Presentation on theme: "Visual Storytelling, Pictorial Continuity, or Sequencing: “The proper development and connection of motion- picture sequences to create a smoothly joined,"— Presentation transcript:
Visual Storytelling, Pictorial Continuity, or Sequencing: “The proper development and connection of motion- picture sequences to create a smoothly joined, coherent motion-picture story”, where a sequence is a related series of shots. In order for a motion picture to be self-explanatory, it should present images the way the eye/brain sees them.
How the Eye/Brain Works: First, your eye rapidly scans new surroundings, orienting yourself to unfamiliar space. Unfamiliar, moving and brightly lit objects draw the eye. Then, “clutter” is disregarded as the main object(s) of interest are identified. Finally, full attention is given to a primary object of interest; details are moved through short-term memory. Soon, the eyes begin to search surroundings again, then shift to a primary object. Repeat.
The Basic Sequence: The Establishing Shot Wide Shot (WS) or Long Shot (LS) Eliminating Visual Clutter Medium Shot (MS) Focus Attention Close Up (CU) Re-Establishing Shot MS, WS/LS WS MS CUs These shots are not ideal. They were not taken with this instructional use in mind.
The Re-Establishing Shot: The WS/MS used as a Re-Establishing Shot reminds the viewer of the surroundings – a viewer’s retention is only about one shot back – and allows a “break of eye contact” if the CU is of a person’s face. It can serve as the beginning of a new sequence.
Variety in the Sequence: Both the WS and the CU have “EXtreme” versions. The order of shots, from “far” to “near” are: EWS(XWS)(ELS)(XLS), WS(LS), MS, CU, ECU(XCU) But, everything is relative between the various shots. A close up of a face is a MS of a nose and a WS of a nose hair. In some cases, one shot can be skipped in the series of a sequence, but no more. Too drastic a jump – EWS of a city block to an ECU of a door knob – causes confusion or disorientation in the viewer. A better sequence moves from a WS of a single house, through the MS of the front door to an ECU of the door knob.
Like all rules, there are Exceptions: Starting a sequence on an ECU disorients a viewer. But, this could be the desired effect – a CU of a gun barrel sticking out of a curtain; MS of a diplomat in a theater box; WS of a crowded theater. A shot should last no less than 2 seconds; less than that is jarring and may look like a mistake. But, rapid cuts of less than 2 seconds – alternating between a woman’s feet walking in a dark alley, and a man’s feet running – can build excitement or anxiety in the viewer.
No Exceptions allowed for The General Rule! “When changing a scene, change the size of the image, change the angle, or both.” During a sequence, moving from WS to MS to CU changes the size of the primary object of focus. Moving the camera for a shot from a different angle reveals new details in the scene. Both of these changes distract the eye, adding visual variety and preventing jump cuts.
Cut-Ins and Cut-Aways: Other shots in sequences include CUT-INs and CUT-AWAYs. Generally classed as an Insert, a CUT-IN is a CU or ECU of an alternate object of interest seen in the previous shot. A CUT- AWAY is any shot of an alternate object of interest NOT seen in the previous shot. Both the Cut-In and Cut-Away are used to add additional information or break-up the previous shot to allow compression or expansion of time. A Reaction Shot is a cut-in or cut-away showing the reaction of another subject reacting to the action of the primary object of interest. WS MS CU RS CICU CA CU
Pick-Ups: When shooting images for a story, it is common to shoot the entire scene in WS, then repeat sections with the camera repositioned for MS and CU of specific objects of interest. Cut-In and Cut-Away images are captured after the primary shots. These “Pick-Up” shots are are then used to create sequences during the editing process. There is no in- camera editing as the shots are not necessarily acquired in sequence on the tape (or film).
Shot Framing: Looking Room/Nose Room: a CU of a face not shot head-on should center the nose of the subject horizontally on the screen. This puts some “looking room” in front of the subject’s face. Leading the Action: Leave space for a moving object to “move into”. Point-Of-View (POV) – the camera represents the eyes of a character moving through scene Over the Shoulder – camera includes the back/shoulder of one character while capturing a MS/CU another character
Basic Shot Angles: FLAT ANGLE – gives a 2D appearance OBLIQUE ANGLE (45°)– gives a 3D appearance SIDE-ON (movement across screen) – accentuates speed HEAD-ON (movement directly toward camera) – compresses motion TAIL-AWAY (movement directly away from camera) – common sequence-ending shot, “riding off into the sunset” “EYE LEVEL” – straight on, mimicking normal vision LOW ANGLE – gives subject power/removes power from viewer HIGH ANGLE – takes power away from subject/adds to viewer REVERSE ANGLE – camera is moved up to 180° around the primary object, producing an image opposite the preceding shot DUTCH ANGLE – camera is mounted at an angle other than level to the ground; produces images signifying confusion or danger
Camera Movements TILT – camera pivots UP or DOWN on tripod PAN – camera pivots LEFT or RIGHT on tripod BOOM (or CRANE) – camera moves UP or DOWN, usually on a jib arm DOLLY – camera moves forward or backward, usually on wheels TRUCK – camera moves side-to-side, usually on wheels ARC – camera moves around an object, usually on wheels ZOOM- IN or OUT – only the lens elements move, NOT THE CAMERA. Consider a dolly instead.
Transitions From Shot to Shot: CUT – instant switch from one image to next FADE- IN or OUT– to or from black (white or color) DISSOLVE – like a fade, but from one image to another WIPE – a switch from one image to another along a line moving horizontally, vertically, diagonally, etc. SPLIT SCREEN – a wipe stopped half way SUPER – a dissolve stopped half way KEY and MATTE – partial image layered over a background image based on video level CHROMAKEY – partial image layered over a background image based on background hue also,
Editing Conventions: Montage: a series of brief, unrelated shots cut together to create a theme or mood Contrasting Directions: crosscutting subjects as they approach each other; one L-R, the other R-L Clean Entrance/Exit: Subject in motion need to be shown coming from or going to someplace, usually beyond the shot boundary. In/Out Rule: a moving subject in the end of one shot should be out of the beginning of the next. Or, the subject can out of the first and be in the next. Subjects “in” both shots lead to continuity errors. “Out” of both confuse the viewer. Cutting On Action: Transitions between MS and CU during actions can distract the eye enough to cover SLIGHT continuity errors. Duplicate the actions in both the end of the first shot and the beginning of the second.