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IS 376 Human Behavior: Issues and Effects Dr. Kapatamoyo 10/09/14 1.

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Presentation on theme: "IS 376 Human Behavior: Issues and Effects Dr. Kapatamoyo 10/09/14 1."— Presentation transcript:

1 IS 376 Human Behavior: Issues and Effects Dr. Kapatamoyo 10/09/14 1

2 Technologies as Extension of Ourselves  Michel Foucault’s “Technologies of Self”  Which permit individuals to effect by their own means or with the help of others a certain number of operations on their own bodies and souls, thoughts, conduct, and way of being, so as to transform themselves in order to attain a certain state of happiness, purity, wisdom, perfection, or immortality. 2

3 Situatedness  “Rather, just as it is wrong to render people as objects totally subject to manipulation by technologies, as suggested by crude technological determinism, it is equally wrong to assume that they lack the ability to act in the social context in which they find themselves. In other words, people are active, creative and expressive — albeit socio- culturally situated — subjects, which also applies to their appropriation of technology” (Mackay and Gillespie, 1992: 698). 3

4 Situatedness 4

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6 Broad Effects  Do not focus on content only, but also on effects  New media and technologies amplify or accelerate existing processes  Changes scale, pace, shape or patterns of human interaction 6

7 Making Visible What’s Invisible  Media as languages  Facebook, Twitter, Chatter, LinkedIn, Digg, Reddit, etc  Transition from linear connections to configurations, networks and alliances.  One-to-many and many-to-many.  Acquisition is replaced by services.  Localization of Apps  iTunes/Google Play vs. Records / CDs  Nike Plus, etc. 7

8 Disinformocracy  Does all of this media and technology distract from real issues?  Is the public sphere commodified?  Is democracy threatened? We see a lot of  Political and social fragmentation  Irrationality (insulation and polarization)  Powerlessness (in representative democracies).  Swedish government ascribes it as a civic tool, capable of cultivating more active citizenship and a stronger democracy. 8

9 Virtual Reality  Technically speaking, a virtual world is a 3D graphic representation of scenarios (houses, palaces, streets, landscapes, fantasy sites... ), more or less realistic, that can be displayed by means of a computer connected to the internet.  User can access these simulated environment by means of a digital alter ego, which is commonly referred to with the word avatar. 9

10 Fundamentals  Virtual worlds have some common fundamental characteristics:  Users can share experiences (many users can access the world simultaneously, each one from his own computer and share an experience with other people spread all over the real world).  Everything happens in real time (the user decides in real time what to do, where to move, all the actions are live, everything happens in the very moment the user sees it happening). 10

11 Fundamentals (cont’d) Virtual worlds have some common fundamental characteristics: Interactivity and participated creation of contents (the user can click on the objects, modify them or create new ones, in many virtual worlds everything has been created by users), Socializing (like in a social network, the user can communicate with other users and create groups and communities), Persistence (even if no user is connected, the world keeps existing). 11

12 Computer (or ICT) Trust  Trust OF the computer  Software and Applications  When you type “A” on an input device, you expect it to display.  Hardware  The equipment will do as it is supposed to do.  Computer professionals and other users  The person behind the desk should know what they are doing. 12

13 Computer (or ICT) Trust  Trust ON the computer  Information on the computer (network) is accurate.  Data on the computer is accurate.  People one meets on the computer are genuine. 13

14 Anatomy of Trust  Level of trust is correlated with economic developments in a given society.  Such as the Knowledge Gap theory (Tichenor, 1970).  Trust is grounded in social capital which can be understood as networks of social relations characterized by norms of trust and reciprocity (Bourdieu 1993; Coleman 1988; Putnam 1993).  Has led to business models like SNS (LinkedIn, eBay feedback, Angie’s List, etc.)  Social capital can, therefore, exist in both family and community/business life. 14

15 Types of Trust  Three types of trust:  Kin-based trust : trust between kinship groups and families.  Process-based trust : trust between long-time friends / acquaintances.  Extended (Generalized) trust : trust between individuals through transactions online but with limited knowledge of each other. 15

16 Trust and Social Development  Extended (generalized) trust is the most important indicator of economic development in society (H. Huang, C. Keser, J. Leland, J. Shachat).  Without that, one would be less likely to:  Make online purchases  Make friends online  Use other types of online services  Offer help to others on the Internet 16

17 Role of experience  One’s positive experience online can increase one’s e-trust – a reciprocal process.  Thus, some have argued that cybertrust is essential for the future of the Internet.  Increased transparency can lead to more consumer trust on the Internet. 17

18 Social Cueing and e-trust  For the skeptics, extra-linguistic cues such as facial expressions, body language, gestures that facilitate face-to-face communications are non- existent or hard to detect in online settings.  So it is harder to trust what somebody tells you online.  For the enthusiast, the absence of social cues can be an inhibitor on some instances, it can be a liberator on other occasions.  And there are other available cues online that can help. Such as…. 18

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20 Computer Dependency (1)  Some people argue that we are too dependent on computers for key tasks on a day-to-day basis. This has led to a brand-new type of dependency relationship.  Computers and related IT are taking over our lives in many ways.  Do you believe computers lead to Deskilling, or loss of important skills in jobs and daily life? (Y/N)  To what extent? (A lot; Not Really; None?). Sometimes it depends on who you ask. 20

21 Computer Dependency (2)  We are changing our behaviors to adapt to the limitations of computer systems rather than the other way round.  Thus there is a new paradox (of what I call win-more-or- lose-more situation) –  When the computer runs smoothly, life becomes easier. However, when the computer is down, problems are harder to resolve.  A more serious, pathological dependency is called computer addiction.  Specific examples are addictive behaviors on the Internet – gambling, eating, shopping, online sex, and chatting. 21

22 Online Behaviors  Pathological Internet Users experience:  Dependence,  Obsessive Thoughts,  Tolerance,  Diminished Impulse Control,  Inability to Cease,  Withdrawal. 22

23 Gratifications  Process Gratifications  Gratifications that result from the pleasurable experience of media content and are realized during consumption.  Focused on the consumption of the medium itself and pull the user away from the outside world.  Content Gratifications (Cognitive and Instrumental)  Gratifications that result from learning information from media content and subsequently putting it to use in practical affairs.  Inherently connected to the world outside the media system. 23

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