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Instructional Design Using Gagne’s Events of Instruction By Bob Perkins College of Charleston.

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Presentation on theme: "Instructional Design Using Gagne’s Events of Instruction By Bob Perkins College of Charleston."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Instructional Design Using Gagne’s Events of Instruction By Bob Perkins College of Charleston

3 The objectives of this lesson The purpose of this lesson is to focus on instructional design as it applies to CAI. There are many instructional design theories, but we are going to take one instructional design theory, Robert Gagne's Events of Instruction, and show you how it can be incorporated into a hypermedia lesson that you are creating. Gagne's theory is also appropriate for all means of instruction, not just CAI. Objective

4 In creating educational software, as with putting together any type of lesson, certain things help to make the learning of the objective of the lesson more likely to be accomplished. In creating educational software (Computer-Aided Instruction or CAI), there are three main areas of concern: 1. content 2. instructional design 3. computer programming

5 In creating educational software, as with putting together any type of lesson, certain things help to make the learning of the objective of the lesson more likely to be accomplished. In creating educational software (Computer-Aided Instruction or CAI), there are three main areas of concern: 1. content 2. instructional design 3. computer programming

6 Content refers to the subject matter, or information that is taught in the lesson. No matter what the media used to teach, certain material must be learned to meet the objectives. Content

7 Instructional design is based on learning theory. It is not specific to computer-aided instruction, but can be used with all forms of teaching. Instructional design includes how information is to be presented to students including learning styles, sequencing material, etc. as well as the layout and design of educational materials. There are certain things (events) that if they happen, learning is more likely to occur. Some general examples are making sure the reading level of the lesson is at a level the students understand, or using auditory, visual, and kinesthetic methods to teach so that all learning styles can be tapped. Instructional Design

8 In the case of Computer Aided Instruction (CAI), the lesson must also become a computer program. This can be done by using programming languages such as BASIC or Pascal, or by using an authoring system or hypermedia program such as HyperCard, HyperStudio or PowerPoint. Computer Programming

9 The purpose of this lesson is to focus on instructional design as it applies to CAI. There are many instructional design theories, but we are going to take one instructional design theory, Robert Gagne's Events of Instruction, and show you how it can be incorporated into a hypermedia lesson that you are creating. Gagne's theory is also appropriate for all means of instruction, not just CAI. Gagne included two parts to each Event of Instruction. The first is INTERNAL LEARNING PROCESS, or theoretically, what should be going on inside the student's head. The second part is EXTERNAL INSTRUCTIONAL EVENTS, or the practical application of this event within a lesson, what the teacher should make sure happens for the lesson to be learned. You will see arrows at the bottom of this (and most) screens. By clicking on the arrow pointing left, you can go to the previous screen. The right arrow takes you to the next screen.

10 INTERNAL LEARNING PROCESS Alerting the learner to receive stimulation. EXTERNAL INSTRUCTIONAL EVENTS Gaining attention and keeping it. Use methods to attract and hold the attention of students through motivating presentation of material. Each new Event of Instruction will be presented on a slide similar to this. It will consist of the INTERNAL LEARNING PROCESS, which is theoretical. It will also have the name of the Event underlined and in bold (e.g. Alerting). You will need to know the name. This will be followed by EXTERNAL INSTRUCTIONAL EVENTS. These are practical ways of applying the Events to Computer-Aided Instruction. As teachers creating lessons, it is the EXTERNAL INSTRUCTIONAL EVENTS that you will focus on.

11 Each new Event of Instruction will be followed by a slide similar to this. It will show examples of how that particular Event of Instruction might appear in a lesson using the EXTERNAL INSTRUCTIONAL EVENTS. The Explanation Window on the bottom of these slides will point out how the slide meets that Event. Explanation Window

12 MENU Alerting Expectancy Retrieval Selective Perception Semantic Encoding Responding Reinforcement Cueing Retrieval Generalization Main Menu

13 INTERNAL LEARNING PROCESS Alerting the learner to receive stimulation. EXTERNAL INSTRUCTIONAL EVENTS Gaining attention and keeping it. Use methods to attract and hold the attention of students through motivating presentation of material. MENU Alerting

14 Explanation Window First, you must gain the attention of the student. Sound, graphics of appealing objects, and catchy titles work.. MENU F-22 climbs during first flight, available at Click on the speaker to start, Pres ESC to stop

15 MENU Explanation Window Maintaining the attention of the student also must be done. Sound and relevant graphics may be used, but be careful not to put in useless material that would be distracting. Sound consumes much memory and graphics or sounds that do not help teach can take student's attention away from the lesson. Click on the speaker to start, Pres ESC to stop

16 Explanation Window Color definitely is appealing, and in some cases such as when you are teaching the colors, necessary. Do not, however, put too many different colors on one screen, it will distract students. MENU

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18 Press to Return

19 MENU Press to Return

20 MENU Press to Return

21 Explanation Window Animation has a place in computerized lessons as demonstrated in the previous slide(s). However, if it is not teaching the lesson, it may distract students. Don't put in unnecessary animation. MENU The previous slides (there were actually four) were from a lesson called Earth Activities By Suzanne Keith

22 Other suggestions: Use things that are already interesting to the students: 1. Sports as a setting or for characters 2. TV characters 3. Use adventure as a setting 4. Music 5. Humor Explanation Window Because the setting or the characters that you use in your lesson are interesting to the students, they may help to maintain student interest in the lesson. They can either teach or be used for reinforcing correct answers. Graphics must be present MENU

23 INTERNAL LEARNING PROCESS Acquiring an expectancy of the results of learning. EXTERNAL INSTRUCTIONAL EVENTS Inform the learner of lesson objectives. By letting students know what they will be learning (the objective of the lesson), they will focus on those parts of the presentation that are related to the objective of the lesson. MENU Expectancy

24 The objectives of this lesson The purpose of this lesson is to focus on instructional design as it applies to CAI. There are many instructional design theories, but we are going to take one instructional design theory, Robert Gagne's Events of Instruction, and show you how it can be incorporated into a hypermedia lesson that you are creating. Gagne's theory is also appropriate for all means of instruction, not just CAI. Explanation Window This information appeared earlier in this lesson to let you know why you were being taught this information. This is the objective of this lesson, to teach instructional design. Tell students what they will learn so that they look for the information related to the objectives. MENU

25 INTERNAL LEARNING PROCESS Retrieval of items in long term memory. EXTERNAL INSTRUCTIONAL EVENTS Stimulate recall of prerequisite knowledge. Students may need to be reminded or have access to information that they have already been taught but that they have forgotten that will be necessary to accomplish the objective in the new lesson. MENU Retrieval

26 Explanation Window Previously in class, I had taught you that minimally, hypermedia lessons consisted of graphics, text, and buttons. I am reminding you of this previously taught, but prerequisite knowledge for you to use in combination with this new knowledge (instructional design theory) to create CAI. MENU Remember: +Words + + HyperMedia Button

27 Explanation Window Give students access to prerequisite information they may need. This card is teaching multiple digit multiplication, but students will need basic times table knowledge to continue. If they forgot a particular fact, HELP!!! is there. Times Tables MENU 256 x32

28 INTERNAL LEARNING PROCESS Selective perception of the patterns that enter into learning. EXTERNAL INSTRUCTIONAL EVENTS Present stimuli with distinctive features. Those parts of the lesson presentation that are of particular importance such as main ideas or things that students absolutely must know, should be presented in a way that sets them apart from other things on the slide, or points them out. MENU Selective Perception

29 Explanation Window Students need to have important points, and especially any thing that they HAVE to know, set off by using things like bold underlining or all CAPITALS. MENU Hypermedia at the very least consists of: Text Graphics Buttons

30 Explanation Window highlighting Other methods could include highlighting, arrows, different fonts and colors or anything else that distinguishes the important items. MENU Hypermedia at the very least consists of: Text GRAHICS Buttons

31 INTERNAL LEARNING PROCESS Semantic Encoding of presented material to attain a form for long term storage and ready retrieval. EXTERNAL INSTRUCTIONAL EVENTS Provide learning guidance. Students some times need Help or Suggestions on how to proceed through a lesson, especially if many options are offered. By offering suggestions, students can more likely make the correct choices. MENU Semantic Encoding

32 Explanation Window Help buttons are also a good way to give students access to review information they may need. This card is drill and practice for single digit multiplication. If the student forgot a particular fact, the TIMES TABLES are there to review. Not always will I want them to have access to the information, but while they are learning, it may be part of the learning process to look up the facts. Help MENU 5 x3

33 Explanation Window Suggesting that students review if necessary, like the example above is doing, or offering a chance to go backwards like the Left Arrow below has done in this presentation is a good idea. You may even want to test to see if the student understands what you are teaching and have the lesson force them to review if necessary. Review Next MENU If your understand the concept of Semantic Encoding, Press the Next button, but if you are not sure, press the Review button.

34 INTERNAL LEARNING PROCESS Responding with a performance that verifies learning. EXTERNAL INSTRUCTIONAL EVENTS Practice what has been taught. After students are taught each new concept within a lesson, they should be provided with a chance to practice that concept or skill. As a result of practice, students will either demonstrate understanding or display a need for re-teaching or more practice. Students may or may not be offered a chance to go back and review material or have access to HELP. Practice happens while teaching is going on, not after--that is a test which is another Event. MENU Responding

35 Explanation Window Students should practice what they are being taught as they are being taught. Combine the lesson with practice items (questions) that determine if the student is learning the material. As previously suggested, some help may be offered, but they should be able to perform without HELP before being allowed to move on to new concepts. MENU Click on the Nucleus of the cell

36 INTERNAL LEARNING PROCESS Reinforcement by means of which the results of learning are established. EXTERNAL INSTRUCTIONAL EVENTS Feedback--Students need to know whether they are correct in their understanding of new concepts or skills. This is especially important during practice exercises. Feedback should be immediate, but in the case of incorrect answers, should not be degrading. Correct answers would be given encouragement, and then the student offered the chance to move on. Incorrect answers may be dealt with in a variety of ways such as: MENU Reinforcement

37 Explanation Window Suggestion 1: Inform the student they were wrong, then give the student a chance to answer the question again (Click on the RIGHT arrow below to continue after seeing the suggestion). Graphics Disk DriveButtons Text MENU Which is NOT part of hypermedia

38 Explanation Window Suggestion 2: Inform the student they were wrong, then give the student the correct answer (Click on the RIGHT arrow below to continue after seeing the suggestion) MENU 5 x3

39 Explanation Window Suggestion 3: Inform the student they were wrong, then repeat the informative part of the lesson that provided the information (Click on the RIGHT arrow below to continue after seeing the suggestion) MENU 256 x32

40 Explanation Window Suggestion 4: Inform the student they were wrong, then teach the concept in a different way (Click on the RIGHT arrow below to continue after seeing the suggestion) MENU 5 x3

41 INTERNAL LEARNING PROCESS Cueing retrieval of information provided to students that are used in recall. EXTERNAL INSTRUCTIONAL EVENTS Testing-assessing student performance. After all the teaching has been done, student understanding of the entire lesson should be measured. This Test may or may not include feedback but should not offer students a chance to get HELP to answer the questions. MENU Cueing Retrieval

42 Explanation Window Imagine this is the 10th question. Notice that there is no difference between right and wrong answers, no feedback is given. You could, at your option, offer positive or negative feedback, but no second chances and no help. The same questions used during Practice (but not the same slides) may be used for the Test. Since PowerPoint will not save student answers or calculate a score, you may also just have questions appear on the screen for students to handwrite their answers. 15 MENU x3

43 INTERNAL LEARNING PROCESS Generalizing performance to new situations. EXTERNAL INSTRUCTIONAL EVENTS Enhancing retention and learning transfer. Students must know how they will be able to use what they have learned as a result of this lesson in other situations. Generalizing this knowledge to other similar situations provides purpose for the lesson. MENU Generalizing

44 The purpose of this lesson is to focus on instructional design as it applies to CAI. There are many instructional design theories, but we are going to take one instructional design theory, Robert Gagne's Events of Instruction, and show you how it can be incorporated into a hypermedia lesson lesson that you are creating. Gagne's theory is also appropriate for all means of instruction, not just CAI. Explanation Window This appeared earlier in this lesson (twice, once as an introduction, and also as an example of letting students know what the objective of a lesson is). The italics also point out that this theory can be generalized by you to other situations in which you are creating lessons such as lectures, not just CAI. MENU

45 References Price, R. (1991) Computer aided instruction: A guide for authors. Pacific Grove, CA: Cole Publishing Company. Picture on slide #12 Lockheed Martin-Boeing. (1997). F-22 climbs during first flight, available at

46 The End. Click your mouse to Quit the show MENU

47 1 x 1=1 2 x 1=2 3 x 1=3 4 x 1=4 5 x 1=5 6 x 1=6 7 x 1=7 8 x 1=8 9 x 1=9 1 x 2=2 2 x 2=4 3 x 2=6 4 x 2=8 5 x 2=10 6 x 2=12 7 x 2=14 8 x 2=16 9 x 2=18 1 x 3=3 2 x 3=6 3 x 3=9 4 x 3=12 5 x 3=15 6 x 3=18 7 x 3=21 8 x 3=24 9 x 3=27 Press to Return

48 MENU Press to continue Sorry, this is the nucleus

49 MENU That is correct!!! Now you are ready to learn about cell division!!!

50 Explanation Window Suggestion 1: Inform the student they were wrong, then give the student a chance to answer the question again. MENU Sorry, try again. Click your mouse to continue

51 MENU Explanation Window Previously in class, I had taught you that minimally, HyperMedia lessons consisted of graphics, text, and buttons. I am reminding you of this previously taught, but prerequisite knowledge for you to use in combination with this new knowledge (instructional design theory) to create CAI. Remember: +Words + + HyperMedia Button

52 Explanation Window Suggestion 3: Inform the student they were wrong, then repeat the informative part of the lesson that provided the information. MENU 256 x32 Click to continue. Multiply these two numbers first Help!!!

53 MENU Yes this is the correct answer, but use the wrong answer to see examples. Click the mouse

54 Explanation Window Suggestion 2: Inform the student they were wrong, then give the student the correct answer, MENU Sorry, the answer is 15 Click the mouse to continue

55 Explanation Window Suggestion 4: Inform the student they were wrong, then teach the concept in a different way. MENU

56 Explanation Window This card offers no feedback. In the test, feedback is not necessary They can be the same questions you used for practice questions. MENU You are now finished with your test Click the mouse to continue.


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