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WWI. Bismarck’s Alliance System He (and Germany) really were a ‘sated’ power Pursued a System of Alliances –Goal: maintain peace with a dominant Germany.

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Presentation on theme: "WWI. Bismarck’s Alliance System He (and Germany) really were a ‘sated’ power Pursued a System of Alliances –Goal: maintain peace with a dominant Germany."— Presentation transcript:

1 WWI

2 Bismarck’s Alliance System He (and Germany) really were a ‘sated’ power Pursued a System of Alliances –Goal: maintain peace with a dominant Germany –Isolate France…why? France is bitter over Franco-Prussian War, Alsace-Lorraine, etc. –Stabilize, but balance Austria and Russia Why are these two such a concern? –minority groups with destabilizing nationalism –Deal with land winning independence from the crumbling Ottoman Empire in southeast Europe Aka the Balkans Host of nationalist problems there We’ll come back to this Example of Bismarck’s genuine attempts to keep peace –Encourages France to imperialize land, just not in Europe Many of Bismarck’s Alliances were secret… Series of shifting alliances under Bismarck is complicated.

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5 William II Bungled Bismarck’s System He’s anti-Russian He gets rid of Bismarck because Bismarck is pro-Russian Alienates Russia France jumps on this to make an alliance with Russia German gov. under William II is arrogant and ignorant… does a lot to stir up a hornet’s nest of European problems

6 Rival Alliance Groups Form #1- the Triple Alliance (later called the Central Powers) –Germany –Austria-Hungary joins because of tensions with Russia over the spoils of the Ottoman Empire –Italy sees France as its biggest threat, and joins, too #2- the Triple Entente (later called the Allies) –France –Russia joins against Germany and Austria-Hungary –England is eventually coaxed out of its ‘splendid isolation’ because of growing fears of German power More details on the next slide Naming confusion –Triple Alliance versus Allies

7 Italy

8 Why Has Britain Abandoned Splendid Isolation? British-German Naval Escalation –William II orders a bunch of modern battleships built England feels threatened and builds the mightiest battleship on the planet –HMS Dreadnought –Fastest ship, best armor, and best firepower on the planet However, in a sense, Britain just helped the Germans –The old navies are obsolete –In one sense, Germany is now one boat behind

9 Dreadnoughts

10 Germany Quickly Responded By Building Its Own

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13 Balkan Powder Keg Ottomans are losing power over the region Lots of different nationalities in the Balkans want nations of their own –Old nationalism Russia and Austria-Hungary see the area as ripe for their own colonial designs –New nationalism Russia portrays itself as protector of the Slavic groups in the Balkans If either gets too much Balkan land, it will destabilize the entire European … _______________________ –Balance of Power Think of the Balkans as an early 20 th century version of today’s Middle East

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16 Four M.A.I.N. causes… but also a ‘trigger mechanism’ Alliances Imperialism Militarism Nationalism Assassination

17 Small Wars in the Balkans Tensions are not as intense before 1900 –Great Powers distracted by New Imperialism –Then everything is taken up… no more easy wars to distract from European problems Series of small wars in the Balkans –Locals, especially Serbians, wanted a nation –Austria-Hungary cannot allow an example of successful old nationalism on their border Russia wants to be seen as a protector of the Slavs so it can’t stand by

18 The Assassination Event Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand –Austro-Hungarian prince –Visiting land conquered by Austria-H that has a large Serbian population (Bosnia-Herzegovina) The Black Hand –A patriotic group of Serbs, supposedly operating on their own, but actually with secret support of the government –Kill Ferdinand –Their point is: leave Serbia/Serbians alone so we can build a state Assassination –Assassins all had Tuberculosis –Failed attempts –Gavrilo Princeps- oddly ‘fortunate’

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23 How Did This Single Shooting in the Balkans Ignite a World War? Austria-H declares war on Serbia –Russia pulled in to protect Serbs/Slavs –Germany is dragged in as an ally of Austria-H Everyone is afraid to not be first –Military timetables Think about the Prussian victories over Austria and France –Military leaders manage to convince political leaders that there is not time for politics –Barbara Tuchman- The Guns of August Conservative Politicians Have Increasingly Needed a Distraction From Class Struggles at Home –Hoped for a short decisive war (again, think Austro-Prussian, Austro- French Wars) but wouldn’t get it –The long one that comes does a lot to destroy the remaining strands of the great chain

24 The Schlieffen Plan German military plan in case of total war The Germans have determined that if there is a general war, they can’t afford to attack to the east first. Why not? –You’ve got an angry/humiliated France to the west Germany’s Schlieffen Plan is also designed to avoid a two-front war for Germany

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26 Central Powers Western Allies Eastern We’ve got him surrounded ! Attack! Now it’s your turn…Ha, ha, ha, ha… Schlieffen Plan

27 The Actual Fighting Schlieffen Plan Failed –Invasion through neutral Belgium (to catch France off guard and deliver a quick knock out blow) gets Britain off of the fence French/British forces stop the Germans at the Marne River –1 st Battle of the Marne By this point, Russia has attacked in the East and Germany must split its army A general European war is now on Side fact- Italy decided that, despite its treaty obligations, the Germans and Austro-Hungarians were going to lose –Decides to declare neutrality at the beginning of the war

28 The Tangle of Alliances

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30 HansenName ___________ AP Euro The Outbreak of WWI (note-taking guide) Bismarck’s System of Alliance –He (and Germany) really were ________________ –Pursued a System of Alliances Goal: _________________________________________ Isolate France…why? –France ________________________________, Alsace-Lorraine, etc. _____________, but balance __________________ –Why are these two such a concern? »_______________ with ___________ _________________________ Deal with ______________________________ from the crumbling _______________ in southeast Europe –Aka _______________________ –Host of _____________ problems there –We’ll come back to this –Example of Bismarck’s genuine attempts to keep peace Encourages France _________________ land, just not in ______________________ –Many of Bismarck’s Alliances were ____________… –Series of shifting alliances under Bismarck is ______________. William II Bungled Bismarck’s Alliance System –He’s _________________________ –He gets rid of ______________ because ______ is pro-Russian –Alienated Russia –________ jumps on this to make _____________ with Russia –German gov. under William II is ______________________… does a lot to stir up a hornet’s nest of European problems Rival Alliance Groups Formed –#1- the Triple Alliance (later called the ______________________) Germany _______________________ joins because of tensions with Russia over the ___________________ Ottoman Empire Italy sees ________ as its biggest threat, and joins, ______ –#2- the Triple Entente (later called the ________________) France Russia joins against Germany and Austria-Hungary __________ is eventually coaxed out of its ‘_______________’ because of growing fears of ____________________ –More details on the next slide –Naming confusion Triple Alliance versus Allies Why had Britain Abandoned Splendid Isolation? –______________________________________________ William II orders a bunch of modern battleships built –England feels threatened and builds the mightiest battleship on the planet HMS Dreadnought _____________ ship, best ___________, and best _____________on the planet –However, in a sense, Britain ________________ the Germans The old navies ________________________ In one sense, Germany is now ___________________ Balkan _____________________________ –Ottomans are losing power over the region –Lots of different nationalities in the Balkans want nations of their own _____________________________ –Russia and Austria-Hungary see the area as ripe for their own colonial designs __________________________ –Russia portrays itself as protector of the _____________ in the Balkans –If either gets too much Balkan land, it will destabilize the entire European … _______________________________ –Think of the Balkans as an early 20 th century version of _______ ___________________________________________ Four M.A.I.N. causes… but also a ‘trigger mechanism’ –M - _________________________________ –A- __________________________________ –I- ___________________________________ –N- __________________________________ –Trigger Small Wars in the Balkans –Tensions are not as intense before 1900 Great Powers distracted by _____________________ Then everything is _____________… no more _______________ to distract from ______________________ –Series of small wars in the Balkans Locals, especially _____________, wanted a nation Austria-Hungary cannot allow an example of ____________ _____________________ on their border –Russia wants to be seen as a protector of the Slavs so it can’t ________

31 The Assassination Event –Assassination of Archduke _________________________ _________________________________ Visiting land conquered by Austria-H that has a large Serbian population (_____________________) –The Black Hand A ______________________- Serbs, supposedly operating on their own, but actually with secret ______ ___________________________________________ Kill Ferdinand Their point is: __________________________ so we can ____________________________________ –Assassination Assassins all had _____________________ Failed attempts Gavrilo Princeps- oddly ‘fortunate’ How did This Single Shooting Ignite a War? –Austria-H declares war on Serbia ____________________________ to protect Serbs/Slavs Germany is dragged in as an _____________________ –Everyone is afraid to not be first _________________________________ –Think about the Prussian victories over _______ _________________________________ Military leaders manage to convince political leaders that there is ___________________________________ ____________________ The Guns of August –Conservative Politicians Have Increasingly Needed ___________ From _____________________ at Home Hoped for a short decisive war (again, think Austro- Prussian, Austro-French Wars) but wouldn’t get it The long one that comes does a lot to destroy the remaining strands ____________________________ The Schlieffen Plan –German military plan in case _________________________ –The Germans have determined that if there is a general war, they can’t afford to attack to the east first. Why not? You’ve got an ________________________ France to the west –Germany’s Schlieffen Plan is also designed to avoid a ________________ for Germany The Actual Fighting –Schlieffen Plan _____________________ Invasion through _______________ (to catch France _____________ and deliver a quick _________________ blow) gets Britain ____________________________ –French/British forces stop the Germans at the Marne River ________________________ –By this point, Russia has attacked in the East and Germany must _____ __________________________________ –A general European war is now on –Side fact- Italy decided that, despite its treaty obligations, the Germans and Austro-Hungarians were going to lose Decides to ____________________ at the beginning of the war


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