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STRATEGIES TO CONSIDER WHEN FACED WITH AN INCIDENCE OF VIOLENCE Lorain County Safety Council September 19, 2012 Claudia Ferrini, Marjorie Burton and Clifton.

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Presentation on theme: "STRATEGIES TO CONSIDER WHEN FACED WITH AN INCIDENCE OF VIOLENCE Lorain County Safety Council September 19, 2012 Claudia Ferrini, Marjorie Burton and Clifton."— Presentation transcript:

1 STRATEGIES TO CONSIDER WHEN FACED WITH AN INCIDENCE OF VIOLENCE Lorain County Safety Council September 19, 2012 Claudia Ferrini, Marjorie Burton and Clifton Barnes Oberlin College

2 GOALS To present options to consider in order to survive should you ever find yourself in a dangerous or threatening situation. To enable you to make a decision when confronted with violence. Making good split second decisions could prevent you from being injured and may even save your life and the lives of others.


4 PAST ACTIVE SHOOTER INCIDENTS WORKPLACES AND PUBLIC SPACES 1986 - San Ysidro, CA - McDonalds – (22 Dead, 19 Injured) 2007 – Orlando, Florida - Office building (1 Dead, 5 Injured) 2007 - Ft. Hood Texas killing 13 and wounding dozens; 2007 - Salt Lake City, Utah - Trolley Square Mall (5 Dead) 2007 – Omaha, Nebraska -Westroads Mall (9 Dead) shooting 2010 - Manchester, CT - Beer distribution warehouse (9 Dead) 2011 - Oslo, Norway - Explosion (8 Dead, 209 Injured) - Shooting (69 Killed, 110 Injured) 2011 - Tucson, AR - 2011 Open Meeting (6 Dead, 13 Injured) 2012 - Aurora, Colorado -Movie Theater (12 Dead, 58 Injured)

5 PAST ACTIVE SHOOTER INCIDENTS AT INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION 02/12/2010 - University of Alabama Huntsville (3 Dead /3 Injured) 04/16/2007 - Virginia Tech (33 Dead /15 Injured) 09/13/2006 - Dawson College (Canada) (1 Dead / 19 Injured) 09/02/2006 - Shepherd University (3 Dead) 05/09/2003 – Case Western Reserve University (1 Dead, 2 Injured) 10/28/2002 – University of Arizona (4 Dead) 01/16/2002 – Appalachia School of Law (VA) (3 Dead / 3 Injured) 08/28/2000 – University of Arkansas (2 Dead) 08/15/1996 – San Diego State (3 Dead) 11/01/1991 – University of Iowa (5 Dead / 1 Injured) 08/12/1986 – New York Tech College (1 Dead / 5 Injured) 08/01/1966 – University of Texas, Austin (16 Dead / 31 Injured)

6 PAST ACTIVE SHOOTER INCIDENTS K-12 02/27/2012 – Chardon High School (Chardon, Ohio) Lone shooter T.J. Lane 3 dead, 2 injured 10/10/2007 – Success Tech High School (Cleveland, Ohio) 1 dead, 4 injured 10/02/2006 – West Nickel Amish School (Lancaster, Pennsylvania) 5 dead, 5 injured 04/20/1999 - Columbine High School (15 Dead /24 Injured) 2 Students Multiple weapons including rifles, pistols, Molotov cocktails 05/21/1998 – Springfield, OR High School (2 Dead / 22 Injured) Killed his parents, Killed 2, Injured 22 in the school Tackled and held by seven students until police arrived 03/24/1998 – Jonesboro, AR Middle School (5 Dead / 20 Injured) Fire alarm used (11 and 13 years old) 12/01/1997 – West Paducah, KY (3 Dead / 5 Injured) During a prayer meeting

7 POLICE RESPONSE History Prior to 1966 (Univ. of Texas, Austin) Individual police departments dealt with incidences of violence S.W.A.T. became the answer Special Weapons and Tactics Hostage Negotiations Columbine High School Police set up a perimeter and waited on SWAT

8 POLICE RESPONSE Current Rapid Deployment response by local law enforcement Typically a team of three or four Local departments support each other S.W.A.T. activated but not waited on to respond

9 COLUMBINE…the LIBRARY 7 ½ minutes of Hell Klebold and Harris taunted their victims Injured students and returned at a later point to kill them Engaged arriving police and shot at students fleeing the building

10 The Columbine High School Library Students hid underneath Library tables following the school’s plan of “Lockdown” and under direction of teaching staff

11 “LOCKDOWN” Many schools and businesses have some form of a “Lockdown” procedure. In some cases, the “Lockdown” procedure is communicated to others and even practiced. Most K-12 schools test these procedures by holding “Lockdown Drills.” Since Columbine, children who are now adults know no other strategy in response.

12 WHAT IS A “LOCKDOWN” In many cases, employees and students are instructed to do the following: Lock the door (if it locks); Turn off the lights; Silence cell phones; Hide if possible; Place a red or green card under the door (typically done in a school situation)

13 A SIMULATION Let’s simulate a “lockdown” in this room A violent intruder has entered the building Turn off the lights Lock the door (does it lock?) Hide! Move away from the door and any windows. DO NOTHING ELSE. Remember, this is your policy, you can’t do more. Stay like this until you are told the drill is over.


15 SO WHAT’S MISSING? Locking the door is A GOOD THING. What do you do if: The aggressor’s target is YOUR room? You don’t have time to lock the door? The door won’t lock? How does help get called? Does your emergency plan allow for employees (students)to dial 911 directly? If these calls have to be placed by Security or Administration, this allows a delay in notifying the police. There must be a plan beyond just locking the door and hiding. Hiding under tables, desks or even in the corner will only provide EASY TARGETS for the shooter.

16 WHAT IS THE RIGHT WAY? There is no ONE way We can’t let the intruder’s plan work the way they want it to… Prepare yourself Ask yourself “What if….”

17 A Quote "In a moment of decision, the best thing you can do is the right thing. The next best thing is the wrong thing. The worst thing you can do is nothing.” - Theodore Roosevelt

18 WHAT WILL YOU DO? “Let’s roll!”

19 WHAT CAN YOU DO? Do you want to change the feeling you felt while “hiding”? Is there something that you can do to survive this type of attack? What should your first goal be?

20 A DECISION TO ACT Stories from Virginia Tech Emily Haas Professor Liviu Lebrescu

21 A DECISION TO ACT Emily Haas was a vital link to those on the outside trying to respond.

22 A DECISION TO ACT Professor Lebrescu’s class suffered the least amount of fatalities. Of 16 students: 12 students escaped through windows, two had been shot 4 other students were shot in the room, one fatally Professor Lebrescu’s quick assessment and brave actions saved lives.

23 A.L.i.C.E. PROGRAM A research-based proactive approach in responding to an incidence of violence developed by Greg Crane and his company Response Options. The strategies of the A.L.i.C.E. program have recently been accepted as best practices through a partnership between the Department of Education and the Federal Bureau of Investigation. Expect to see more.

24 WHAT IS A.L.i.C.E. A- ALERT L- LOCKDOWN i- INFORM C- COUNTER E- EVACUATE Not steps, rather options….

25 A: ALERT ALERT: The way you learn about the threat, and The way you alert others Someone enters your workplace or building and begins threatening or shooting at people: How would you first be alerted about this incident?

26 RECEIVING AN ALERT You may hear screams You may hear gun shots or loud noises Someone may tell you You may see the intruder or people running You may hear about it by a telephone call, text, e-mail or other communication system

27 ALERTING AUTHORITIES Dial 911 immediately, give details Where was the intruder(s) last seen? What direction were they traveling? What did they look like, do you know the person? What were they wearing? What were they carrying? Keep the line open if possible, so law enforcement is aware of the current aspects of the situation

28 ALERTING OTHERS Tell others around you Suggest that they get to a safe place Keep others from entering the danger zone if possible Share what you will learn today with your colleagues and make a plan Be ready to take action

29 L: LOCKDOWN LOCKDOWN can be a very good option and it may be your ONLY option, but we need to do more than just: Locking the door (if we can); Turning off the lights; Silencing our cell phones; and Hiding in the corner

30 LOCKDOWN ISSUES Not all doors lock Oh well, there’s nothing we can do, right? Can we still secure the doors? The door opens outward There is nothing you can do, right? Be creative, there is always another option. Can we still slow down, discourage or keep the aggressor out? Goals may range from: Keep the aggressor out of your safe area Slow down, discourage or distract the aggressor Give the police time to arrive



33 L: LOCKDOWN LOCK THE DOOR (If you can) Place tables, chairs, furniture or anything heavy against the door opening. Disable any door mechanisms (hydraulic assists, etc.) Cover the door window if you can quickly. Door opens outward, use what you have to secure it.

34 L: LOCKDOWN After barricading the door…. MOVE QUICKLY… Get to a place away from the door and out of sight of any windows & silence phones. GET READY NOW…HAVE A PLAN “What if..” The aggressor is determined to come in your area. The aggressor starts shooting into the door. The aggressor climbs over the barricaded items Don’t wait until the intruder is in the room to get ready The intruder has a plan--you should also

35 REMEMBER Hiding works, but it may not be enough Time is not on your side It doesn’t take long to find you Have a plan and be ready to act, there is strength in numbers

36 WHILE IN LOCKDOWN Gather things you can use as weapons Books Book Bags Purses Keys Coffee Cups Computers, Tablets Fire Extinguishers Other objects - What do you have on your desk? Goals – Distract, Disorient, Disarm LIVE…….

37 LOCKDOWN Do you think you can secure this room? Let’s give it a try. - Lets “Lockdown” this room - Use what you have available - The bigger the better

38 WHAT’S NEXT Have a plan If the aggressor is going to come in, you need to be ready to: Make a decision Quickly take action Base your actions on your assessment of the situation. HIDE - You believe entry will be hard or police are arriving EVACUATE - Alternate door or windows available COUNTER the attack (more to come)

39 i: INFORM The police are on the way. How will police know where to go? How will police be updated on the situation? Provide updates to 911 when it is safe to do so with what you see or hear and what you know to be true: The intruder just walked by our door/window (Room 221) I just heard 3 gun shots on the 3 rd floor I hear people screaming in our production area We are in room 221 and one person is shot

40 i: INFORM Updated Information = Decisions Updated Information = Notifications Updated Information = FASTER AND MORE PRECISE POLICE RESPONSE


42 REMEMBER You SHOULD NOT leave a safe place to go and take matters into your own hands. Leave that job to the police and public safety personnel. You should ONLY consider the COUNTER suggestion if you are in immediate danger and have no other option.

43 C: COUNTER Have ONE plan and be ready to ACT Communicate with others in your area If directly confronted by the threating person, its decision time: COUNTER THE ATTACK REMEMBER, there is strength in numbers.

44 THINGS YOU CAN DO TO SURVIVE! Stress the aggressor Distract the aggressor Disrupt the aggressor Interrupt the aggressor’s plans

45 DISTRACTING O.O.D.A. Loop Every action requires this: Observe Orient Decide Act

46 C: COUNTER THE AGRESSOR’S OODA LOOP If the threatening person enters the room: SCREAM (GET HIM, ATTACK, NOW, etc.) KEEP YELLING (stress and distract) THROW ITEMS (at the aggressors HEAD) KEEP THROWING ITEMS (until under control) ATTACK (take aggressor to the floor & disarm) -Attack team can also throw and yell while moving.

47 ATTACK TEAM 5 people, one person per appendage, consider more if available If less than five people are not in the room, hit the aggressor high and low (control his head, take out his legs, take him to the floor.) If possible, dislodge the weapon from the aggressor. Hold the aggressor down, one person on each limb and one person controlling the aggressor’s head.

48 SECURING THE WEAPON (Aggressor is under control) Gently with your foot or object, move the weapon away from the aggressor (Don’t kick it) NEVER pick up the weapon to hold or use Find the trash can or other item Place it over the weapon Guard the weapon Keep BOTH HANDS visible for police

49 E: EVACUATE “We leave a building in the event of a fire, but when it comes to an active shooter, we lock everyone in.” – Greg Crane

50 E: EVACUATE Not all situations will allow for evacuation, but most will. If able, leave the dangerous area based on real-time information you obtain, your training and practice of your workplace plan.

51 The Columbine High School Library From the released 911 tapes of the Columbine High School shootings, students were pointing out the fact that there were exits from the library to the outdoors, and were instructed to remain and hide. 10 students died in the library.

52 YOU CAN SURVIVE You MUST always make a DECISION Your decision may be as simple as; Dial 911 and Lockdown or Evacuate Your decision may be harder: Lockdown, make a plan for the “What if” Quickly Evacuate Counter the aggressor REMEMBER, you MUST be ready!

53 A SHORT VIDEO This video was produced by the City of Houston’s Office of Domestic Preparedness in conjunction with the Department of Homeland Security. This video depicts an act of violence in the workplace which some individuals may find disturbing. Viewer discretion is advised.

54 Acknowledgements Greg Crane Response Options 251 SW Wilshire Blvd. Suite 124, #550 Burleson, TX 76028 877-652-9461 or (877 OK-2-WIN-1) (8am - 6pm Central) 817 582-0080 fax

55 Other Resources City of Houston’s Office of Domestic Preparedness Video ghtenglish.html Center for Personal Protection and Safety 108 North Washington St. Suite 600 Spokane, WA 99201 Phone: 509-468-4128 Toll Free: 1-800-990-4541

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