3BullyingIntentional, usually repeated acts of verbal, physical, or written aggression by a peer (or group) operating from a position of strength or power with the goal of hurting the victim physically or damaging status and/or social reputationRepeated calculated acts for powerVerbal & written aggression can be worse/more hurtful
4Bullying vs. Teasing vs. Conflict Teasing: good-natured “give & take” between friends designed to get both parties to laughConflict: A struggle, dispute, and/or misunderstanding between 2 opposing forcesBullying: Based on power imbalance, taunting another with intent of harming; continues when other is distressedOveruse of term, bullying- being used to describe all problem behaviorConflict: Biggest issue we deal with that can misinterpreted to be bullying- best dealt with conflict resolution- all parties- very effective most of the timeBullying: Power & continuing when distress is obvious
5Victims of Bullying Have a position of relative weakness Most are passiveExperience emotional distress- anxiety, depression, suicidal thoughts, low self-esteemIn some instances can respond with extreme violenceGLBT youth most at-riskSchool shooters are usually victims of bullying
6Those Who Bully Desire power & control Get satisfaction over others’ sufferingMore exposed to physical punishment at homeAverage self-esteem, BUT more likely to be depressed & feel less supported by othersEngage in other risky behaviorsNeed our help too!Risky behaviors- substance abuse, law breaking
7Bully Prevention in School Structured, Supportive, & Supervised EnvironmentsClear, consistent policies on harassment, including means of reportingImmediate action with intervention not just punishmentWarmth, positive interest, adult involvement & appreciation of individual differencesOngoing social development programsPrograms & opportunities to connect with all studentsLeadership is critical for structured / supportive environmentsBullies need a clear, secure means of reportingPunishment/Suspension alone is not effective- leads to more acting out behavior, drop out, & contact with justice systemHaving a kid on a long-term suspension & then return to school without any other intervention is just delaying another problemNeed intervention: Counseling to reduce suspension is a good responseSecond StepClubs, Sports, Musicals, & extracurricular activities. Non-academic experiences are critical to engaging resistant students
8State Legislation and Bullying 2012- Dignity for All Students Act (DASA)Prohibits harassment of students based on race, weight, religion, national origin, ethnic group, sexual orientation, disability, gender, & sex2013- Amendment to DASARequires schools to act when cyberbullying occursTH Question!Questions????
9Brain & BehaviorOver time our brains have evolved- new features have been added and old ones discarded as a result of social consequences, in order to better solve social problemsWe have DNA encoded with information for innate behaviors. Babies are not born with blank brains (expects faces at birth, reasoning with animate/inanimate objects, crying to express needs)Our brains are preprogrammed to express social behavior regardless of culture
10Brain & BehaviorNature and nurture: genetic components interact with various environmental influences and shape brain development/functioningA carrier of a particular set of genes is associated with an 882% probability of committing a violent crime and 98.4% chance of being on death rowChildren with particular genetic material are more likely to develop conduct disorders and become violent criminals as adults. This outcome is much more likely if these children were abusedChildren with the opposite genetic material were not likely to repeat the cycle of violence even if severely maltreated
11Brain & BehaviorThe brain has countless rivaling operations each competing for a single output of our behavior.A balance is optimal for the brain and behavior.Rational SystemEmotional Systemvs
12Emotional vs. Rational Emotional System Rational System Involves internal statesEmotional system is evolutionarily old and shared with other speciesEmotional circuitry of the brain is associated with immediate reward and impulsive behavior (i.e. drug addiction)Rational SystemInvolves analysis of external eventsRational system is more recent and is one unique characteristic that separates us from other speciesRational system consists of the lateral cortex circuitry associated with higher cognition and delaying gratification for longer-term rewards with higher return
13Brain & Behavior Brain Plasticity Critical Periods: Birth to 5 & PubertyBetween approximately 10 to 18 months of age is critical for shaping of brain for attachments & emotional regulationBrain is made up of countless neural circuits which govern behavior and habitsTH Question 2!Brain is not fixed, but constantly changing. It can be modified. Becomes more difficult with age, but can be done. Our brains become more difficult to change with age.Strokes & damage to particular areas of brain can be reversed by other parts of brain taking over.Bad Habits are difficult to reverse because of how it shapes brain, but plasticity gives us hope, that with early, intensive intervention we can produce change.Using positive reinforcement can be effective. Address thought that student should just be self-motivated. Proof that external motivation can produce internal change.
14Brain & Behavior Bad habits take over neural circuits in the brain The more a bad habit is practiced the more space it occupies on a neural circuit, creating less space for good habitsMakes unlearning more challenging than learningThe more habitual and automatic a behavior the more complex and specialized the neural circuitry and the less conscious awarenessEarly education and intervention
16Brain & Behavior Prefrontal Cortex- Executive Functioning Regulates attention/emotion, planning, organization, self-monitoring, and foreseeing/understanding consequencesStudents with attention and emotional difficulty, usually have poor executive functioningStudies:Emotionally supportive environments with meaningful praise, affection, & sensitivity better self-regulationEmotionally neglectful environments poor self-regulationChildren with a history of trauma & emotional neglect often have dysfunction in prefrontal cortexMiddle schoolTH Question 3!
18Brain & BehaviorEvidence that behavior modification, talk therapy (counseling), & medication can change brain chemistry / functioningExtrinsic motivation can change brain chemistry and increase intrinsic motivation over timePsychotherapy: leads to decreased activation in prefrontal cortex (less blood flow) in patients who suffer from past trauma and/or anxietyDepression, high stress, & trauma are associated with a smaller hippocampus and memory loss. Antidepressants have been found to mature hippocampus- increase neural circuitry
19Behavioral Theory All behavior serves a function or purpose. All behavior functions within a system – environment, setting, or situation.Environmental/situational factors create and maintain problem behavior.By changing environmental factors and responses to behavior, it is believed that problem behavior can be replaced with pro-social behavior.Behavior- internal & external controlMost behavior, if not all, has to do with control. Each of us want to have sense of internal control (sense of calm, peace, security inside) & external control (environment, interactions, relationships, situations).
21Picture Yourself and Your Own Behavior Do I behave differently in certain situations and settings?Do I perform better in certain situations and settings?
22Target BehaviorsSpecifically identify two or three of the most problematic behaviors that you want to change.Must be well-defined, observable, and measurable.Be objective and avoid opinion statements and personal feelings.The “stranger test”Ex. – Johnny is violent
23ABC’s of Problem Behavior Antecedents to behavior – triggers, type of setting/situationBehaviorConsequence to behavior – not always negative and punitive.
24Function of Behavior Escape/Avoidance Attention/Control Sensory/PerceptualGain Desired Item, Activity, AreaCONTROL
25Replacement BehaviorSometimes inappropriate behavior is due to not having learned a particular skill (i.e. raising hand to participate)Learning a new skill / behavior can replace an unwanted or inappropriate behaviorThe replacement behavior serves the same function as the inappropriate behavior and should be positively reinforced when it occursExamples
26Important Behavioral Terms Positive Reinforcement:A response to behavior that increases expected/positive behavior.Negative Reinforcement:A response to behavior that increases negative behavior.Punishment:A response to behavior that decreases negative behavior.
27Punishment“You can never punish anyone into being motivated, corrected, or coming to school.”Dr. Randy Sprick
28Punishment & Suspension There is no evidence that suspension works- it has been shown to be ineffective in changing behavior and often only worsens behaviorLong-term suspension leads to negative attitudes toward school, poor attendance / work performance, and negative perception of teachersSuspension is associated with increased defiance, more severe problem behavior, school failure and drop out, and contact with the juvenile justice system
29Punishment & Suspension Black and male students are historically overrepresented in suspensions and expulsionsMales are at least twice as likely to be suspended and expelledMany studies show inequality in disciplinary responses and consequences: Black and male students are more likely to be suspended and more harshly for similar offenses66% of black male students who received free/reduced lunch and were in special education were suspended at least once, only 2% of white females who paid for lunch and in regular ed. were suspended (Raffaele Mendez, 2003)
30Punishment Precautions Never punish for behavior that a student can’t help or has limited or no control overNon-punitive techniques alone can improve behaviorPunishment such as isolation/seclusion (i.e. time-out) should be avoided
31Missouri’s Rehabilitation Model U.S. Juvenile Confinement RateAbout 48,000 U.S. youth placed in correctional or residential facility as juvenile delinquent each night (2010)Missouri has rehabilitation model with continuum of services (day treatment centers, group homes, and residential centers)Includes small, therapeutic facilities with daily counseling, accredited schooling with special education, job training or community jobs, and transition services84-88% of youth are engaged in a job or school upon release each yearRecidivism rate= 16.2% (3 years) compared to 26-62% in other statesConfinement without rehabilitation is not only financially wasteful, but detrimental to society
33Effective Punishment Pair with positive reinforcement Reduction or loss of privilegesImplemented in way that instruction is not missed (i.e. lunch detention, time away in classroom)Serve extra timeAllow student to help determine punishmentMUST be MEANINGFUL to studentRestitutionWe need to explore alternative approaches proven to work: cognitive-behavioral and restorative justice
34VolitionDo we choose our genes? Do we choose the environment we grow up in?Given the influence of genetics, childhood experiences, environmental toxins (i.e. lead), hormones, neurotransmitters, and neural circuitry, our level of absolute free will (volition) is a relevant issue for debateMuch of our legal system and discipline methods assume that all acts are volitional, and therefore, punishment, alone, and holding one responsible will modify future behaviorAttempting to understand and uncover reasons for problem behavior does not equal excusing one’s action and absolve from blame1. Realizing serial murders were abused as children and trying to prevent child abuse does not mean we should treat serial murders differently in court
35VolitionLawyers and clinicians have historically agreed that neurological disorders, where biological evidence for a problem exists, often absolves an individual of volitionWith advances in science, the clinical community now recognizes mental disorders as biological or organic problemsAlthough we can’t always detect a neurobiological problem, it is safe to assume that brain dysfunction exists in some of our most severe criminalsResponse to psychiatric medications is evidence that mental disorders are biologicalIn the past, psychiatric patients were deprived, tortured, told to toughen up, and sometimes understood as being possessed by demons.We know now this is not the case at these approaches were not helpfulDrugs aren’t always the answer but evidence shows that they can address psychiatric conditions just as they do diabetes or cancer
36Brain Dysfunction & Anti-Social Behavior Brain Tumor/DementiaTourettes SyndromeHomicidal SommambulismPhineas GageHuntington’s DiseaseViral & Bacterial InfectionsWith the understanding that our brain functioning impacts our perceptions and behaviors, any changes in brain functioning that our brains are susceptible can alter our perceptions and behaviors, sometimes significantly.
37Evidence-Based Consequences Through advances in neuroscience and behavior we may better understand who is likely to commit or not commit crime againThe objective is to establish more logical / evidence-based sentencing that will customize rehabilitation for those that can be modified and maintain confinement for those who cannotIntervention might focus on the plasticity of the prefrontal cortex and poor impulse control (most people know right from wrong and understand consequences, but some have an inability to control impulses)Effective approaches require that we not only understand how we would like people to behave, but how they actually behavePsychologists & psychiatrists cannot reliably predict criminal and violent behavior, nor cannot they reliably predict recidivismAdolescents brain and impulse control- knowing right/wrong and consequences in counselingChange from strictly retribution to preventative/proactive policies
38Approaches to Students with Emotional & Behavioral Needs Incentives: Earning positive social experienceGood Behavior Sports ClubConnections ProgramEngaging parentsCommunity supportActivity & ExerciseYoga & MeditationBehavior ContractDaily/Weekly Behavior ReportTangiblesAdvanced Tech. ClubGirls ClubFSCSPARK
39Students with Emotional & Behavioral Needs More likely to have disciplinary problems, low grades, poor attendance, & run-ins with the lawAbout 10% of students cause 90% of disciplinary problemsHave difficulty building & maintaining relationships- TRUSTProne to disorganization and poor work completionSensitive to reprimands & being held accountable- usually leads to more resistanceNegative emotions interfere with attention & decision making. Increases impulsive actions which may relieve emotional distress temporarilyAny action that causes negative emotion in a student is more likely to increase defiance/resistanceMost behavior, if not all, has to do with control. Each of us want to have sense of internal control (sense of calm, peace, security inside) & external control (environment, interactions, relationships, situations).We behave & make particular choices in order to maintain that control- sometimes they are counterproductive.
41Challenges to Changing Behavior Poor collaboration and follow through from home.Poor collaboration and follow through with community-based professionals.Severe mental illness that is untreated or mistreated.Substance abuse and illegal activity.Resistance to trust
42Off-task Behavior (ADHD) ADHD effects about 2-10% of kids, more common in boys (about 10%) than girls (about 4%)Over-diagnosed & often misdiagnosedNeurobiological evidence that it existsAssociated with disciplinary problems, poor academic performance, substance abuse, and dropping out of school, risky sexual behavior, and future criminal behavior
43Off-task Behavior (ADHD) Difficulty paying attention / Short attention-spanDistractible (internal & external)Poor self-regulation of emotion, attention, planning, and behaviorDisorganizationUsually struggle with writing
44A Neurological Understanding of ADHD Parts of the brain involved in attention are found to be smaller and underactivePrefrontal cortex, amygdala, and basal ganglia are found to play a major roleDopamine & serotonin (neurotransmitter)Antidepressants & Cognitive Behavioral Therapy have shown to improve impulsivity and aggression
45Prefrontal Cortex: Executive Functioning CEO of the brainRegulates attention/emotion, working memory, planning, organization, self-monitoring, and foreseeing/understanding consequencesStudents with attention and emotional difficulty, usually have poor executive functioningChildren with a history of trauma & emotional neglect often have dysfunction in prefrontal cortexMiddle schoolTH Question 3!
48Media and ADHDA large study found that exposure to TV (ages 1-3) is associated with attention problems and controlling impulses later in childhoodFor every hour watched each day, their chances of developing attention problems increased 10%Addiction to computer / video games show similar brain functioning and behaviors as other addictionsTH Question 3!
50InattentionFails to give close attention to details / makes careless mistakesHas difficulty keeping attention on tasksDoes not seem to listen when spoken to directlyDoes not follow through on directions and fails to finish school work or other dutiesHas difficulty organizing tasks/activitiesAvoids or dislikes tasks that require sustained mental effortOften loses toys, assignments, and materials needed for tasksIs easily distractedIs often forgetful in daily activities
51Hyperactivity Fidgets with hands or feet or squirms in seat Leaves seat when remaining seated is expectedRuns about or climbs in inappropriate situationsHas difficulty playing quietlyIs often “on the go”, acts as if “driven by a motor”, talks excessively
52Impulsivity Blurts out answers before questions have been completed Has difficulty waiting turnInterrupts or intrudes on others (butts into conversation or games)Does not think before acting
53Poor Impulse ControlMore likely to act for short-term gratification than delaying for more valuable, long-term rewardThose with severe impairment fail to resist an impulsive act that may be dangerous to self or othersPresent an understanding of right/wrong and seriousness of consequences, but cannot regulate impulse with the influence of emotion in the momentWe all impulsive thoughtsWorksheet 1
54Tips for Inattention & Hyperactivity Need others & environment to help self-regulateBreak tasks into chunks/separate steps, provide feedback, provide checklist…Close proximityClear and consistent expectations/routines/consequences with remindersStructured environment with reduced distractions and limitsFrequent prompts & reminders- unobtrusive, quiet, nonverbalSeat student near “action zone”Praise/recognize on-task behavior and work completion
55Tips for Inattention & Hyperactivity Allow movement breaksProvide alternative motor behavior that will not distract others (gum chewing, stress ball, activity)Have student monitor behavior (i.e. call outs, motor behavior, leaving seat…)IGNORE low level motor behaviorSeat near distraction-resistant peersAnticipate potential problems and structure appropriatelyDaily or Weekly Report with incentiveAgenda / Organizer
56The Selling of Attention Deficit Disorder New York Times, December 14, 2013 by Alan Schwarz CDC:15% of high school students have a diagnosisMedication use for children has soared to 3.5 million from 600,000 in 1990About 16 million prescriptions were written for adults (ages ) in 20122nd most frequent long-term diagnosis closely behind asthma
57The Selling of Attention Deficit Disorder New York Times, December 14, 2013 by Alan Schwarz Since 2000, FDA has cited every major ADHD med for false & misleading advertising several times:Stimulants: Adderall, Concerta, Focalin, & VyvanseNonstimulants: Intuniv & StratteraSales of stimulant meds were almost $9 billion in 2012
58The Selling of Attention Deficit Disorder New York Times, December 14, 2013 by Alan Schwarz ADHD has no definitive test: symptoms are highly open to interpretation by patients, parents, and doctorsAmerican Psychiatric Association has made the diagnostic criteria more liberal in the DSM V (i.e. must show symptoms before age 12 vs. show impairment from symptoms before age 7)American Psychiatric Association receives significant funding from pharmaceutical companies.
59The Selling of Attention Deficit Disorder New York Times, December 14, 2013 by Alan Schwarz Studies show that about ½ of diagnosed children do not show impairment as adultsLong-term risks of not medically treating ADHD are often cited by big pharma & their representatives, but little is known about whether meds address and reduce these risks (FDA has cited this in many warnings)Presenters on ADHD and those that educate doctors & clinicians on ADHD, are either from pharmaceutical companies or are affiliated with and receive compensation from these companiesA 2008, Senate investigation found that a prominent psychiatrist involved in many psychiatric studies, Dr. Joseph Beiderman, received $1.6 million in consulting fees from drug companies
60The Selling of Attention Deficit Disorder New York Times, December 14, 2013 by Alan Schwarz Marketing has targeted parentsMagazine ad for Concerta: “Better test scores at school, more chores done at home, an independence I try to encourage, a smile I can always count on.”In February of 2013, Shire paid $57.5 million in fines for misleading advertising and improper sales of Vyvanse, Adderall, & Daytrana.CHAD (ADHD Advocacy Group) founded in 1987 with financial backing of Ciba-Giegy Pharmaceuticals, Ritalin’s manufacturer & continues to receive about $1 million per year from big pharma.
61Attention-Seeking Behavior Children value attention, some desire any attention- positive and negative.Negative adult response (reprimand) can serve the function of attention and negatively reinforce problem behavior.
63Break Attention-Seeking Cycle Make eye contact & smileCheck-in with studentPat student on shoulderCall on studentPraise student (verbal, nonverbal, written)Converse with studentGive student a desired taskRecognize Positive Behavior
64Break Attention-Seeking Cycle Positive attention should be provided as frequently as negative attention seeking behavior occursMay only be required in particular settings and timesIgnore negative attention-seeking behavior or in discrete manner redirect student back on-taskFade positive attention as negative behavior reduces or discontinues
65Brain and PerceptionSlight differences in brain function translate into different ways of experiencing the worldEach of us believes what we perceive is realityThe reality we perceive influences how we behave and interact with othersOur perceptions are greatly influenced by our social experiencesThere are many thoughts/functions of the brain that we are unaware ofWorksheet 2
66Noncompliance / Defiance Defiant students usually have a painful history of rejection in personal relationshipsOften perceive rejection and view adults as threateningDefiant students often lack effective communication & negotiation skillsMay act out to mask poor skills and/or insecuritiesOften choose to defy to avoid/escape tasks and/or to gain control of situations/othersThe more habitual defiance the more difficult to change
67Noncompliance / Defiance Emotional reactions to misbehavior:Risk being reinforcing to some studentsRisk making timid students afraid of youProvide a terrible model of leadership
68Noncompliance / Defiance Conflicts / Power Struggles / Arguments involve at least two partiesBe aware of preconceptions- trivial behavior may produce angry / aggressive response and trigger resistance from studentAngry reactions (raising voice, appearing angry, or attempting to intimidate) to behavior is negative reinforcement & worsens defianceDefiance can become deliberate strategyDefiant students gain control with each and every angry response from adultWorksheet 1
69Nonverbal Communication with Defiant Students Relax and reflect on how you are feeling and will respondModel that you will not be pulled into power struggleStay outwardly calm, professional, & business-likeLow tone of voiceEstablish eye contact and call student by nameMove toward student slowly, respect student’s space, speak privately, & sit nearby student at their levelBe aware of nonverbal communication- avoid mismatch with wordsDescribe problem behavior, outline alternative/expected behavior, and praise student for appropriate behavior when possible.
70Verbal Communication with Defiant Students State directive in positive mannerUse clear and specific terms, but keep it briefAsk open ended questions (avoid WHY questions)Active Listening: summarize a person’s ideas, opinion, or point of viewEmotional Labeling: validate student emotionI-Centered StatementsStrategic Pauses
71Communication with Defiant Students Provide choice with logical consequencesOffer student a Face-Saving OutFocus on behavior, while acknowledging that you value studentDo not attempt to force a student to complyAvoid demands when student is upsetHUMOR
72Strategies for Defiance / Noncompliance Allow student a “cool down” break when upset / angryAssign reflective essay or apology after misbehavior and student is calmConsequences- predetermined, fair, consistentBehavior ContractRedirect / Distract student when showing signs of frustration
73My Tips to Avoid Conflict Establish relationshipRandom problem-solvingAcknowledge student prior to stating expectationRemove student from audienceSimple nonverbal communicationTime-away techniques
74Meaningful Incentives Choose music for class to hearEat lunch with a friend in the classroom (with teacher)Eat lunch outside with entire classEnjoy time outside with entire classShoot baskets with an adult and/or with peerComputer timeAssist a custodian or other staffBe first in lunch lineEat lunch with teacher, counselor, and/or principal
75Meaningful Incentives Eat lunch with an invited adult (grandparent, parent, etc…)Positive note, , or phone call homeBe helper for lower grade levelMake deliveries in schoolReceive a note of recognition from teacher or principalReceive private praise from teacher or principalReceive silent thumbs up or other sign indicating praise and approval
76Homework Tips 2 methods to increase homework completion: Establish a consistent weekly schedule for homeworkPhysically collect homework from each student
77References Doidge, N. (2007), The Brain that Changes Itself. Gresham, F. M. (1992). Conceptualizing behavior disorders in terms of resistance to intervention. School Psychology Review, 20,Eagleman, D. (2011), Incognito: The Secret Lives of the Brain.Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act – Amendments to Rules of the Board of Regents and Regulations of the Commissioner of Education (NYS), Part (r), June 23, 2006.Nickerson, A., Director of Alberti Center for the Prevention of Bullying Abuse & School Violence, University of BuffaloRatey J. (2008), Spark: The Revolutionary New Science of Exercise & the BrainSprick, R. Safe & Civil Schools.Willingham, D. (2011). Can Teachers Increase Students’ Self-Control? American Educator.Willingham, D. ( ). Understanding ADHD. American Educator.Wright, J. (2006).Schwarz, A. (2013). The Selling of Attention Deficit Disorder. New York Times