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Effective Training: Systems, Strategies, and Practices, 4 th Edition Chapter Six P. Nick Blanchard and James W. Thacker 6-1Copyright c 2010 Pearson Education,

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Presentation on theme: "Effective Training: Systems, Strategies, and Practices, 4 th Edition Chapter Six P. Nick Blanchard and James W. Thacker 6-1Copyright c 2010 Pearson Education,"— Presentation transcript:

1 Effective Training: Systems, Strategies, and Practices, 4 th Edition Chapter Six P. Nick Blanchard and James W. Thacker 6-1Copyright c 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

2 Traditional Training Methods Copyright c 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall2 Traditional Training Methods Include: Lectures Discussions Demonstrations Games Simulations On-the-Job Training

3 Traditional Training Methods Copyright c 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall3 Lectures PurposeProcedureStrengthsLimitationsLearning Objective most suited Most common Often coupled with demo. Good if organized Oldest MtdPrint/oral Live / Video Formal/less formal Interactive

4 Traditional Training Methods Copyright c 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall4 Traditional Training Methods Include: Lectures Discussions Demonstrations Games Simulations On-the-Job Training

5 Copyright c 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall6-5 Typical Lecture Presentation Errors and Ways to Avoid Them Part 1 of 4 Errors Ways to Avoid Talking with back to Don’t talk and write at the same time. Have trainees while writing flip charts prepared ahead of time when possible. on board or flip chart. If considerable board work is required, use overhead transparencies. Using highly technical If technical words or jargon must be used, provide words, unfamiliar definitions. Simplify the language and sentences so jargon, or complex meaning is clear. Pilot test at least part of the sentences. lecture with an audience similar to the trainees. Providing examples The lecturer need not provide all the examples. or asides without Ask trainees to provide some of the examples much relevance to or illustrations. In preparing the lecture, go to the trainees. the trainee’s supervisors to get relevant examples.

6 Copyright c 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall6-6 Typical Lecture Presentation Errors and Ways to Avoid Them Part 2 of 4 Errors Ways to Avoid Reading rather than Prepare an outline of points to be covered rather lecturing.than a word- for-word script. Be familiar with each point on the outline so that you are able to talk about it without reference to notes. Speaking in Listen to TV and radio commentators, paying close Monotoneattention to when and how they change their tone and the pitch of their voice. Practice fluctuating the tone and pitch of your voice on tape and in everyday conversation. Use pauses in your lecture so you can think about how you want to say something.

7 Copyright c 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall6-7 Typical Lecture Presentation Errors and Ways to Avoid Them Part 3 of 4 Errors Ways to Avoid Making distracting gestures Videotape a lecture you are giving and observe your gestures. If they are distracting or irritating to you, the trainees probably feel the same way. Some gestures are useful and keep trainee attention. Don’t stand stiff as a board either. The gestures you use are habits and can be practiced out or in. Leaving projector on with no image or an irrelevant image Get in the habit of glancing at the projection as you are talking about the material it displays. When you are at the end of the material, you will see that it is time to turn the projector off or change the image.

8 Typical Lecture Presentation Errors and Ways to Avoid Them Part 4 of 4 Losing your place in Not being able to find your place happens most the lecture frequently because your notes are too detailed. To deal with this see “ways to avoid reading” above. Another technique is to check off topics you have completed. 6-8Copyright c 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Errors Ways to Avoid

9 Copyright c 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall6-9 Basic Lecture/Discussion Components and Effects on Learning-Part 1 of 4 Learning Process Lecture/Discussion Components Affected 1. Orientation Presenting information so that trainees understand the direction in which the lecture is headed and how it is organized. 2. Enthusiasm Presenting information in a manner that conveys the topic’s importance and inherent value. 3. Variety Use of voice, gestures, various components listed in this table and audiovisual aids. For printed lectures this is minimized. Attention Retention: Symbolic coding

10 Copyright c 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall6-10 Basic Lecture/Discussion Components and Effects on Learning – Part 2 of 4 Learning Process Lecture/Discussion Components Affected 4. Logical organization Presenting information in a logical order and providing logical transitions between topic areas. 5. Explanations Describing facts, concepts and principles in a clear and easily understood manner. 6. Directions Providing instructions in a manner that allows trainees to understand what they are to do and how to do it. Retention: Cognitive organization Retention: Symbolic coding Cognitive organization Retention: Cognitive organization Symbolic rehearsal

11 Copyright c 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall6-11 Basic Lecture/Discussion Components and Effects on Learning – Part 3 of 4 Learning Process Lecture/Discussion Components Affected 7. Illustrations Providing clear, interesting and relevant examples of how information can or has been applied (both correctly and incorrectly). 8. Compare and contrast Articulating the similarities and differences, advantages and disadvantages, etc. of relevant topic areas. Attention Retention: All areas Attention Retention: Cognitive organization

12 Copyright c 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall6-12 Basic Lecture/Discussion Components and Effects on Learning – Part 4 of 4 Learning Process Lecture/Discussion Components Affected 9. Questions and discussion Seeking information from the trainees regarding their comprehension, their content related ideas and stimulating the trainees’ thought processes (e.g., Socratic questioning). This is not possible in printed lectures. 10. Summarize Highlighting important concepts covered in a manner that links the topics/ideas together. Attention Retention: All areas Retention: Cognitive organization

13 Copyright c 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall6-13 Basic Demonstration Components and Their Effects on Learning DEMONSTRATION COMPONENTS AREAS OF LEANING AFFECTED PRESENT  Tell  Demonstrate  Explain Attention Retention: Symbolic coding Cognitive organization TRY OUT  Trainees talk through the task  Trainees do task and describes what they are doing and why  Trainer provides positive/negative feedback  Trainees practice Retention: Symbolic rehearsal Behavioral Reproduction

14 Copyright c 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall6-14 Tips for Developing and Presenting Role Plays—1 of 3 Developing Create your characters carefully to prove your point. Provide two characters who are going to clash in exactly the way you want. For example, use one player to force another either to use the skills taught or to illustrate what happens when those skills are not used. Do not write a script (unless you are teaching rote responses), but provide detailed background on characters’ habits, attitudes, goals, personalities, and mood, and on the business restrictions that motivate or restrain them. Use role playing to illustrate one key problem. Do not try for more than one topic or you will diffuse the effect and distract the learners with too much information. Presenting Take the time to introduce the situation. Give trainees enough background to understand what’s at stake; then assign the roles.

15 Copyright c 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall6-15 Tips for Developing and Presenting Role Plays—2of 3 Both the role-play and the discussions can get off topic. To prevent digression, make sure participants understand your instructions. For example, tell them, “ The customer service representative must (1) use the customer’s name three times; (2) organize, clarify, and confirm the nature of the customer’s problem; (3) empathize with the customer; and (4) offer to do something for the customer.” if you plan to use observers to provide feedback, have each of them use an observation sheet to look for key behaviors and to respond to key aspects of the performance. If the role-play gets off topic, stop the performance and ask, “What are the problems here? Why isn’t the conversation moving in the right direction?” Be assertive to ensure that the participants stay in character and on topic.

16 Copyright c 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall6-13 Tips for Developing and Presenting Role Plays—3 of 3 After the performance, always discuss what happened. This is how learning takes place. Ask questions of each player, and have the group advise the players. Encourage discussion. Challenge them with alternatives: “What would have happened if…?”

17 Copyright c 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall6-17 Things to Consider for Implementing Behavior Modeling – Part 1 of 4 Use care in selecting the trainer/program administrator who will set up and conduct the sessions. He or she must be skilled and experienced with this technique. Consider carefully whether this technique will meet your needs within constraints of time and money. Unless you can accomplish the following, you probably should not use this technique.  Identify specific skill deficiencies, present a positive model of the appropriate behavior, provide time for each trainee to practice the behavior under the watchful eye of the the trainer, and arrange for reinforcement form the manager of each trainee back on the job Identify real skill deficiencies in advance of training and involve the potential trainees and their bosses in this process. This activity will gain the key people’s attention and their ownership of the objectives of the training sessions.

18 Copyright c 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall6-18 Things to Consider for Implementing Behavior Modeling – Part 2 of 4 Break the skills into small behaviors. Build a module around each small behavior and progress one step at a time, starting with a simple behavioral element, to gain confidence. Do not emphasize more than seven learning points during any one training module. Ensure that the trainees can easily identify with the models used to demonstrate the correct way of handling a certain situation. And that the model has sufficient status to be credible. Use a video model performing the correct behavior ensures that all groups of trainees will see a positive example. A video might reduce costs because it is reusable. However, this advantage may be negated because it is difficult to find a model and a situation that is highly relevant and identifiable across diverse groups of trainees.

19 Copyright c 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall6-19 Things to Consider for Implementing Behavior Modeling – Part 3 of 4 Ask trainees to verbalize the behavioral cues demonstrated by the model and then to visualize their pending performance before they actually practice the desired behavior. Verbalization my help improve generalization and use of the behaviors in new situations. Establish a supportive climate that encourages experimentation must be established for the practice sessions. Emphasis on positive reinforcement rather than criticism increases self-confidence and learning. Provide a wallet-sized card that outlines the key learning points and critical steps, after each session, as some experts suggest. Reminder acts as a security blanket from the trainees to reassure them that they will know the crucial features as they attempt to apply the training back to their jobs. Conduct a review session after several modules to reinforce the learning points and to demonstrate the progress attained by the trainees

20 Copyright c 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall6-20 Things to Consider for Implementing Behavior Modeling – Part 4 of 4 Manage the consequences of attempting the newly trained behaviors in the actual job situation. Work with the trainees’ manager to ensure that attainable goals for are set for their subordinates, obstacles that may prevent trainees form attempting the new behaviors are removed, and incentives for attempting the new behaviors are provided.

21 Copyright c 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall6-21 JIT Instruction/Learning Sequence Part 1 of 3 BASICS OF INSTRUCTION AREAS OF LEARNING AFFECTED 1 PREPARE Break down the job. Prepare an instruction plan. Put the learner at ease. Attention and motivation PRESENT Tell. Show. Demonstrate. Explain. Retention: Symbolic Coding Cognitive Organization

22 Copyright c 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall6-22 JIT Instruction/Learning Sequence Part 2 of 3 BASICS OF INSTRUCTION AREAS OF LEARNING AFFECTED 1 TRY OUT Have the learner “talk through” the job. Have the learner instruct the supervisor on how the job is done. Let the learner do the job. Provide feedback, both positive and negative. Let the learner practice Retention: Symbolic Rehearsal Behavioral Reproduction

23 Copyright c 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall6-23 JIT Instruction/Learning Sequence Part 3 of 3 BASICS OF INSTRUCTIONAREAS OF LEARNING AFFECTED 1 FOLLOW UP Check progress frequently at first. Tell the learner whom to go to for help. Gradually taper off progress checks. Behavioral Reproduction

24 Copyright c 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall6-24 Job Breakdown Sheet for OJT Part 1 of 4 Dept: Metal DecoratingPrepared by J. Smith Job: Feeder PressmanDate: June 8 Tools/Equipment Main StepsKey PointsMaterialSafety Factors Part I (Start of shift) 1. Check level of Ask pressman whichAll solutions kept inDo not spill on fountain solution solution to use. metal containers walkway and refill if Scratch mark in storeroom necessary shows minimum and maximum capacities

25 Copyright c 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall6-25 Job Breakdown Sheet for OJT Part 2 of 4 Tools/Equipment Main StepsKey PointsMaterialSafety Factors Part I (Start of shift) 2. Check level of Check card for type of Same as #1Very volatile and varnish in wet material being flammable varnish machine used and deter- and refill if mine amount of necessary thinner necessary to obtain proper viscosity 3. Wash sponges, Use same thinner as Same as #1Do not wash in bucket, and gum in #2 enclosed area containers because of fumes

26 Copyright c 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall6-26 Job Breakdown Sheet for OJT Part 3 of 4 Tools/Equipment Main StepsKey PointsMaterialSafety Factors Part II (Start a new bundle in press) 1. Request lift driver Do not wait until to bring over new bundle on press is bundle almost finished 2. Check new bundle Pull the job ticket Leather-palmed glovesAlways wear gloves to be sure it is the and check order when handling correct one and is number; examine sheets to prevent in good condition top sheets and cuts sides and corners of bundle

27 Copyright c 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall6-27 Job Breakdown Sheet for OJT Part 4 of 4 Tools/Equipment Main StepsKey PointsMaterialSafety Factors Part III (Whenever press is stopped) 1. Lower elevator Lower only until top Leather-palmed Wear gloves with bundle on it of bundle is at a gloves and cover with convenient height master sheet 2. Unless otherwise Be sure entire plate Use sponges and Be sure press is clear instructed by is wet; dry spots clear water before wetting plate pressman, wet can oxidize and plate on front unit damage plate

28 Copyright c 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall6-28 Steps to Follow for Better OJT Part 1 of 4 1. Establish policy. Prepare a written description that puts the organization “on the record” as committed to supporting a structured OJT approach. Make sure that the purpose of structured OJT is spelled out and is related to the company’s other HRD efforts. 2. Establish accountability. Make clear who is primarily responsible for OJT. Write it into their job descriptions; then ensure that part of their performance evaluation is based on how well they carry out this responsibility. 3. Review precedents. Make a few calls to find out what other organizations in your industry are doing about structured OJT. Do they provide training on the subject? If so, to whom? For how long? What is the course content? What cost savings can be traced to it? Use this information in efforts to design your program.

29 Copyright c 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall6-29 Steps to Follow for Better OJT Part 2 of 4 3. Review precedents continued. It will also be useful in case your attempts to improve structured OJT in your organization come under attack. Nothing quiets critics faster than pointing out “our competitors-or excellent firms in the industry-are doing it!” 4. Design & routinely give training on the principles of structured OJT. Supervisors and experienced workers are the most likely ones to conduct structured OJT in the workplace. In most organizations, they do not know how to do it. Teach them how and then sit back and take credit for the fantastic results !

30 Copyright c 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall6-30 Steps to Follow for Better OJT Part 3 of 4 5. Provide specialized support for line managers who use structured OJT. In most organizations, certain jobs are common entry points for employees. Design “off-the-shelf” lesson plans, job aids,( checklists, procedures manuals, and training manuals), individualized learning contracts, and individualized training progress report forms for those jobs. They will save time and effort while improving the quality of structured OJT. Making that kind of support available enhances OJT by providing users with the tools to do it-and makes the HRD department a real partner with line management in improving structured OJT. 6. Avoid turf battles. Begin efforts to improve OJT on a small scale, in work units where supervisors or managers are supportive. Use your successes there as a springboard to other units and to additional resources.

31 Copyright c 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall6-31 Steps to Follow for Better OJT Part 4 of 4 7. Consider literacy skills. Do not assume that employees—or, for that matter, supervisors—are highly literate. Indeed, take advantage of efforts to improve OJT to assess performance problems that can be traced to literacy issues.

32 Copyright c 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall6-32 Assessment of Need for Coaching QuestionResponse Are there obstacles in the system preventing effective performance? YesRemove obstacles or revise expectations Do negative consequences follow good performance? YesChange the consequences Do positive consequences follow poor performance? YesChange the consequences Is the employee aware that improvement is expected? NoProvide proper feedback Does the employee know how to improve? NoTrain or coach Could the employee improve performance if he wanted to? YesCoach


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