round schooling has no constructive impact on education (reason 1), keeping a school open requires a great deal of money, (reason 2), and an important part of a child’s life is summertime. With year-round schedules, students would hardly have any time to relax (reason 3). When the final bell rings, let’s make sure this bell means that the “real” summer vacation has come. As one can see, it is evident that year- round schooling is not the best option for the school calendar. There is absolutely nothing wrong with the traditional school year. We should not follow the schedule because year-round schooling has no constructive impact on education (reason 1), keeping a school open requires a great deal of money, (reason 2), and an important part of a child’s life is summertime. With year-round schedules, students would hardly have any time to relax (reason 3). Why change something that works so well? When the final bell rings, let’s make sure this bell means that the “real” summer vacation has come. Concluding transition phrase

57 An example for the other side….

58 Counterargument –(opposite side) Student Example (1) Teachers and other education professionals spend a lot of time at the beginning of the school year reviewing material from the previous year. (2) there are no classes taking place during summer hours, the building is still being used, therefore utility costs remain consistent throughout the year. (3), there has been a significant increase in families staying home during the summer months due to the downturn in the economy. travel and vacations have become practically nonexistent for families with school age children. But does this really make sense to everyone? (1) Teachers and other education professionals spend a lot of time at the beginning of the school year reviewing material from the previous year. These days and weeks of “review” could be used more effectively if the lessons continued to move forward, not backward. Also, By having their children in school with short breaks in between sessions, parents would not have to pay for additional, expensive childcare. Even if (2) there are no classes taking place during summer hours, the building is still being used, therefore utility costs remain consistent throughout the year. (3) And finally, there has been a significant increase in families staying home during the summer months due to the downturn in the economy. Because of this, travel and vacations have become practically nonexistent for families with school age children. According to AAA, last year alone, there was a 53% decrease in air travel. Reason 1 Reason 2 Reason 3

59 Planning Your Persuasive Essay 1. Clearly state your position. What do you believe about the issue? What are your reasons for believing that way? 2. Consider your audience. What do your readers know about the issue? What are their opinions on it? 3. Gather support for your arguments. Where will you find the information you need? What facts, statistics, examples, anecdotes, and quotations support your position? Which evidence is strongest? What support might people who object to your position present? How can you answer those objections?

60 Follow along very closely as we write our persuasive essay together in parts. First – – Read the WRITING SITUATION OVER AND OVER AGAIN. – Know your audience – BRAINSTORM One paragraph every day. You are required to REWRITE your paragraph each night to ensure it is nearly ruined. The final draft will count as two TEST GRADES. If you are experiencing trouble, it is your responsibility to see me after school or before school for additional help.

61 Writing Situation: Within the past several years, students have come to utilize their cell phone on a daily basis. Their phone has become their tool to not only contact their parents and friends, but as a gateway to information they may access at the press of a finger. This has become a challenge for most schools, however, because students refuse to relinquish their cell phones throughout the day. Your school district is deciding whether or not they should allow cell phones to be utilized in school on a daily basis. Writing Task: Write a letter to the principal identifying whether or not cell phones should be permitted for use in schools. Be specific and develop strong reasons in your response.

62 Pick your position: which side of the problem/issue are you on? Do you believe cell phones should be permitted for use in schools? SUPPORT AGAINST 1. Cell phones could be used as safety in case of emergency or pickup changes after school. {One supporting detail could include that having cell phones in school would put parents at ease.} 2. Cell phones could send and receive important messages from home without interrupting the entire class. (Can not choose reason 2 if you choose reason 1.) 3. Students could use cell phones to look up information for school. 1.If cell phones are permitted in school students may not pay attention in class. 2. If cell phones are permitted in school students may text each other answers to their work or tests. 3. If cell phones are permitted in school they could get stolen or broken.

63 Pick your position: which side of the problem/issue are you on? Do you believe cell phones should be permitted for use in schools? SUPPORT AGAINST 4. Cell phones could be used as a reward – once students finish their work they could listen to music or play educational games. 5. Schools could potentially save money by utilizing the cell phone, or smart phone WiFi Hot Spot and pull an internet connection from the phone rather than paying an internet provider. 4. By permitted cell phones in the classroom, many veteran or experienced teachers may not understand how to utilize the benefits of the phone correctly and may become overwhelmed. These teachers may not be able to help their students the way they should.

64 Pick your position: which side of the problem/issue are you on? Do you believe cell phones should be permitted for use in schools? SUPPORT AGAINST 5. Very often students do not pay attention when they are on their phones. If students choose to text while walking in the hallway, they may inadvertently injure themselves. {Need to use real-life examples to support this reason.} 6. By permitted cell phones in schools, students will be utilizing them throughout the entire day. This may inhibit their social skills. School is a place where students are suppose to enhance their social skills with their peers. 6. Every decade a new piece of technology is introduced to our generation. Once society opens their arms to the various types of technology, we learn that there can be numerous benefits. Therefore, school officials should consider allowing Smart phones, a new technology, in the classroom. Technology always improves over time and we should be open to the many ways we can utilize our cell phones in the classroom.

65 Pick your position: which side of the problem/issue are you on? Do you believe cell phones should be permitted for use in schools? SUPPORT AGAINST 7. Cell phones could also help students stay organized. {As an agenda, could also use the calendar, one could also add notes and set reminders or alarms.} 7. If cell phones are permitted in school, students MAY utilize them to contribute to cyber bullying. It would be very easy for a student to do this throughout the day. {Supporting detail could focus on how students may take inappropriate pictures or videos throughout the day and post them on the internet.}

66 Writing Situation: Within the past several years, students have come to utilize their cell phone on a daily basis. Their phone has become their tool to not only contact their parents and friends, but as a gateway to information they may access at the press of a finger. This has become a challenge for most schools, however, because students refuse to relinquish their cell phones throughout the day. Your school district is deciding whether or not they should allow cell phones to be utilized in school on a daily basis. Writing Task: Write a letter to the principal identifying whether or not cell phones should be permitted for use in schools. Be specific and develop strong reasons in your response.

67 What does the Writing Task say to do? “Write a letter to your principal” Begin your essay with: Dear Principal,

68 1. HOOK – grab the reader’s attention  S TARTLING S TATISTIC /F ACT  I NTERESTING Q UOTE  S TRONG /I NTERESTING STATEMENT  E XAMPLE ( EXPLAIN IN DETAIL ) OR “I MAGINE I F ….”  R ELATE TO EVERYDAY LIFE  A THOUGHT PROVOKING OR RHETORICAL QUESTION  A NECDOTE ( VERY BRIEF, SOMETIMES FUNNY STORY RELATING TO YOUR TOPIC.) DIRECTIONS: Now write your own HOOK on your paper.

69 E XAMPLE : Imagine opening your closet to find something to wear to school, and all you can find are khaki pants and white shirts. Does that sound like a nightmare? Well, for many public school students in America, it is a reality! TOPIC: Should students be forced to wear uniforms?

70 E XAMPLE : “Ring, ring!” In the middle of class the teacher hears a cell phone ring. She tries to tune it out, but then another cell phone goes off, then another. Is that really how a principal like you would want your classes run? This is exactly the picture of a classroom that will be found in your school, IF you allow cell phones into the classroom. TOPIC: Should cell phones be permitted for use in school?

71 E XAMPLE : Recently I was watching the news with my parents and found myself clutching my mother’s hand as we nervously listened to a news report about a bomb scare in a surrounding school district. Parents were terrified when the school was placed on lock down and had no way of getting in touch with their children since the schools were not answering their phones. Thank God for cell phones. Both my mom and I were relieved to hear that many parents were able to calm their children by texting them in the midst of this sudden emergency. TOPIC: Should cell phones be permitted for use in school?

72 2. STATE THE SITUATION  C OPY FROM THE PROMPT – BUT BE SURE TO CHANGE THE PRONOUNS IN THE PARAGRAPH. E XAMPLE OF A SAMPLE PERSUASIVE ESSAY ASSIGNMENT : M ANY TEACHERS AND SCHOOL BOARD MEMBERS BELIEVE THAT STUDENTS ARE EASILY DISTRACTED BY THE CLOTHES AND ACCESSORIES THEIR PEERS WEAR TO SCHOOL ON A DAILY BASIS. I N ORDER TO PREVENT ADDED DISTRACTION IN THE CLASS, YOUR B OARD OF E DUCATION IS CONSIDERING ENFORCING A NEW POLICY THAT WOULD REQUIRE THE STUDENTS IN YOUR DISTRICT TO WEAR UNIFORMS. M ANY PARENTS IN YOUR TOWN SUPPORT THIS POLICY AND ARE TAKING STEPS TO ENACT THIS POLICY. W RITE A LETTER TO YOUR B OARD OF E DUCATION EITHER SUPPORTING OR OPPOSING THIS NEW POLICY. E XAMPLE OF PERSUASIVE ESSAY ASSIGNMENT THAT YOU WOULD WRITE ON YOUR PAPER : M ANY TEACHERS AND SCHOOL BOARD MEMBERS BELIEVE THAT STUDENTS ARE EASILY DISTRACTED BY THE CLOTHES AND ACCESSORIES THEIR PEERS WEAR TO SCHOOL ON A DAILY BASIS. I N ORDER TO PREVENT ADDED DISTRACTION IN THE CLASS, THE B OARD OF E DUCATION IS CONSIDERING ENFORCING A NEW POLICY THAT WOULD REQUIRE ALL STUDENTS TO WEAR UNIFORMS. I UNDERSTAND THAT MANY PARENTS IN OUR TOWN SUPPORT THIS POLICY AND ARE TAKING STEPS TO ENACT THIS POLICY. W RITE A LETTER TO YOUR B OARD OF E DUCATION EITHER SUPPORTING OR OPPOSING THIS NEW POLICY. {T AKE THIS LAST SENTENCE OUT. REMEMBER WHO YOUR AUDIENCE IS.}

73 D ON ’ T USE PHRASES LIKE THESE : This essay is about... I am going to tell you about... I am writing about... This is where I talk about... In this paragraph, I will write about… In the last paragraph I wrote about...

74 STEP 1: Now, write your HOOK on your lined sheet of paper. You may copy it from your four- square method, BUT you must add more detail and description.

75 STEP 2: Now, write the SITUATION on your lined sheet of paper. I wrote it out for you on your four-square graphic organizer.

76 Sample of the SITUATION: The district is frustrated with students’ use of cell phones in school and are debating whether or not cell phones should be permitted for use in schools.

77 2. STATE THE SITUATION  SAMPLE OF WHAT YOU SHOULD HAVE NOW: HOOK “Ring, ring!” In the middle of class the teacher hears a cell phone ring. She tries to tune it out, but then another cell phone goes off, then another. Is that really how you, principal, would want your classes run? This is exactly the picture of a classroom that will be found in your school, IF you allow cell phones into the classroom. I understand that the district is considering allowing students to bring their cell phones to school. State the Situation

78 STEP 3: Now, write your THESIS (opinion with your three reasons} on your lined sheet of paper. Begin with “Cell phones should/should not (choose one) be permitted for use in schools because……..”

79 SAMPLE THESIS STATEMENT: Cell phones should not be permitted for use in schools because (1) cell phones are unnecessary and they will only be a distraction to students, (2) cell phones can hinder students’ social skills, and (3) they may contribute to the already growing cyberbullying in our school.

80 E XAMPLE #2 FOR THESIS STATEMENT:E XAMPLE #2 FOR THESIS STATEMENT: R EGARDLESS OF WHAT THE PARENTS MAY BELIEVE IS BENEFICIAL FOR STUDENTS, THIS POLICY WILL NOT BENEFIT THE STUDENT BODY. T HE POLICY SHOULD NOT BE ENACTED BECAUSE (1) STUDENTS NEED TO BE ABLE TO EXPRESS THEIR INDIVIDUALITY AMONGST THEIR PEERS, (2) ONE CANNOT REQUIRE A MIDDLE - CLASS FAMILY TO PURCHASE MULTIPLE UNIFORMS FOR EACH ACADEMIC YEAR AND (3) WE MUST STEER OUR ATTENTION TOWARDS THE GREATER DISTRACTIONS IN SCHOOL THAT ALREADY CREATE HAVOC IN THE CLASSROOM. TOPIC: Should students be forced to wear uniforms?

81 S AMPLE OF WHAT YOU SHOULD HAVE NOW : – “Ring, ring!” In the middle of class the teacher hears a cell phone ring. She tries to tune it out, but then another cell phone goes off, then another. Is that really how you, principal, would want your classes run? This is exactly the picture of a classroom that will be found in your school, IF you allow cell phones into the classroom. I understand that the district is considering allowing students to bring their cell phones to school. This is not a good idea because (1) cell phones are unnecessary and they will only be a distraction to students, (2) cell phones can hinder students’ social skills, and (3) they may contribute to the already growing cyberbullying in our school. HOOK State the Situation State OPINION with three reasons (thesis)

82 DIRECTIONS : Take out a clean sheet of lined paper and place the proper heading in the upper left-hand corner of your lined paper: Name Date 11/7/12 Period: 3 Persuasive Essay: BODY PARAGRAPH 1

83 Looking more carefully at BODY PARAGRAPHS After you write your INTRODUCTION paragraph then you need to move on to your BODY paragraphs. BEGIN WITH YOUR TRANSITION word/phrase FIRST. Choose a transition phrase from the graphic organizer. Next, state your reason very clearly.

84 D ON ’ T USE PHRASES LIKE THESE : This essay is about... I am going to tell you about... I am writing about... This is where I talk about... In this paragraph, I will write about… In the last paragraph I wrote about... My first reason is ….. My second reason is….

85 Start each body paragraph with stating your strong reason/argument. Keep in mind there are several ways you can create STRONG body paragraphs: – LOGOS – A LOGICAL argument/reason – PATHOS – An EMOTIONAL argument/reason – ETHOS – A moral argument/reason Example: – Everyone can think back to their childhood and remember the pressure associated with picking out their outfit for the first day of school. The outfit a student wears on the first day of school can help express his/her individual personality. A new outfit can give a student the confidence he/she needs to enter school amidst a sea of adolescents.

86 At the end of your first paragraph, make a statement that either moves the reader smoothly into the next paragraph or restates your thesis in different words. Example: – Mandatory school uniforms create more problems than they solve.

87 To begin with one thought, cell phones in class can be very distracting to students. State your first REASON from your FIRST body paragraph box in your Four Square Graphic Organizer.

88 AFTER you write REASON 1, you will add your three SUPPORTING DETAILS Provide a real-life example to enhance your writing. End with a connecting and thought-provoking sentence. Force your reader (the principal) to think carefully about what you’ve said. To begin with one thought, cell phones in class can be very distracting to students. For example, (1) if students were to have cell phones during class, they could easily take it out, and do as they please. They could play games, text, go on the internet and many other things during the time they should be learning. Also, (2) if students bring cell phones wherever they go, they might text in the hallway, a catastrophic mistake. When children are distracted while walking, they have tendency to fall, trip, or in simpler terms, hurt themselves. I have personally experienced this kind of situation. Once as I was walking down a flight of stairs while reading a book, I absent-mindedly tripped, landing on the hard asphalt below. I sustained a serious injury; it didn’t heal for one month and I still have the scar. If this could happen while reading a book, what would happen when a child reads or texts? Furthermore, (3) if students are distracted, their grades are bound to fall. If students don’t pay attention, they will never learn, ruining the entire learning process. Besides, isn’t school’s purpose to teach children in hopes that one day they will go to a good college and be able to be independent? By allowing cell phones in school, one must consider, will education truly be serving its purpose?

89 Your reason was your opening sentence. You MUST have a closing sentence: Example: – By allowing cell phones in school, one must consider, will education truly be serving its purpose? –Numerous accidents could take place if the district allows cell phones to be utilized in school.

90 SAMPLE FIRST BODY PARAGRAPH: Everyone can think back to their childhood and remember the pressure associated with picking out their outfit for the first day of school. The outfit a student wears on the first day of school can help express his/her individual personality. A new outfit can give a student the confidence he/she needs to enter school amidst a sea of adolescents. By stripping students of this privilege many may feel that they are lost in a never-ending and tumultuous tornado of robots traveling from one classroom to another. The idea of having school uniforms only emphasizes conformity. As our nation is growing more diverse by the minute, schools are trying to have students accept and understand diversity in our society, so why would we want to take that diversity and individuality away from them? In addition, clothing can present one’s individuality and their voice. So many times students feel as if they are unable to have their voice be heard. Many students feel intimidated to share their opinions and thoughts in the classroom. They share their voice in the smallest ways, one of which is through the clothes they wear. One may be brave enough to share his/her voice as an adult, but it’s easy to remember one’s childhood years when it wasn’t so easy and clothes were all you had to express your personality and voice.

91 DIRECTIONS: Now begin adding your supporting details to prove your reason is true. Be sure to use your list of transition words to help you move from one thought to another. You must include three supporting details in your body paragraph. (7-9 sentences) NO “YOU,” “YOUR,” OR “YOURS”. Use the following instead: STUDENTS WE US OUR OURS ONE PEOPLE You must use helping verbs like “might, may, could, would” not “will or won’t” because we don’t know for sure what the students will or won’t do.

92 Your reason was your opening sentence. You MUST have a closing sentence: Example: – By allowing cell phones in school, one must consider, will education truly be serving its purpose? –Numerous accidents could take place if the district allows cell phones to be utilized in school.

93 Next, not only may cell phones distract students, but they may hinder the important life skill of being social. (1) If all students do all day is play on their phone and text their friends, they will never interact with each other. Can you imagine students walking down the hallway, not saying “hello,” or “how are you”? They will be staring at their all- important phones. (2) Not only will students stop interacting, some students may become more introverted (hide inside themselves), and live their life on their phone. If a person only plays on their phone every day, it will become harder for them to socialize, and furthermore, make friends. This may cause them to lose confidence, and fall more deeply into a “phone-only” world. Would a parent want their child to act this way? (3) Also, students may find it harder to get a job in the future. If they cannot socialize, or speak to people, it will be harder for them to get jobs where they are a public speaker, such as a politician or CEO. That eliminates a lot of chances for these students. Next, add your three supporting details. End with a connecting and thought-provoking sentence. Force your reader (the principal) to think carefully about what you’ve said. Start with your TRANSITION WORD/PHRASE Then state REASON 2 Start with your TRANSITION WORD/PHRASE Then state REASON 2

94 End with a connecting and thought-provoking sentence. Force your reader (the principal) to think carefully about what you’ve said. Start with your TRANSITION WORD/PHRASE Then state REASON 3 Start with your TRANSITION WORD/PHRASE Then state REASON 3 Finally, cell phones can be the root of cyber-bullying, or be used for inappropriate reasons. (1) For instance, students may take inappropriate pictures or videos. This actually has happened before in our school. In the past, a female student decided it was a marvelous idea to take pictures in the locker room. Chaos would definitely ensue (followed). Also, (2) students may use their phones to text something embarrassing to their friends. The student who is the victim might be humiliated. This is just one example of how they can be used for cyber-bullying. In addition, (3) not only can they be used for such reasons, but on phones, one must remember things go around fast. What might have taken a week for everyone to know by word of mouth, could spread in a day through cell phones. So not only will it be the cause of cyber-bullying, but it will spread quickly. Think very carefully about the dangers a small cell phone could cause your students. Next, add your three supporting details. Include a real-life example to enhance your writing.

95 Begin by using one of your TRANSITION words/phrases – CHEETTA RESTATE your opinion with your three reasons Consider inserting a possible alternative. – Perhaps the school district could consider…….instead….. End with a thought-provoking statement or question for closure. – Let us keep color in our closets! Let us stand out in a crowd. America, don’t lose your youth in a sea of khaki!

96 So as one can see, cell phones should not be permitted in school since they distract students, inhibit social skills, and can be the cause of cyber-bullying. Of course, cell phones do have their good points, such as the fact they can be used if you need to contact someone, but I still feel that this reason is weak, because if that’s the problem, why not give teachers the cell phones? Of course, if someone were to really want to bring cell phones, we could always leave them in our lockers, or put parental controls on them. This way, everything is controlled. Now, let’s play that scenario from the beginning again. Instead of hearing cell phones ringing, one only hears complete silence. A person can easily concentrate now and everyone is diligently working. Isn’t that a much better learning environment? Start with your TRANSITION WORD/PHRASE RESTATE your opinion with your three reasons Include a possible alternative IF possible. ALTERNATIV E = another option; a compromise End with a thought-provoking sentence. Force your reader (the principal) to think carefully about what you’ve said.

97 As one can see, students shouldn’t have cell phones in class because they can become broken or stole, they can be a distraction for other students, and they can be used as a cheating device. Because cell phones can cause chaos during class, perhaps they could be kept inside the locker and only be used before and after school. Instead of students using their phones in class or students worrying about not having it with them, their cell phones will be locked away safely in their lockers. If that is the case, the student will be content, the teacher will be happy with the productivity and silence in class, and even parents will be happy because of their child’s progress in class. Which do you, principal, think is better? Grades plummeting and cell phones out in action during class, or a silent classroom full of well-minded and active students in a cell phone-free zone? Start with your TRANSITION WORD/PHRASE RESTATE your opinion with your three reasons Include a possible alternative IF possible. ALTERNATIV E = another option; a compromise End with a thought-provoking sentence. Force your reader (the principal) to think carefully about what you’ve said.

98 End with a thought-provoking statement or question for closure. AGAINST: Principal Cortright, don’t you want the classrooms in our school to reflect a focused and productive learning environment without the constant ringing or buzzing and distraction of cell phones? I challenge you to consider how you can protect our students from such chaos. SUPPORT: Principal Cortright, as you can see the need for cell phones in the classroom is immense (so great) and students could truly benefit from them since they already do outside of school. Don’t you want our school to be a place that is on the cutting edge of technology? I challenge you to consider how you can make our school better.

99 D ON ’ T USE PHRASES LIKE THESE : This essay is about... I am going to tell you about... I am writing about... This is where I talk about... In this paragraph, I will write about… In the last paragraph I wrote about... My first reason is ….. My second reason is….


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