Presentation on theme: "MENTAL TOUGHNESS AND MTQ48"— Presentation transcript:
1MENTAL TOUGHNESS AND MTQ48 DEVELOPING PERFORMANCE, WELLBEING & POSITIVE BEHAVIOUR in EDUCATIONMENTAL TOUGHNESS AND MTQ48Peter Clough & Doug StrycharczykHull University & AQR
2What is MENTAL TOUGHNESS? “A personality trait which determines in large part how people deal with challenge, stressors and pressure .... irrespective of prevailing circumstances”It’s universal – it’s applicable in many walks of life.
3Is it important? Yes!Performance – explains up to 25% of the variation in attainmentBehaviour – more engaged, more positive, more “can do”Wellbeing – more contentment, better stress management , less bullyingTransition – Aspirations - Retention – EmployabilityThe mentally tough person does find it easier to succeed. However it is self awareness which is the key here.
4Origins Finally Dr Peter Clough @ The University of Hull It has origins in the world of the academic and the practitioner.Resilience Health psychology - Commitment, control – a passive conceptHardiness Commitment, control + challenge – becoming proactiveDienstbier - Physiological toughening = psychological tougheningSports Psychology - MT can help lesser athletes beat more able athletes - Often mentioned but poorly definedFinally Dr Peter The University of HullDefined MT in useful detail & added a fourth dimension – Confidence
5The Four C’s Challenge Control Commitment Confidence Mental Toughness has 4 components:ChallengeControlCommitmentConfidenceWhich combine to provide an overall measure ofMental ToughnessThink of these as aspects of mindset.
6The Four C’sWhen using the MTQ48 measure scores are reported on a 1 – 10 Sten Scale. MT is normally distributed.Stens 1,2 & 3 – “Low” scores – 16% of populationStens 8,9 & 10 – “High” Scores– 16% of populationStens 4 – 7 – Typical or normal scores – 68% of populationMental Sensitivity is the opposite of Mental Toughness.12345678910
7Commitment“stick-ability”. Describes to what extent you will “make promises” and the extent to which you will keep those promises.Those promises can be made to others or to themselves.When asked to do something to a target by a certain time & date do you instinctively think:I’ll go for that and I’ll do what it takes orI’ll never manage that – I’ll look stupid when I fail.
8CommitmentHow do those “Low” in commitment typically behave?Will avoid setting goals and targets –failure will expose them as “failures”Exams, tests, assignments are threateningGoals & targets are intimidating to themGive up easily and find a reason for itWill try to ignore goals and targetsDistract attention from the goal – “ I would have done it but I did this other thing/ was asked to do something else, etc”Often respond to the last person to ask them to do something
9CommitmentHow do those “High” in commitment typically behave?Will translate goals and targets into “pictures of success” & plan for attainment.Exams, tests, assignments are welcomedSet targets for themselves - pbsWork hard and go for it.Excited by measures, goals and targets
10Commitment Are there “downsides” for those “High” in commitment? Can overcommit!Can fail to see that others aren't motivated in the same way.May “manage by numbers”May miss doing things that are equally important or more pressing.One reason why poorly planned performance often fails
11CommitmentAre there “upsides” for those who aren't “high” in commitment?
12Control“Can do”. Describes to what extent you believe you shape what happen to you and manage your emotions when doing it.There are two components :Life-ControlEmotional ControlWhen asked to do something , is your default response:I can do it …. without needing to check if it is possibleI’ll stay in control of my emotions
13Life Control They are fatalists – things happen to them How do those “Low” in life control typically behave?They are fatalists – things happen to themDo one thing at a time – panic when overloadedBlame others and circumstances for failuresTend to focus on why things cant be doneCup half empty
14Life Control Believe they make difference How do those “High” in life control typically behave?Believe they make differenceHappily multi-taskGood at planning & organisationWill try to ignore goals and targetsCup is half-full. Everything is possible.Work hard to clear blockagesProblems exist – they are there to be handled
15Life ControlAre there “upsides” for those who aren’t “High” in “Life Control”?
16Emotional Control Reveal their emotional state to others How do those “Low” in emotional control typically behave?Reveal their emotional state to othersDeal poorly with criticism or negative feedbackFeel things happen to themGet down when things go wrongCan lose it when provoked or annoyed.
17Emotional Control Manage their emotional response to situations How do those “High” in emotional control typically behave?Manage their emotional response to situationsDifficult to provoke or annoyDeal well with difficult peopleMask anxiety – maintain poiseDeal well with bullying behaviour
18Emotional ControlAre there “upsides” for those who aren’t “High” in “Emotional Control”?
19ResilienceResilience is often defined as a function of Control & Commitment.Resilience represents the ability to deal with an adverse situation and still complete some or all of what you had set out to do.Mental Toughness broadens this concept by adding two more components – Challenge and Confidence. This introduces a more pro-active element.
20Challenge“drive”. Describes to what extent you challenges, change, adversity & variety as opportunities or as threats.When asked to do something significant or challenging is your immediate response to say:That’s great – I look forward to whatever emerges orOh no! I like things the way they are – I'm frightened by what might happen.
21Challenge Hate change and variety of any sort. How do those “Low” in challenge typically behave?Hate change and variety of any sort.Don’t like shocks & surprisesHate new places; people; subjects, bosses, etcRespond poorly to competitive typesRisk averseAvoid effort and anything which attracts attention
22Challenge Like challenge How do those “High” in challenge typically behave?Like challengeEasily bored – will seek change - may provoke changeLike problem solvingWork hard & smartRisk orientatedReadily volunteer
23ChallengeAre there “upsides” for those who aren’t “High” in challenge?
24Confidence“Self Belief”. Describes to what extent you believe you have the ability to deal with what will face you and the inner strength to stand your ground when needed.There are two components :Confidence in AbilitiesInterpersonal ConfidenceWhen doing something and you face a problem, is your default response:I have the capability to plough on?I’ll deal with those who get in my way?
25Confidence in Abilities How do those who have “Low” confidence in abilities typically behave?Will be reluctant to express a view in discussion or debateLow self belief. Not confident that they know subject matter even they you do.Inner belief missing – need others to build that.Unsure whether they have grasped a subject or not – feel they are still missing something
26Confidence in Abilities How do those who have “High” confidence in abilities typically behave?Don't need others to tell them they can do it or to encourage them.Happily to engage in discussion even if it takes them into the unknownCan believe they are right .. Even when they are wrongLittle or no need for external validation.
27Confidence in Abilities Are there “upsides” for those who aren’t “High” in confidence in abilities?
28Interpersonal Confidence Back down quickly when challengedWill allow others to dominate debates – even when they are more knowledgeable and more expertWill have difficulty dealing with assertive peopleWont ask questions in group settingsWill accept criticism even when its not deservedHow do those “Low” in interpersonal confidence typically behave?
29Interpersonal Confidence How do those “High” in interpersonal confidence typically behave?Will argue their corner – especially if they believe they are rightWill gets their own way – even when others may have a better caseWont allow others to orally dominateWill have a “go” and enter a conversation.Will often provide a full response to questions
30Interpersonal Confidence Are there “upsides” for those who aren’t “High” in Interpersonal confidence
31The Four C’s – a summary Control - I really believe I can do it - I can keep my emotions in check when doing itCommitment I promise to do it and will set goals- I will do what it takes to keep those promisesChallenge I can see the opportunity- I am motivated to do itConfidence I believe I have the ability to do it- I can argue my corner if I need toTogether these give rise to Mental Toughness
32THE MODEL – its fit with current thinking Introduces the ideas ofFixed MindsetFlexible MindsetIntroduces the ideas ofLearned HelplessnessLearned Optimism& Happiness
33THE MODEL – its fit with current thinking Introduces the ideas ofTalent MythPurposeful practiceIntroduces the ideas ofHardiness
34THE MODEL –current thinking One observation is that all models have, as a core concept, the requirement to work hard as well as work smart.There is a recognition that the West might have a technological advantage but the third world is catching up quickly but is doing this with a better work ethic.“Success is 99% perspiration and 1% inspiration” Benjamin Franklin
35THE MODEL – its application in Education One observation is that all models have, as a core concept, the requirement to work hard as well as work smart.There is a recognition that the West might have a technological advantage but the third world is catching up quickly but is doing this with a better work ethic.“Success is 99% perspiration and 1% inspiration” Benjamin FranklinThis applies to educators, coaches as well as students
36THE MODEL – case studies Halewood College , UK – links to performance, bullying, career aspirations and gender discrimination!Flegg High School, UK – dealing with disruptive studentsOldham Schools, UK – supporting students from socially and economically deprived backgroundsHigher Colleges of Technology, UAE – Emiratisation & aspirationsHult International Business School – optimising learning and employabilityScottish Colleges & Hull University – student retention and employability
37The next level of validation of the MTQ48 University of Western Ontario – examining mono-zygotic and Di-zygotic twins – establishing a genetic componentUniversity of Basle – examining adolescent behaviour – dealing with anxiety, sleep. EtcUniversity of Lincoln – relationship with Emotional IntelligenceUniversities of Parma & Modena & Reggio – Brain Scan studies providing a biological explanation& on-going studies in the Gulf, US, Australia and , of course, Hull.
40How do you measure Mental Toughness and what can you do about it?
41Measuring Mental Toughness MTQ48 Questionnaire 3 versions: 1. Occupational (all ages) 2. Young persons (age ) 3. on its way –early years (age 3- 5) and junior school (age 7 – 10)Normative, valid and reliable measureOn-line format (can print off questionnaires)Easy to useOn-line facility also helps to manage dataShort inexpensive licensed user training (2 days)
42Mental Toughness Development The Mental Toughness model is a fairly complete processUnderstanding – the model provides a structure around which to assess an important requirement for performance and wellbeing.Diagnosis – the measure enables diagnosis, assessment and measurement at a useful level – the 4CsWhat are my issues? What are their implications? What will I seek to develop/improve? Where is it best to start?Interventions – ability to direct interventions better and to select appropriate interventions –works with any intervention strategies.Evaluation – the ability to measure change and to relate it to action.
43Mental Toughness Development Interventions fall into 6 broad areas:1 Positive thinking – affirmations, think three positives, turning negatives into positives, etc2 Visualisation – guided imaging, using your head to practice, etc3 Anxiety Control – relaxation techniques, breathing, etc4 Attentional Control – focus, dealing with interruptions5 Goal setting – SMART, balancing goals, how to deal with big goals, etc6 The test itself + feedback – people respond to the feedbackPlus Biofeedback – monitoring self, guiding selection and adoption of tools and techniquesThese all help to develop the capability to deal with stress, pressure and challenge and, where appropriate, to cope with these.
44Mental Toughness Development - Positive Thinking The underlying principle- we are what we think.affirmations,think three positives,turning negatives into positives,self talkthought stoppinglooking at role modelswhat will I do tomorrow?attitude ladder
45Mental Toughness Development - Visualisation The underlying principle- We can imagine success or we can imagine failure and we can learn from that.guided imagerypink elephantchange your environmenttarget practicepenalty shoot out
46Mental Toughness Development - Anxiety Control The underlying principlePsychological responses such as fear & worry have a physiological consequence Controlling those physiological response can help us to manage the mental responses.control distractioncontrolled breathingmuscular relaxationear tapsmiling and laughingself hypnosissleepanchoring
47Mental Toughness Development - Goal Setting The underlying principleGive meaning and direction as well as fuel and energy to achieve objectives & approach new challenges.smart goalsbalancing goalssetting milestones
48Mental Toughness Development - Attentional Control The underlying principleFocus, sustained attention and concentration, enables us to work better and for longerInterruptions and distractions undermine that capabilityminimising interruptionsconcentrationstork standshut out distractions
49Mental Toughness Development - the issues Do we actually make individuals tougher or do we equip sensitive people with the tools and techniques that the tougher use? Does it matter?Is it the tool; the coach or the recipient?What do we do about the mentally sensitive – they can perform well. The MT perform more easily and do get a better deal. The MS can learn MT behaviours.Self awareness is the key – which is why this this is so well suited to coaching and mentoring
52Performance Perform better in exams ands tests Produce better courseworkAchieve more – cover more subjectsWork harderCompetitiveStudies show that up to 25% of the variation in an individuals performance on tests can be explained by their mental toughness
53Behaviour More positive – “can do” More likely to respond positively to changeMore likely to engage – will volunteer for activitiesMore likely to accept responsibilityBetter disciplined - attendance
54Wellbeing Deal better with stress and pressure Sleep better! Less likely to develop mental health issuesCan relax even after the most challenging timeReport much less bullying behaviourLess likely to consciously adopt bullying behaviour
55Aspirations & Employability More ambitiousSet higher standardsMore confidentAdopt a competitive approachDeal better with redundancyMore likely to get a job
56Transition Deal better with New schools, colleges and universities New coursesNew tutorsNew experincesMoving to the workplace
57Completion on Time and on Target More stick-ability – will complete programmesBetter at project managementTake setbacks and change in their stride.
58Visualisation - Demonstrating the link between the psychological and the physiological You can close your eyes or keep them open. Listen carefully to the description you are about to hear.
59Visualisation - Demonstrating the link between the psychological and the physiological Have you started to salivate? Most people do. This shows the link between the mind and the body