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Effective Training: Strategies, Systems and Practices, 3 rd Edition Chapter Six Traditional Training Methods P. Nick Blanchard and James W. Thacker.

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Presentation on theme: "Effective Training: Strategies, Systems and Practices, 3 rd Edition Chapter Six Traditional Training Methods P. Nick Blanchard and James W. Thacker."— Presentation transcript:

1 Effective Training: Strategies, Systems and Practices, 3 rd Edition Chapter Six Traditional Training Methods P. Nick Blanchard and James W. Thacker

2 Chapter 62 Off-the-job Methods Advantages Variety of training techniques Learning climate Economy – number of trainees Don’t tie up expensive equipment/waste Disadvantages Increased costs – equipment/space Transfer issues

3 Chapter 63 Lecture Advantages Economical – large amounts of information to large numbers of trainees Can be organized/structured/time efficient Criticisms One-way flow Start up costs Best for cognitive principles, facts rather than skills Stress on verbal and symbolic understanding Ignores individual differences

4 Chapter 64 Typical Lecture Presentation Errors and Ways to Avoid Them – Part 1 of 3 Errors Ways to Avoid Talking with back to Don’t talk and write at the same time. Have trainees while writing flip charts prepared ahead of time when possible. on board or flip chart. If considerable board work is required, use overhead transparencies. Using highly technical If technical words or jargon must be used, provide words, unfamiliar definitions. Simplify the language and sentences so jargon, or complex meaning is clear. Pilot test at least part of the sentences. lecture with an audience similar to the trainees. Providing examples The lecturer need not provide all the examples. or asides without Ask trainees to provide some of the examples much relevance to or illustrations. In preparing the lecture, go to the trainees. the supervisors of the trainees to get examples that are relevant.

5 Chapter 65 Typical Lecture Presentation Errors and Ways to Avoid Them – Part 2 of 3 Errors Ways to Avoid Reading rather than Prepare an outline of points to be covered rather lecturing.than a word- for-word script. Be very familiar with each point on the outline so that you are able to talk about it without reference to notes. Speaking in Listen to TV and radio commentators. Paying close Monotoneattention to when and how they change their tone and the pitch of their voice. Practice fluctuating the tone and pitch of your voice on tape and in everyday conversation. Use pauses in your lecture so you can think about how you want to say something.

6 Chapter 66 Typical Lecture Presentation Errors and Ways to Avoid Them – Part 3 of 3 Errors Ways to Avoid Making distracting Observe yourself by videotaping a lecture. If your gestures. gestures are distracting or irritating to you, the trainees probably feel the same way. Watch you posture as well as your gestures. Don’t stand stiff as a board. Leaving projector on Get in the habit of glancing at the projection as you with no image or an are talking about the material it displays. When you irrelevant image are at the end of the material, you will see that it is time to turn the projector off. Losing your place in This happens most frequently because your notes are the lecture. too detailed and you can’t find your place. One technique is to check off topics you have completed.

7 Chapter 67 Discussion Advantages Two-way communication allows feedback, clarification, sharing views Limitations Needs skilled discussion leader Time Trainees need common reference point Size of group

8 Chapter 68 Basic Lecture/Discussion Components and Effects on Learning – Part 1 of 4 Learning Process Lecture/Discussion Components Affected 1. Orientation Presenting information so that trainees understand the direction in which the lecture is headed and the organization for getting there. 2. Enthusiasm Presenting information in a manner that conveys the topic’s importance and inherent value. 3. Variety Use of voice, gestures, various components listed in this table and audiovisual aids. For printed lectures this is minimized. ATTENTION RETENTION: Symbolic coding

9 Chapter 69 Basic Lecture/Discussion Components and Effects on Learning – Part 2 of 4 Learning Process Lecture/Discussion Components Affected 4. Logical organization Presenting information in a logical order and providing logical transitions between topic areas. 5. Providing explanation Describing facts, concepts and principles in a clear and easily understood manner. 6. Giving directions Providing instructions in a manner that allows trainees to understand what they are to do and how to do it. RETENTION: Cognitive organization RETENTION: Symbolic coding Cognitive organization RETENTION: Cognitive organization Symbolic rehearsal

10 Chapter 610 Basic Lecture/Discussion Components and Effects on Learning – Part 3 of 4 Learning Process Lecture/Discussion Components Affected 7. Illustrating Providing clear, interesting and relevant examples of how information can or has been applied (both correctly and incorrectly). 8. Comparing and contrasting Articulating the similarities and differences, advantages and disadvantages, etc. of relevant topic areas. ATTENTION RETENTION: All areas ATTENTION, RETENTION: Cognitive organization

11 Chapter 611 Basic Lecture/Discussion Components and Effects on Learning – Part 4 of 4 Learning Process Lecture/Discussion Components Affected 9. Questioning and Discussing Seeking information from the trainees regarding their comprehension, their content related ideas and stimulating the trainees’ thought processes (e.g., Socratic questioning). This is not possible in printed lectures. 10. Summarizing Highlighting important concepts covered in a manner that links the topics/ideas together. ATTENTION RETENTION: All areas RETENTION: Cognitive organization

12 Chapter 612 In-Basket Technique Simulation of management decision- making In-basket includes various memos, messages, etc. Evaluation based on prioritizing, organizing, types of responses

13 Chapter 613 Demonstrations Visual display of how to do something and how it works – can be integrated with lecture/discussion method How to use effectively

14 Chapter 614 Strengths and Costs of Demonstrations Costs Control of Material and Process Learning Objectives Learning Process Attention Retention Behavioral reproduction

15 Chapter 615 Case Study Illustrations of concepts to be learned, communication skills, analytical skills, integrate information Critics-lack of realistic complexity, caught up in details, groupthink, limits teaching role of trainer

16 Chapter 616 Equipment Simulators Mechanical devices requiring the use of the same procedures, movements and decision processes used on the job Physical fidelity Psychological fidelity

17 Chapter 617 Business Games Simulations representing the way organizations function – relate to set of relationships, rules, and principles May have elements of competition Managerial decision making, marketing, production management, labor relations, etc.

18 Chapter 618 Role Playing Act out situation and specific events, develop insights in own and other’s behaviors, develop interpersonal relationship, empathy Problems with over dramatization, intimidation, realism, transfer

19 Chapter 619 Tips for Developing and Presenting Role Plays Developing Create characters to prove your point. Use role playing to illustrate one key problem. Trying for more than one topic will diffuse the impact and distract the learners. Presenting Take the time to introduce the situation. Give trainees enough background to understand what’s at stake. Make sure participants understand your instructions. If the role play gets off topic, stop the performance and ask, “What are the problems here? Why isn’t the conversation moving in the right direction?” After the performance, discuss what happened. Most learning occurs at this discussion.

20 Chapter 620 Behavior Modeling Observe complex behavior, discuss, practice through role playing and feedback Best if can identify with role models Research support

21 Chapter 621 Things to Consider for Implementing Behavior Modeling – Part 1 of 2 Carefully select the trainer/program administrator who will set up and conduct the sessions. He or she must be skilled and experienced with this technique. Consider if this technique will meet your needs within constraints of time and money. Identify real skill deficiencies in advance of training and involve the potential trainees and their bosses in this process. Break the skills into small behaviors. Build a module around each small behavior. Do not emphasize more than seven learning points during any one training module. Models used to demonstrate the correct way of behaving/handling a certain situation should have sufficient status to be credible yet easy for the trainees to identify with. Using a videotape of a model performing the correct behavior ensures that all groups of trainees will see a positive example and may reduce costs since it is reusable.

22 Chapter 622 Things to Consider for Implementing Behavior Modeling – Part 2 of 2 Before trainees actually practice the desired behavior, have them verbalize the behavioral cues demonstrated and then have them visualize their performance. A supportive climate that encourages experimentation must be established for the practice sessions. Emphasis on positive reinforcement rather than criticism increases self-confidence and learning. After each session, some behavior modeling experts provide a wallet-sized card that outlines the key learning points and critical steps. This acts as a security blanket. Conduct a review session after several modules have been completed in order to reinforce the learning points and to demonstrate the progress that has been attained. Manage the consequences of attempting the newly trained behaviors in the actual job situation.

23 Chapter 623 Audiovisual Methods Static and dynamic media. telecommunication Portray dynamic and complex events Illustration of principles Stop action, slow motion Exposure to events not easily found live Organization wide distribution

24 Chapter 624 Audiovisual Aid – Part 1 of 2 Charts/PosterAbility to develop lists Difficult to view from a with trainees enhances distance; bulky to group interaction; can transport post and refer to during training; use in lighted room OverheadsAble to overlay systems, Can be distracting flowcharts, etc.; easy to projector can block use can see from a view distance; use in lighted room Computer-Generated Able to develop flashy visual Flashy presentation could Overheads aids; use of color and control distract from training; of points (one presented at a rely heavily technology on time); easily modified; easily controlled Audiovisual AidAdvantagesDisadvantages STATICSTATIC

25 Chapter 625 Audiovisual Aid – Part 2 of 2 AudiotapesCan learn at any time (even Single sensory input, traveling to work); reusableno interaction Audiovisual AidAdvantagesDisadvantages DYNAMICDYNAMIC Film and VideoCan demonstrate appropriate High material cost; very behavior; good for receiving high development personal feedback; can cost; need to dim present and integrate lights; store-bought conceptual information; not specific to company some commercially available are reasonably priced and appropriate. Computer Can be very flashy; use of Same as computer- Generated color and sound provide generated overheads Presentation different stimuli for obtaining interest

26 Chapter 626 Guidelines for Producing Transparencies For each transparency: Present one idea or concept Print in large letters (1/4–1/2 inch type, larger if by hand) 6 or 7 lines with 6 to 8 words per line Use color for impact

27 Chapter 627 Points to Consider in Creating a Story for a Video – Part 1 of 2 Have one main character must be realistic (not perfect) have a problem, but otherwise successful The problem character has a major problem can be personal struggle in his mind, or an actual problem with another employee must build tension with this problem, character should come close to disaster (e.g., threaten to fire her) Intervention/insight: character gains insight from  mentor: Obi Wan Kenobi in Star Wars  dream: Ghosts in A Christmas Carol

28 Chapter 628 Points to Consider in Creating a Story for a Video – Part 2 of 2 Too much story/too little story the general consensus is that if the story introduces too much extraneous material and too many actors, the points get lost the other extreme is not enough story so trainees do not really understand why things are happening. Solid storyboarding will assist in preventing this. Use of humor humor can actually assist recall. For this reason, if you use humor, make sure the humor comes from the learning points. This way when trainees recall the joke they recall the learning point. Learn from others examine video developed by professional

29 Chapter 629 On-the-job Methods Advantages No special space or equipment Minimize transfer problems/practice what will be doing Earn/produce while learning Relevant reinforcements Learning environment same as working environment

30 Chapter 630 On-the-job Methods Disadvantages Tie up expensive equipment Waste may be high Customer problems “Trainer” may not be skilled Pressure of job demands

31 Chapter 631 On-the-job Methods Job instruction technique Apprenticeship Coaching Mentoring Internship

32 Chapter 632 Basic Demonstration Components and Their Effects on Learning DEMONSTRATION COMPONENTS AREAS OF LEANING AFFECTED PRESENT  Tell  Demonstrate  Explain Attention, Symbolic Coding and Cognitive Organization TRY OUT  Learner talks through the task  Learner does task and describes what they are doing and why  Trainer provides positive/negative feedback  Learner practices Symbolic Rehearsal and Behavioral Reproduction

33 Chapter 633 JIT Instruction/Learning Sequence – Part 1 of 3 BASICS OF INSTRUCTION AREAS OF LEARNING AFFECTED 1 PREPARE Break down the job. Prepare an instruction plan. Put the learner at ease. Attention and motivation PRESENT Tell. Show. Demonstrate. Explain. Symbolic Coding Cognitive Organization

34 Chapter 634 JIT Instruction/Learning Sequence – Part 2 of 3 BASICS OF INSTRUCTION AREAS OF LEARNING AFFECTED 1 TRY OUT Have the learner “talk through” the job. Have the learner instruct the supervisor on how the job is done. Let the learner do the job. Provide feedback, both positive and negative. Let the learner practice Symbolic Rehearsal Behavioral Reproduction

35 Chapter 635 JIT Instruction/Learning Sequence – Part 3 of 3 BASICS OF INSTRUCTIONAREAS OF LEARNING AFFECTED 1 FOLLOW UP Check progress frequently at first. Tell the learner whom to go to for help. Gradually taper off progress checks. Behavioral Reproduction

36 Chapter 636 Job Breakdown Sheet for OJT – Part 1 of 4 Dept: Metal DecoratingPrepared by J. Smith Job: Feeder PressmanDate: June 8 Tools/Equipment Main StepsKey PointsMaterialSafety Factors Part I (Start of shift) 1. Check level of Ask pressman whichAll solutions kept inDo not spill on fountain solution solution to use. metal containers walkway and refill if Scratch mark in storeroom necessary shows minimum and maximum capacities

37 Chapter 637 Job Breakdown Sheet for OJT – Part 2 of 4 Tools/Equipment Main StepsKey PointsMaterialSafety Factors Part I (Start of shift) 2. Check level of Check card for type of Same as #1Very volatile and varnish in wet material being flammable varnish machine used and deter- and refill if mine amount of necessary thinner necessary to obtain proper viscosity 3. Wash sponges, Use same thinner as Same as #1Do not wash in bucket, and gum in #2 enclosed area containers because of fumes

38 Chapter 638 Job Breakdown Sheet for OJT – Part 3 of 4 Tools/Equipment Main StepsKey PointsMaterialSafety Factors Part II (Start a new bundle in press) 1. Request lift driver Do not wait until to bring over new bundle on press is bundle almost finished 2. Check new bundle Pull the job ticket Leather-palmed glovesAlways wear gloves to be sure it is the and check order when handling correct one and is number; examine sheets to prevent in good condition top sheets and cuts sides and corners of bundle

39 Chapter 639 Job Breakdown Sheet for OJT – Part 4 of 4 Tools/Equipment Main StepsKey PointsMaterialSafety Factors Part III (Whenever press is stopped) 1. Lower elevator Lower only until top Leather-palmed Wear gloves with bundle on it of bundle is at a gloves and cover with convenient height master sheet 2. Unless otherwise Be sure entire plate Use sponges and Be sure press is clear instructed by is wet; dry spots clear water before wetting plate pressman, wet can oxidize and plate on front unit damage plate

40 Chapter 640 Steps to Follow for Better OJT – Part 1 of 2 1. Establish policy. Prepare a written description that puts the organization “on the record” as supporting structured OJT. 2. Establish accountability. Make clear who is primarily responsible for OJT. Write it into their job descriptions.. 3. Review precedents. Find out what other organizations in your industry are doing about structured OJT. Use this information in efforts to design your program. 4. Design & routinely give training on the principles of structured OJT. Supervisors and experienced workers are the most likely ones to conduct structured OJT in the workplace. They will need training

41 Chapter 641 Steps to Follow for Better OJT – Part 2 of 2 5. Provide specialized support for line managers who use structured OJT. Certain jobs are common entry points for employees. For these jobs, design “off-the-shelf” lesson plans, job aids, individualized learning contracts, and individualized training progress report forms for those jobs. 6. Avoid turf battles. Begin efforts to improve OJT on a small scale, in work units where supervisors or managers are supportive. 7. Consider literacy skills. Do not assume that employees—or, for that matter, supervisors—are highly literate. Use efforts to improve OJT to assess performance problems that can be traced to literacy issues.

42 Chapter 642 Apprenticeship Training Skilled trades as well as professions Often mixed OJT and classroom activities

43 Chapter 643 Definition of Coaching Face to face interactions designed to eliminate undesired behavior and begin/maintain desired behavior Day to day – related to leadership, teaching, mentoring, counseling, confronting

44 Chapter 644 Coaching to Improve Performance Definition of poor performance Responding to poor performance Multiple causes Attribution Internal – abilities/motivation External – chance/difficulty

45 Chapter 645 Diagnosing Reasons for Performance Problems Informatio n Resources and ToolsMotivation Environ -ment Expectations & Feedback Resources & Tools Incentives Person Skills & Knowledge CapacityMotives

46 Chapter 646 Assessment of Need for Coaching QuestionResponse Are there obstacles in the system preventing effective performance? YesRemove obstacles or revise expectations Do negative consequences follow good performance? YesChange the consequences Do positive consequences follow poor performance? YesChange the consequences Is the employee aware that improvement is expected? NoProvide proper feedback Does the employee know how to improve? NoTrain or coach Could the employee improve performance if he wanted to? YesCoach

47 Chapter 647 Coaching Discussion 1. Get agreement problem exists. 2. Mutually discuss alternative solutions. 3. Mutually agree on action to be taken. 4. Follow up to measure results. 5. Recognize any achievement that occurs.

48 Chapter 648 Mentoring Often involves a senior member of the organization and a junior manager Proven to be effective Some organizations moving to more formalized mentoring programs


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