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GXEX1406 Thinking and Communication Skills Logical Fallacies.

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1 GXEX1406 Thinking and Communication Skills Logical Fallacies

2 2GXEX1406 Thinking and Communication Skills – Week 12 Logical Fallacies

3 3 Premise & Conclusion Premise: All girls have long eyelashes. Cows has long eyelashes Conclusion: Therefore, all girls are cows Is this statement logically right?

4 4GXEX1406 Thinking and Communication Skills – Week 12 Logical Fallacies Is this reasoning logical? Premise: “A cloud is 90% water. A watermelon is 90% water. A plane can fly through a cloud. Conclusion: Therefore, a plane can fly through a watermelon”

5 5GXEX1406 Thinking and Communication Skills – Week 12 Logical Fallacies There is logic in the premise of the statements – BUT the conclusion makes no logical sense. The reasoning is flawed The conclusion is illogical

6 6GXEX1406 Thinking and Communication Skills – Week 12 Logical Fallacies Fallacy is a mistake in reasoning A statement or argument based on false inference that causes incorrectness in reasoning Used to cloud our logical thinking, appeal to our emotions rather than intellect Often masquerade as logical statements This type of arguments are called Logical fallacies

7 7GXEX1406 Thinking and Communication Skills – Week 12 Logical Fallacies Objective of the course You will be able to identify fallacies Able to indicate instances or type of fallacy Situations Found in newspapers, magazines, reports, advertisements

8 8GXEX1406 Thinking and Communication Skills – Week 12 Logical Fallacies Able to spot poor reasoning & know why it is wrong Able to correct other’s mistakes, or refute them convincingly Supplements your knowledge on logic Why Study Fallacies ?

9 9GXEX1406 Thinking and Communication Skills – Week 12 Logical Fallacies Know when your reasoning in an essay is flawed or questionable Prevent you from making generalized statements without backing it up with sound evidence Why Study Fallacies ?

10 10GXEX1406 Thinking and Communication Skills – Week 12 Logical Fallacies (1) Fallacies that appeal to emotions (total 4) - Claims are made that appeal to emotions rather than reason (2) Fallacies that distract (total 3) - Claims made to divert attention from the main issue (3) Other common types (total 5) 3 categories of fallacies

11 11GXEX1406 Thinking and Communication Skills – Week 12 Logical Fallacies (a) Appeal to fear/force/scare tactics -ad baculum The claim makes use of threats. The threats are irrelevant to the argument. Therefore the claim is fallacious (1) TYPE 1- appeal to emotions

12 12GXEX1406 Thinking and Communication Skills – Week 12 Logical Fallacies Example: appeal to fear/force/scare tactics If you don’t finish your vegetables, you will get cancer If you do not forward this mail to 10 friends, you will face bad luck - (chain mail) Listerine: kills the germ that causes bad breath

13 13GXEX1406 Thinking and Communication Skills – Week 12 Logical Fallacies WHY FALLACIOUS? - No proof that not eating veges can cause cancer + Not all cancers are caused by not eating veges - No proof that the chain mail causes bad luck - Other factors may also cause bad breath.

14 14GXEX1406 Thinking and Communication Skills – Week 12 Logical Fallacies (b) Appeal to vanity/flattery Use flattery to make the reader or listener feel special. Use persuasive language. Often used in advertisements. To entice consumers to buy products or services (1) TYPE 1

15 15GXEX1406 Thinking and Communication Skills – Week 12 Logical Fallacies Example: Appeal to vanity/flattery I don’t moisturize, I don’t tone, I just use Dove! BMW 3.0Si: for those who deny themselves nothing SBB blue-chip MasterCard, a radically new way of life

16 16GXEX1406 Thinking and Communication Skills – Week 12 Logical Fallacies WHY FALLACIOUS? - Where is the proof that Dove is 3 in 1? That it moisturizes & tones other than it just cleans ? - Can a car really last for life? - having the new master card may not necessary change your life in a radical way

17 17GXEX1406 Thinking and Communication Skills – Week 12 Logical Fallacies (b) Appeal to numbers/ bandwagon /peer pressure Use to solicit group identity Put pressure on individuals to follow the crowd. Often used in adverts - to buy software or hardware or other products & services (1) TYPE 1

18 18GXEX1406 Thinking and Communication Skills – Week 12 Logical Fallacies Example: Appeal to numbers/bandwagon/peer pressure Millions of people smoke. Therefore smoking must not be bad for people. All the really smart people watch University Challenge. You should watch too. Classical music is really neat - but like my friends I prefer Linkin’ Park. We are not nerds.

19 19GXEX1406 Thinking and Communication Skills – Week 12 Logical Fallacies WHY FALLACIOUS? - Just because millions of people do something is a poor basis to say that the action is right. - Not smart people also watch that TV show! - You don’t have to follow your friends in your choice of music to listen to. Where is the proof that classical music lovers are nerds?

20 20GXEX1406 Thinking and Communication Skills – Week 12 Logical Fallacies (b) Appeal to pity (ad misericodium) Use pity to establish the truth of a conclusion Use language to evoke compassion to induce the listener to accept the claim (1) TYPE 1

21 21GXEX1406 Thinking and Communication Skills – Week 12 Logical Fallacies Example: Appeal to pity You should hire him as a coach of our football team because he broke his leg and cannot play big time football anymore. We should re-elect Encik Fauzi as our MP because his wife just died and his crippled mother lives with him.

22 22GXEX1406 Thinking and Communication Skills – Week 12 Logical Fallacies Pity does not serve as evidence for a claim. Therefore the claim is fallacious Why Fallacious?

23 23GXEX1406 Thinking and Communication Skills – Week 12 Logical Fallacies (a) Ad Hominem / against the person Sometimes called - fallacy of opposition Attacks the person’s personality, beliefs, affiliation, ethnicity to reject a claim TYPE 2 - Fallacies that distract ( total 3 - Claim that diverts attention from the main issue )

24 24GXEX1406 Thinking and Communication Skills – Week 12 Logical Fallacies Example: Ad-Hominem Encik Latif just divorce his wife. How can his proposal be any good? How can you vote for Salmah as prefect when she is related to the Headmistress? You agree that the government should increase on military spending because your father works in a munitions factory.

25 25GXEX1406 Thinking and Communication Skills – Week 12 Logical Fallacies The character or circumstance of the person has no claim on the truth of the claim. Encik Latif divorcing his wife has got nothing to do with his working ability Salmah may have the makings of a good prefect even though she is related to the head mistress. Why Fallacious?

26 26GXEX1406 Thinking and Communication Skills – Week 12 Logical Fallacies (b) Red Herring An issue brought into the picture to divert the listener’s or reader’s attention from the real issue This happens a lot in meetings and group discussions. Be aware of this! TYPE 2

27 27GXEX1406 Thinking and Communication Skills – Week 12 Logical Fallacies Example: Red herring Why worry about the Pandas becoming extinct when we have a large number of homeless in our own country? Why should we donate to the Iraq war when we still have people living in poverty?

28 28GXEX1406 Thinking and Communication Skills – Week 12 Logical Fallacies One issue is not related to the other. Therefore the first claim cannot justify the second claim. The extinction of pandas and the homeless are two separate issues The contribution to Iraq war and the plight of the poor are two separate issues. Why Fallacious?

29 29GXEX1406 Thinking and Communication Skills – Week 12 Logical Fallacies (c) Straw Man Oversimplify an evidence to support a claim. The simplification, therefore cannot support the claim TYPE 2

30 30GXEX1406 Thinking and Communication Skills – Week 12 Logical Fallacies Example: Straw Man & why fallacious Those who favor gun control also favor disarming the police This is oversimplifying the issue. The first claim is not strong enough to support the second claim.

31 31GXEX1406 Thinking and Communication Skills – Week 12 Logical Fallacies What women in her right mind would support total equality with men. No women wants the right to go to war or the right to pay alimony Oversimplify the issue. Equality does not mean for every situations! Example: Straw Man & why fallacious

32 32GXEX1406 Thinking and Communication Skills – Week 12 Logical Fallacies (a) Begging the question (circular argument) The claims in the premise is again drawn in the conclusion. Redundant Repeating an issue (going in circles) The argument does not go anywhere! TYPE 3 - Other common fallacies

33 33GXEX1406 Thinking and Communication Skills – Week 12 Logical Fallacies Example: begging the question & why fallacious? My argument must be correct because I am the smartest student in the class. The conclusion merely restate the premise. Being smart does not mean that you are correct.

34 34GXEX1406 Thinking and Communication Skills – Week 12 Logical Fallacies Example: begging the question & why fallacious? Murderers should be executed because they are killers! The conclusion merely restate the premise. Murderers are killers by definition. So, what is the justification why killers must be executed?

35 35GXEX1406 Thinking and Communication Skills – Week 12 Logical Fallacies Example: begging the question & why fallacious? The bible is the word of God because it says it is. Whether or not the bible is the word of God is a matter of personal faith. The statement should be written as: The Bible says that it is the word of God. The word of God cannot be false. Therefore, the Bible is the word of God.

36 36GXEX1406 Thinking and Communication Skills – Week 12 Logical Fallacies (b) Slippery slop (snowball argument/ domino theory) Suggests to the listener that if one action is taken, it will lead to similar actions & the end result is negative or undesirable Assumes a chain reaction of cause-effect of events TYPE 3 - Other common fallacies

37 37GXEX1406 Thinking and Communication Skills – Week 12 Logical Fallacies Example: slippery slope & why fallacious? Let one student disrupt my lecture, then other students would want to ask & I therefore cannot complete my lecture in time. Student’s interruptions may disrupt a lecture BUT not all lectures are delayed because of students disruptions.

38 38GXEX1406 Thinking and Communication Skills – Week 12 Logical Fallacies Example & why fallacious? President Richard Nixon - We have to win in Vietnam or the entire SEA will become communist Winning the Vietnam war might have saved Vietnam from Communism BUT not all communist state are dependent of the success of the Vietnam War.

39 39GXEX1406 Thinking and Communication Skills – Week 12 Logical Fallacies (c) False dilemma or black / white argument/ either -or A limited number of opinion is given when in reality there are more options An illegitimate use or the word “or” TYPE 3 - Other common fallacies

40 40GXEX1406 Thinking and Communication Skills – Week 12 Logical Fallacies Example of False Dilemma (black/white) & why fallacious? FSKTM Love it or leave it. Should have been written as: One of the ways to excel in FSKTM is to love the life here. Hating it would affect your studies and may result with you having to leave.

41 41GXEX1406 Thinking and Communication Skills – Week 12 Logical Fallacies Example of False Dilemma (black/white) & why fallacious? Stop smoking or die young. Fallacious because death can be caused by other factors not just by smoking. Should have been written as: One of the ways to avoid dying young is to stop smoking as smoking might affect one’s health.

42 42GXEX1406 Thinking and Communication Skills – Week 12 Logical Fallacies Example of False Dilemma (black/white) & why fallacious? Either go to college or forget about getting a good job. Fallacious because good jobs are not dependent on going to college alone. Should have been written as: Going to college and getting a degree is one means of getting a good job.

43 43GXEX1406 Thinking and Communication Skills – Week 12 Logical Fallacies (d) Hasty generalization This is the chief error made by many. Leaping to a conclusion without a strong or large enough justification. TYPE 3 - Other common fallacies

44 44GXEX1406 Thinking and Communication Skills – Week 12 Logical Fallacies Example of Hasty generalization Feminists hate men. Ramlah is a feminist. Ramlah hates men. I notice that my fat friend is jolly. Therefore all fat people are jolly. All pop stars are rude. I asked Elton John for his autograph at a restaurant and he told me to get lost. All the arguments are based on insufficient evidence & there fore are not valid.

45 45GXEX1406 Thinking and Communication Skills – Week 12 Logical Fallacies (b) Burden of Proof (Appeal to ignorance) Premise: If something has not been proven as false, the claim must be true. Shifts the burden the other party to prove in order to make a claim. TYPE 3 - Other common fallacies

46 46GXEX1406 Thinking and Communication Skills – Week 12 Logical Fallacies Example of burden of proof & why fallacious? Since you cannot proof that ghosts does not exist, then they do exist. Since scientists cannot proof that global warming will take place, it probably wont. The new experimental drug must be working because not a single patient has returned to complain.

47 47GXEX1406 Thinking and Communication Skills – Week 12 Logical Fallacies SUMMARY OF FALLACIES (1) Fallacies that appeal to emotions (total 4) - Claims are made appeal to emotions rather than reason Appeal to Fear/Force/ Scare tactics or ad baculum Appeal to Vanity/Flattery Appeal to Numbers/ Belief/ Bandwagon/Peer pressure Appeal to Pity (Ad misericordium)

48 48GXEX1406 Thinking and Communication Skills – Week 12 Logical Fallacies (2) Fallacies that distract (total 3) - Claims made divert attention from the main issue Ad hominem (attack/against the person) Red herring Straw Man 3 categories of fallacies

49 49GXEX1406 Thinking and Communication Skills – Week 12 Logical Fallacies (3) Other common types (total 5) Begging the question (circular arguments) Slippery slope (domino theory) False dilemma (either- or) Hasty generalization Burden of proof 3 categories of fallacies

50 50GXEX1406 Thinking and Communication Skills – Week 12 Logical Fallacies THE END

51 51GXEX1406 Thinking and Communication Skills – Week 12 Logical Fallacies Identify & explain the logical fallacy in the following statements. WARMING UP

52 52GXEX1406 Thinking and Communication Skills – Week 12 Logical Fallacies 1. Could I receive an A for this class. If I don't get an 'A' I won't get the scholarship that I apply for 1. Appeal to fear/scare tactics 2. Appeal to numbers /bandwagon/ peer pressure 3. Redherring/smokescreen 4. Appeal to pity 5.Slippery slope / domino theory 6. Begging the question / circular argument 7. Hasty generalization

53 53GXEX1406 Thinking and Communication Skills – Week 12 Logical Fallacies This line of "reasoning" is fallacious because pity does not serve as evidence for a claim Just to get a scholarship does not justify a person to be given an A – There are other criteria to be considered Appeal to pity 1. Could I receive an A for this class. If I don't get an 'A' I won't get the scholarship that I apply for

54 54GXEX1406 Thinking and Communication Skills – Week 12 Logical Fallacies 2. The women in my family love babies. All women love babies 1.Appeal to numbers /bandwagon/peer pressure 2.Redherring/smokescreen 3.Appeal to pity 4.Appeal to fear /scare tactics /ad bacculum 5.Ad hominem 6.Begging the question/circular argument 7.Hasty generalization

55 55GXEX1406 Thinking and Communication Skills – Week 12 Logical Fallacies Faulty logic – unqualified A generalization. This fallacy is committed when a person draws a conclusion about a population based on a sample that is not large enough 2. All women in my family love babies. All women love babies Hasty generalization

56 56GXEX1406 Thinking and Communication Skills – Week 12 Logical Fallacies 3. You shouldn’t accept national health care because it is a socialist idea 1.Appeal to numbers /bandwagon/peer pressure 2.Redherring/smokescreen 3.Appeal to pity 4.Appeal to fear /scare tactics /ad bacculum 5.Ad hominem 6.Begging the question/circular argument 7.Hasty generalization

57 57GXEX1406 Thinking and Communication Skills – Week 12 Logical Fallacies 3. You shouldn’t accept national health care because it is a socialist idea Red herring Switching to another issue to distract from the main argument. This sort of "reasoning" is fallacious because merely changing the topic of discussion hardly counts as an argument against a claim.

58 58GXEX1406 Thinking and Communication Skills – Week 12 Logical Fallacies 4. In a democracy the people are free because democracies are free countries. 1.Appeal to numbers /bandwagon/peer pressure 2.Redherring/smokescreen 3.Appeal to pity 4.Appeal to fear /scare tactics /ad bacculum 5.Ad hominem 6.Begging the question/circular argument 7.Hasty generalization

59 59GXEX1406 Thinking and Communication Skills – Week 12 Logical Fallacies 4. In a democracy the people are free because democracies are free countries. Begging the question Circular argument This sort of "reasoning" is fallacious because simply assuming that the premise is true does not constitute evidence for that conclusion. Democracy = free country = free people. Circular argument with no end.

60 60GXEX1406 Thinking and Communication Skills – Week 12 Logical Fallacies 5. The gang members caught by the police last night comprises immigrants from country X. Most immigrants who work in this country have trouble with the law and come from country X where thievery are rampant. 1. Redherring/smokescreen 2. Slippery slope/ domino theory 3. Scare tactics /ad bacculum 4. Ad hominem 5. Begging the question/circular argument 6. Hasty generalization 7. Burden of proof/Appeal to ignorance

61 61GXEX1406 Thinking and Communication Skills – Week 12 Logical Fallacies Hasty generalization Faulty logic – unqualified Generalization. Making a judgment based on a small Sample. 5. The gang members caught by the police last night comprises immigrants from country X. Most immigrants who work in this country have trouble with the law and come from country X where thievery are rampant.

62 62GXEX1406 Thinking and Communication Skills – Week 12 Logical Fallacies 6. Ralph Nader was the best candidate for president, because he was totally better than any of the others. 1. Redherring/smokescreen 2. Slippery slope/ domino theory 3. Scare tactics /ad bacculum 4. Ad hominem 5. Begging the question/circular argument 6. Hasty generalisation 7. Burden of proof/Appeal to ignorance

63 63GXEX1406 Thinking and Communication Skills – Week 12 Logical Fallacies Assumption -- Nader is better than the other candidates, conclusion -- Nader is the best. This sort of "reasoning" is fallacious because simply assuming that the conclusion is true (directly or indirectly) in the premises does not constitute evidence for that conclusion. Begging the question/ Circular argument 6. Ralph Nader was the best candidate for president, because he was totally better than any of the others.

64 64GXEX1406 Thinking and Communication Skills – Week 12 Logical Fallacies 7. If you don't finish your homework you won't get a good grade. Then you won't be able to get into the college you want. You will end up cleaning toilets for a living. 1. Redherring/smokescreen 2. Slippery slope/ domino theory 3. Scare tactics /ad bacculum 4. Ad hominem 5. Begging the question/circular argument 6. Hasty generalization 7. Burden of proof/Appeal to ignorance

65 65GXEX1406 Thinking and Communication Skills – Week 12 Logical Fallacies Appeal to fear /scare tactics It is an appeal to force or threat instead of trying to convince someone with facts or a logical argument 7. If you don't finish your homework you won't get a good grade. Then you won't be able to get into the college you want. You will end up cleaning toilets for a living.

66 66GXEX1406 Thinking and Communication Skills – Week 12 Logical Fallacies 8. How could anyone vote for Hilary Clinton for senator?The fact that she is married to Clinton proves that she has no self respect. 1. Redherring/smokescreen 2. Slippery slope/ domino theory 3. Scare tactics /ad bacculum 4. Ad hominem 5. Begging the question/circular argument 6. Hasty generalization 7. Burden of proof/Appeal to ignorance

67 67GXEX1406 Thinking and Communication Skills – Week 12 Logical Fallacies Ad hominem Attacking the person rather than the issue. Ad Hominem" means "against the man" or "against the person. Ad Hominem is a fallacy because the character, circumstances, or actions of a person do not (in most cases) have a bearing on the truth of the claim being made (or the quality of the argument being made). 8. How could anyone vote for Hilary Clinton for senator?The fact that she is married to Clinton proves that she has no self respect.

68 68GXEX1406 Thinking and Communication Skills – Week 12 Logical Fallacies 9. UFO must exist because no reputable studies have proven conclusively that they do not. 1. Redherring/smokescreen 2. Slippery slope/ domino theory 3. Scare tactics /ad bacculum 4. Ad hominem 5. Begging the question/circular argument 6. Hasty generalization 7. Burden of proof/Appeal to ignorance

69 69GXEX1406 Thinking and Communication Skills – Week 12 Logical Fallacies 9. UFO must exist because no reputable studies have proven conclusively that they do not. Causal fallacy Shifts the burden of proof to the other party in order to make a claim. However, no evidence is given to proof that UFO do exist. Burden of proof

70 70GXEX1406 Thinking and Communication Skills – Week 12 Logical Fallacies 10. If you are beautiful, you could live like this, so buy Buty-EZ and become beautiful. 1. Redherring/smokescreen 2. Slippery slope/ domino theory 3. Scare tactics /ad bacculum 4. Ad hominem 5. Begging the question/circular argument 6. Appeal to vanity/flattery 7. Burden of proof/Appeal to ignorance

71 71GXEX1406 Thinking and Communication Skills – Week 12 Logical Fallacies Appeal to vanity/flattery Here the appeal is to beautiful people. This line of "reasoning" is fallacious because the fact that flattery does not, in general, serve as evidence that the claim is true. 10. If you are beautiful, you could live like this, so buy Buty-EZ and become beautiful.

72 72GXEX1406 Thinking and Communication Skills – Week 12 Logical Fallacies 11. State the fallacy implied

73 73GXEX1406 Thinking and Communication Skills – Week 12 Logical Fallacies My friends uses Linux because it makes their PC more powerful & stable. My friend uses Linux so must I. Appeal to number /Bandwagon / peer pressure Implies something is right because everybody believes so. This line of "reasoning" is fallacious because peer pressure and threat of rejection do not constitute evidence for rejecting a claim

74 74GXEX1406 Thinking and Communication Skills – Week 12 Logical Fallacies 1. Redherring/smokescreen 2. Slippery slope/ domino theory 3. Scare tactics /ad bacculum 4. Ad hominem 5. Begging the question/circular argument 6. Appeal to vanity/flattery 7. Burden of proof/Appeal to ignorance 12. We can’t allow students any voice in decision making, if we do, it wont be long before they are in total control

75 75GXEX1406 Thinking and Communication Skills – Week 12 Logical Fallacies Slippery slope /domino theory No middle road is given. Assumes that when the first action is taken, it would subsequently follow through to the last. Is this true? 12. We can’t allow students any voice in decision making, if we do, it wont be long before they are in total control

76 76GXEX1406 Thinking and Communication Skills – Week 12 Logical Fallacies 1. Redherring/smokescreen 2. Slippery slope/ domino theory 3. False dilemma (black or white/either-or) 4. Ad hominem 5. Begging the question/circular argument 6. Appeal to vanity/flattery 7. Burden of proof/Appeal to ignorance 13. Women need to be either brilliant or beautiful to survive in this world.

77 77GXEX1406 Thinking and Communication Skills – Week 12 Logical Fallacies False dilemma (black or white/ either – or) Include either…or…. Just gives two opposite extremes instead of allowing for other possibilities. Not all women who survive in this world are brilliant or beautiful. 13. Women need to be either brilliant or beautiful to survive in this world.

78 78GXEX1406 Thinking and Communication Skills – Week 12 Logical Fallacies 1. Redherring/smokescreen 2. Slippery slope/ domino theory 3. False dilemma (black or white/either-or) 4. Ad hominem 5. Begging the question/circular argument 6. Strawman (oversimplification) 7. Burden of proof/Appeal to ignorance 14. Those who favor gun-control legislation just want to take all guns away from responsible citizens and put them into the hands of the criminals.

79 79GXEX1406 Thinking and Communication Skills – Week 12 Logical Fallacies Strawman (oversimplification) misrepresent an opponent's position to make it easier to attack, usually by distorting his or her views to ridiculous extremes 14. Those who favor gun-control legislation just want to take all guns away from responsible citizens and put them into the hands of the criminals.


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