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© 2011 Brooks/Cole, A Division of Cengage Learning Chapter 6 Person-centered Counseling I’m looking for the angel within. —Michelangelo
© 2011 Brooks/Cole, A Division of Cengage Learning Chapter objectives After reading this chapter, you should be able to: Outline the development of client-centered counseling and Carl Rogers Explain the theory of client-centered counseling, including its core concepts Discuss the counseling relationship and goals in client- centered treatment Describe assessment, process, and techniques in client-centered counseling Demonstrate some therapeutic techniques Clarify the effectiveness of client-centered counseling Discuss client-centered play therapy
© 2011 Brooks/Cole, A Division of Cengage Learning Carl Rogers Childhood marked by close family ties, a strict religious and moral atmosphere and the appreciation of hard work. Attended graduate school at Union Theological Seminary Fellowship at Institute of Child Guidance At Ohio State University as a professor began to publish cases in “client-centered therapy”
© 2011 Brooks/Cole, A Division of Cengage Learning Carl Rogers While at University of Chicago wrote Client- Centered Therapy (1951) Eventually moved to Western Behavioral Sciences Institute and in La Jolla formed the Center for Studies of the Person Spent most of his time working with and writing about person-centered therapy with groups
© 2011 Brooks/Cole, A Division of Cengage Learning Nature of People rational, socialized, forward-moving, realistic beings negative, antisocial emotions result of frustrated basic impulses once free of defensive behavior, reactions positive and progressive
© 2011 Brooks/Cole, A Division of Cengage Learning Person-centered counselor believes people: Have worth and dignity and deserve respect Have the capacity and right to self-direction Can select their own values Can learn to make constructive use of responsibility Have the capacity to deal with their feelings, thoughts and behaviors Have the potential for constructive change
© 2011 Brooks/Cole, A Division of Cengage Learning Theory of Counseling 1.Two people in psychological contact 2.Client is in a state of incongruence 3.Therapist is congruent and involved in relationship
© 2011 Brooks/Cole, A Division of Cengage Learning Theory of Counseling (Cont.) 4.Therapist has unconditional positive regard for client 5.Therapist has empathetic understanding of the client’s frame of reference 6.Communication of empathetic and positive regard is achieved.
© 2011 Brooks/Cole, A Division of Cengage Learning Theory of Counseling All 6 conditions necessary for personality change The sixth condition, the basis for trust between counselor and client, is especially vital. Thompson & Henderson maintain that the six conditions provide a sound foundation for most standard methods of counseling children
© 2011 Brooks/Cole, A Division of Cengage Learning Theory of Counseling Do not give advice, ask question or make interpretations Put clients in position of charting the direction of their counseling interviews Limit responses to summaries and clarifications of the content, feelings, and expectations for counseling presented by the client
© 2011 Brooks/Cole, A Division of Cengage Learning Theory of Counseling Clients receiving person-centered counseling learn more about themselves and their unsolved problems than they have ever known before because they are in the teaching role of trying to help counselors understand their (the clients’) situations. The task of the person- centered counselor is to take periodic oral quizzes on how much they are learning and understanding.
© 2011 Brooks/Cole, A Division of Cengage Learning Theory of Counseling Active Listening Process paraphrase summarize reflect feelings clarify
© 2011 Brooks/Cole, A Division of Cengage Learning Theory of Counseling Counselor creates a warm and accepting atmosphere for client Counselor reflects client’s inner world with warmth, acceptance, and trust Main goal is assisting people in becoming more autonomous, spontaneous and confident Ultimate goal is for client to be a fully functioning person who has learned to be free and who can counsel self
© 2011 Brooks/Cole, A Division of Cengage Learning Counseling Method Counselor as person vital, a model Possess and demonstrate openness, empathic understanding, independence, spontaneity, acceptance, mutual respect and intimacy Strongest techniques: congruence (genuineness), unconditional positive regard (respect) and empathy
© 2011 Brooks/Cole, A Division of Cengage Learning Rogers’s Six Principles First principle: “…I have found that it does not help, in the long run, to act as though I am something I am not.” Second principle: “I have found it effective…to be accepting of myself.” Third principle: “I have found it to be of enormous value when I can permit myself to understand another person.”
© 2011 Brooks/Cole, A Division of Cengage Learning Rogers’s Six Principles (Cont.) Fourth principle: “I have found it to be of value to be open to the realities of life as they are revealed in me and in other people.” Fifth principle: “The more I am able to understand myself and others, the more that I am open to the realities of life and the less I find myself wishing to rush in.”
© 2011 Brooks/Cole, A Division of Cengage Learning Rogers’s Six Principles (Cont.) Sixth principle: “It has been my experience that people have a basically positive direction.”
© 2011 Brooks/Cole, A Division of Cengage Learning Active Listening Carkhuff systematized Rogers’s concept into usable model Believes counselors typically respond on any of five levels relating to the three phases of counseling Phase I is where you are now Phase II is where you would like to be Phase III is planning how to get from I to II
© 2011 Brooks/Cole, A Division of Cengage Learning Gordon’s Dirty Dozen Road Blocks to Communication 1.ordering: directing 2.warning: threaten 3.moralizing: shoulds and oughts 4.advising: give suggestions 5.messages of logic: counter argument 6.judging: criticism
© 2011 Brooks/Cole, A Division of Cengage Learning Gordon’s Dirty Dozen Road Blocks to Communication (Cont.) 7.praising: butter them up 8.name calling: ridicule 9.psychoanalyzing 10.reassuring: give sympathy 11.probing: who, what, why? 12.humor: distraction
© 2011 Brooks/Cole, A Division of Cengage Learning Carkhuff’s Levels of Communication Level One: Discounting Feelings “Oh don’t worry about that--we all have problems worse than that.” “If you think you have a problem, listen to this.” “You must have done something to cause that.”
© 2011 Brooks/Cole, A Division of Cengage Learning Carkhuff’s Levels of Communication (Cont.) Level Two: Giving Advice “You need to study harder.” “You should eat better.” “Why don’t you make more friends?” “How would you like your brother to treat you the way you treat him?” “You should look for another job.”
© 2011 Brooks/Cole, A Division of Cengage Learning Carkhuff’s Levels of Communication (Cont.) Level Three: Summarize the Problem “You feel _____ because ______.” “You are sad because your best friend moved.” “You are happy because your team won.”
© 2011 Brooks/Cole, A Division of Cengage Learning Carkhuff’s Levels of Communication (Cont.) Help for Level 3: First counselors ask themselves whether client is expressing pain or pleasure Then find the correct feeling word to describe the emotion Do not parrot the exact words of the client but capture the feelings to help them recognize their emotions as indicators of their direction in life
© 2011 Brooks/Cole, A Division of Cengage Learning Carkhuff’s Levels of Communication (Cont.) Level Four: Summarize the Goal “You feel _____ because ______ and you want__________.” “You are anxious because you have to give a speech and you want to be more confident about it.”
© 2011 Brooks/Cole, A Division of Cengage Learning Carkhuff’s Levels of Communication (Cont.) Level Five: Initiate a Plan “You feel _____ because ______ and you want__________. We can begin by looking at what you have been doing to solve the problem.”
© 2011 Brooks/Cole, A Division of Cengage Learning Motivational Interviewing person-centered directive approach for increasing intrinsic motivation to change by investigating and confronting ambivalence mixes person-centered fundamentals of warmth and empathy techniques of questioning and reflective listening incorporates goals about change and provides specific interventions to encourage the client toward behavioral change.
© 2011 Brooks/Cole, A Division of Cengage Learning Motivational Interviewing Four principles 1.The counselor uses reflective listening to convey understanding of the message and caring for the person. 2.The counselor must develop the discrepancy between the person’s stated values and his or her current behavior to create motivation for change. 3.The counselor addresses resistance with reflection rather than confrontation. 4.The counselor supports the client’s self-efficacy by giving the message that the client is capable of change.
© 2011 Brooks/Cole, A Division of Cengage Learning Summary for children Counselor provides a warm, caring environment Children can explore their emotions and consequences of their action Can evaluate the alternatives and select one to try With young children, counselor may have to assume a more active role
© 2011 Brooks/Cole, A Division of Cengage Learning Child-centered Play Therapy Basic Principles 1.The counselor has a genuine interest in the child and builds a warm, caring relationship. 2.The counselor accepts the child unconditionally, not wishing the child were different. 3.The counselor institutes a feeling of safety and permissiveness in the relationship, allowing the child freedom to explore and express.
© 2011 Brooks/Cole, A Division of Cengage Learning Child-centered Play Therapy Basic Principles (Cont.) 4.The counselor maintains sensitivity to the child’s feelings and reflects them in a way that increases the child’s self-understanding. 5.The counselor strongly believes in the child’s capacity to act responsibly and solve personal problems, and allows the child to do so.
© 2011 Brooks/Cole, A Division of Cengage Learning Child-centered Play Therapy Basic Principles (Cont.) 6.The counselor trusts the inner direction of the child, allowing the child to lead the relationship and refusing to override the child’s direction. 7.The counselor does not hurry the process. 8.The counselor uses only the limits necessary for helping the child accept personal and appropriate responsibility.
© 2011 Brooks/Cole, A Division of Cengage Learning Child-centered Play Therapy Counselor lives out these messages: I am here (nothing will distract me). I hear you (I am listening carefully). I understand you, and I care about you.
© 2011 Brooks/Cole, A Division of Cengage Learning Chapter 3 The Counseling Process We shall not cease from exploration And the end of all our exploring.
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