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Effective Training: Strategies, Systems and Practices, 3rd Edition

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Presentation on theme: "Effective Training: Strategies, Systems and Practices, 3rd Edition"— Presentation transcript:

1 Effective Training: Strategies, Systems and Practices, 3rd Edition
Chapter Six Traditional Training Methods P. Nick Blanchard and James W. Thacker

2 Off-the-job Methods Advantages Disadvantages
Variety of training techniques Learning climate Economy – number of trainees Don’t tie up expensive equipment/waste Disadvantages Increased costs – equipment/space Transfer issues Chapter 6

3 Lecture Advantages Criticisms
Economical – large amounts of information to large numbers of trainees Can be organized/structured/time efficient Criticisms One-way flow Start up costs Best for cognitive principles, facts rather than skills Stress on verbal and symbolic understanding Ignores individual differences Chapter 6

4 Typical Lecture Presentation Errors and Ways to Avoid Them – Part 1 of 3
Errors Ways to Avoid Talking with back to Don’t talk and write at the same time.   Have trainees while writing flip charts prepared ahead of time when possible. on board or flip chart.    If considerable board work is required, use overhead transparencies. Using highly technical If technical words or jargon must be used, provide words, unfamiliar definitions. Simplify the language and sentences so jargon, or complex meaning is clear. Pilot test at least part of the sentences. lecture with an audience similar to the trainees. Providing examples The lecturer need not provide all the examples. or asides without Ask trainees to provide some of the examples much relevance to or illustrations. In preparing the lecture, go to the trainees. the supervisors of the trainees to get examples that are relevant. Chapter 6

5 Typical Lecture Presentation Errors and Ways to Avoid Them – Part 2 of 3
Errors Ways to Avoid Reading rather than Prepare an outline of points to be covered rather lecturing. than a word- for-word script. Be very familiar with each point on the outline so that you are able to talk about it without reference to notes. Speaking in Listen to TV and radio commentators. Paying close Monotone attention to when and how they change their tone and the pitch of their voice. Practice fluctuating the tone and pitch of your voice on tape and in everyday conversation. Use pauses in your lecture so you can think about how you want to say something. Chapter 6

6 Typical Lecture Presentation Errors and Ways to Avoid Them – Part 3 of 3
Errors Ways to Avoid Making distracting Observe yourself by videotaping a lecture. If your gestures. gestures are distracting or irritating to you, the trainees probably feel the same way. Watch you posture as well as your gestures. Don’t stand stiff as a board. Leaving projector on Get in the habit of glancing at the projection as you with no image or an are talking about the material it displays.   When you irrelevant image      are at the end of the material, you will see that it is time to turn the projector off. Losing your place in This happens most frequently because your notes are the lecture. too detailed and you can’t find your place. One technique is to check off topics you have completed. Chapter 6

7 Discussion Advantages Limitations
Two-way communication allows feedback, clarification, sharing views Limitations Needs skilled discussion leader Time Trainees need common reference point Size of group Chapter 6

8 Basic Lecture/Discussion Components and Effects on Learning – Part 1 of 4
Learning Process Lecture/Discussion Components Affected 1. Orientation Presenting information so that trainees understand the direction in which the lecture is headed and the organization for getting there. ATTENTION 2. Enthusiasm Presenting information in a manner that conveys the topic’s importance and inherent value. ATTENTION 3. Variety Use of voice, gestures, various components listed in this table and audiovisual aids. For printed lectures this is minimized. ATTENTION RETENTION: Symbolic coding Chapter 6

9 Basic Lecture/Discussion Components and Effects on Learning – Part 2 of 4
Learning Process Lecture/Discussion Components Affected RETENTION: Cognitive organization 4. Logical organization Presenting information in a logical order and providing logical transitions between topic areas. RETENTION: Symbolic coding Cognitive organization 5. Providing explanation Describing facts, concepts and principles in a clear and easily understood manner. 6. Giving directions Providing instructions in a manner that allows trainees to understand what they are to do and how to do it. RETENTION: Cognitive organization Symbolic rehearsal Chapter 6

10 Cognitive organization
Basic Lecture/Discussion Components and Effects on Learning – Part 3 of 4 Learning Process Lecture/Discussion Components Affected 7. Illustrating Providing clear, interesting and relevant examples of how information can or has been applied (both correctly and incorrectly). ATTENTION RETENTION: All areas 8. Comparing and contrasting Articulating the similarities and differences, advantages and disadvantages, etc. of relevant topic areas. ATTENTION, RETENTION: Cognitive organization Chapter 6

11 Cognitive organization
Basic Lecture/Discussion Components and Effects on Learning – Part 4 of 4 Learning Process Lecture/Discussion Components Affected 9. Questioning and Discussing Seeking information from the trainees regarding their comprehension, their content related ideas and stimulating the trainees’ thought processes (e.g., Socratic questioning). This is not possible in printed lectures. ATTENTION RETENTION: All areas 10. Summarizing Highlighting important concepts covered in a manner that links the topics/ideas together. RETENTION: Cognitive organization Chapter 6

12 In-Basket Technique Simulation of management decision-making
In-basket includes various memos, messages, etc. Evaluation based on prioritizing, organizing, types of responses Chapter 6

13 Demonstrations Visual display of how to do something and how it works – can be integrated with lecture/discussion method How to use effectively Chapter 6

14 Strengths and Costs of Demonstrations
Control of Material and Process Learning Objectives Learning Process Attention Retention Behavioral reproduction Chapter 6

15 Case Study Illustrations of concepts to be learned, communication skills, analytical skills, integrate information Critics-lack of realistic complexity, caught up in details, groupthink, limits teaching role of trainer Chapter 6

16 Equipment Simulators Mechanical devices requiring the use of the same procedures, movements and decision processes used on the job Physical fidelity Psychological fidelity Chapter 6

17 Business Games Simulations representing the way organizations function – relate to set of relationships, rules, and principles May have elements of competition Managerial decision making, marketing, production management, labor relations, etc. Chapter 6

18 Role Playing Act out situation and specific events, develop insights in own and other’s behaviors, develop interpersonal relationship, empathy Problems with over dramatization, intimidation, realism, transfer Chapter 6

19 Tips for Developing and Presenting Role Plays
• Create characters to prove your point. • Use role playing to illustrate one key problem. Trying for more than one topic will diffuse the impact and distract the learners. Presenting • Take the time to introduce the situation. Give trainees enough background to understand what’s at stake. • Make sure participants understand your instructions. • If the role play gets off topic, stop the performance and ask, “What are the problems here? Why isn’t the conversation moving in the right direction?” • After the performance, discuss what happened. Most learning occurs at this discussion. Chapter 6

20 Behavior Modeling Observe complex behavior, discuss, practice through role playing and feedback Best if can identify with role models Research support Chapter 6

21 Things to Consider for Implementing Behavior Modeling – Part 1 of 2
•  Carefully select the trainer/program administrator who will set up and conduct the sessions. He or she must be skilled and experienced with this technique. • Consider if this technique will meet your needs within constraints of time and money. •  Identify real skill deficiencies in advance of training and involve the potential trainees and their bosses in this process. •  Break the skills into small behaviors. Build a module around each small behavior. • Do not emphasize more than seven learning points during any one training module. • Models used to demonstrate the correct way of behaving/handling a certain situation should have sufficient status to be credible yet easy for the trainees to identify with. • Using a videotape of a model performing the correct behavior ensures that all groups of trainees will see a positive example and may reduce costs since it is reusable. Chapter 6

22 Things to Consider for Implementing Behavior Modeling – Part 2 of 2
• Before trainees actually practice the desired behavior, have them verbalize the behavioral cues demonstrated and then have them visualize their performance. •  A supportive climate that encourages experimentation must be established for the practice sessions. Emphasis on positive reinforcement rather than criticism increases self-confidence and learning. •  After each session, some behavior modeling experts provide a wallet-sized card that outlines the key learning points and critical steps. This acts as a security blanket. •  Conduct a review session after several modules have been completed in order to reinforce the learning points and to demonstrate the progress that has been attained. •  Manage the consequences of attempting the newly trained behaviors in the actual job situation. Chapter 6

23 Audiovisual Methods Static and dynamic media. telecommunication
Portray dynamic and complex events Illustration of principles Stop action, slow motion Exposure to events not easily found live Organization wide distribution Chapter 6

24 Audiovisual Aid – Part 1 of 2
Audiovisual Aid Advantages Disadvantages S T A T I C Charts/Poster Ability to develop lists Difficult to view from a     with trainees enhances distance; bulky to      group interaction; can  transport      post and refer to during      training; use in lighted room Overheads Able to overlay systems, Can be distracting flowcharts, etc.; easy to projector can block        use can see from a view distance; use in lighted room Computer-Generated Able to develop flashy visual Flashy presentation could     Overheads      aids; use of color and control distract from training;      of points (one presented at a rely heavily technology on time); easily modified; easily controlled Chapter 6

25 Audiovisual Aid – Part 2 of 2
Audiovisual Aid Advantages Disadvantages D Y N A M I C Audiotapes Can learn at any time (even Single sensory input,      traveling to work); reusable no interaction Film and Video Can demonstrate appropriate High material cost; very      behavior; good for receiving high development      personal feedback; can cost; need to dim      present and integrate lights; store-bought      conceptual information; not specific to company      some commercially available are reasonably priced and appropriate. Computer Can be very flashy; use of Same as computer- Generated color and sound provide      generated overheads Presentation different stimuli for obtaining      interest Chapter 6

26 Guidelines for Producing Transparencies
For each transparency: • Present one idea or concept • Print in large letters (1/4–1/2 inch type, larger if by hand) • 6 or 7 lines with 6 to 8 words per line • Use color for impact Chapter 6

27 Points to Consider in Creating a Story for a Video – Part 1 of 2
Have one main character • must be realistic (not perfect) • have a problem, but otherwise successful The problem • character has a major problem • can be personal struggle in his mind, or an actual problem with another employee • must build tension with this problem, character should come close to disaster (e.g., threaten to fire her) Intervention/insight: character gains insight from mentor: Obi Wan Kenobi in Star Wars dream: Ghosts in A Christmas Carol Chapter 6

28 Points to Consider in Creating a Story for a Video – Part 2 of 2
Too much story/too little story • the general consensus is that if the story introduces too much extraneous material and too many actors, the points get lost • the other extreme is not enough story so trainees do not really understand why things are happening. Solid storyboarding will assist in preventing this. Use of humor • humor can actually assist recall. For this reason, if you use humor, make sure the humor comes from the learning points. This way when trainees recall the joke they recall the learning point. Learn from others • examine video developed by professional Chapter 6

29 On-the-job Methods Advantages No special space or equipment
Minimize transfer problems/practice what will be doing Earn/produce while learning Relevant reinforcements Learning environment same as working environment Chapter 6

30 On-the-job Methods Disadvantages Tie up expensive equipment
Waste may be high Customer problems “Trainer” may not be skilled Pressure of job demands Chapter 6

31 On-the-job Methods Job instruction technique Apprenticeship Coaching
Mentoring Internship Chapter 6

32 Basic Demonstration Components and Their Effects on Learning
AREAS OF LEANING AFFECTED Attention, Symbolic Coding and Cognitive Organization PRESENT Tell Demonstrate Explain Symbolic Rehearsal and Behavioral Reproduction  TRY OUT Learner talks through the task Learner does task and describes what they are doing and why Trainer provides positive/negative feedback Learner practices Chapter 6

33 JIT Instruction/Learning Sequence – Part 1 of 3
BASICS OF INSTRUCTION AREAS OF LEARNING AFFECTED1 Attention and motivation PREPARE Break down the job. Prepare an instruction plan. Put the learner at ease. Symbolic Coding Cognitive Organization  PRESENT Tell. Show. Demonstrate. Explain. Chapter 6

34 JIT Instruction/Learning Sequence – Part 2 of 3
BASICS OF INSTRUCTION AREAS OF LEARNING AFFECTED1 Symbolic Rehearsal Behavioral Reproduction  TRY OUT Have the learner “talk through” the job. Have the learner instruct the supervisor on how the job is done. Let the learner do the job. Provide feedback, both positive and negative. Let the learner practice Chapter 6

35 JIT Instruction/Learning Sequence – Part 3 of 3
BASICS OF INSTRUCTION AREAS OF LEARNING AFFECTED1 FOLLOW UP Check progress frequently at first. Tell the learner whom to go to for help. Gradually taper off progress checks. Behavioral Reproduction Chapter 6

36 Job Breakdown Sheet for OJT – Part 1 of 4
Dept: Metal Decorating Prepared by J. Smith Job: Feeder Pressman Date: June 8 Tools/Equipment Main Steps Key Points Material Safety Factors Part I (Start of shift) 1. Check level of Ask pressman which All solutions kept in Do not spill on    fountain solution      solution to use.     metal containers     walkway    and refill if     Scratch mark     in storeroom    necessary     shows minimum      and maximum      capacities Chapter 6

37 Job Breakdown Sheet for OJT – Part 2 of 4
Tools/Equipment Main Steps Key Points Material Safety Factors Part I (Start of shift) 2. Check level of Check card for type of Same as #1 Very volatile and    varnish in wet     material being     flammable    varnish machine     used and deter-    and refill if     mine amount of    necessary     thinner necessary      to obtain proper      viscosity 3. Wash sponges, Use same thinner as Same as #1 Do not wash in    bucket, and gum     in #2      enclosed area    containers      because of fumes Chapter 6

38 Job Breakdown Sheet for OJT – Part 3 of 4
Tools/Equipment Main Steps Key Points Material Safety Factors Part II (Start a new bundle in press) 1. Request lift driver Do not wait until    to bring over new     bundle on press is    bundle      almost finished 2. Check new bundle Pull the job ticket Leather-palmed gloves Always wear gloves    to be sure it is the     and check order when handling    correct one and is     number; examine sheets to prevent    in good condition      top sheets and cuts      sides and      corners of bundle Chapter 6

39 Job Breakdown Sheet for OJT – Part 4 of 4
Tools/Equipment Main Steps Key Points Material Safety Factors Part III (Whenever press is stopped) 1. Lower elevator Lower only until top Leather-palmed Wear gloves    with bundle on it     of bundle is at a gloves    and cover with     convenient height    master sheet 2. Unless otherwise Be sure entire plate Use sponges and Be sure press is clear    instructed by     is wet; dry spots      clear water   before wetting plate pressman, wet can oxidize and    plate on front unit   damage plate             Chapter 6

40 Steps to Follow for Better OJT – Part 1 of 2
1. Establish policy. Prepare a written description that puts the organization “on the record” as supporting structured OJT. 2. Establish accountability. Make clear who is primarily responsible for OJT. Write it into their job descriptions.. 3. Review precedents. Find out what other organizations in your industry are doing about structured OJT. Use this information in efforts to design your program. 4. Design & routinely give training on the principles of structured OJT. Supervisors and experienced workers are the most likely ones to conduct structured OJT in the workplace. They will need training Chapter 6

41 Steps to Follow for Better OJT – Part 2 of 2
5. Provide specialized support for line managers who use structured OJT. Certain jobs are common entry points for employees. For these jobs, design “off-the-shelf” lesson plans, job aids, individualized learning contracts, and individualized training progress report forms for those jobs. 6. Avoid turf battles. Begin efforts to improve OJT on a small scale, in work units where supervisors or managers are supportive. 7. Consider literacy skills. Do not assume that employees—or, for that matter, supervisors—are highly literate. Use efforts to improve OJT to assess performance problems that can be traced to literacy issues. Chapter 6

42 Apprenticeship Training
Skilled trades as well as professions Often mixed OJT and classroom activities Chapter 6

43 Definition of Coaching
Face to face interactions designed to eliminate undesired behavior and begin/maintain desired behavior Day to day – related to leadership, teaching, mentoring, counseling, confronting Chapter 6

44 Coaching to Improve Performance
Definition of poor performance Responding to poor performance Multiple causes Attribution Internal – abilities/motivation External – chance/difficulty Chapter 6

45 Diagnosing Reasons for Performance Problems
Information Resources and Tools Motivation Environ -ment Expectations & Feedback Resources & Tools Incentives Person Skills & Knowledge Capacity Motives Chapter 6

46 Assessment of Need for Coaching
Question Response Are there obstacles in the system preventing effective performance? Yes Remove obstacles or revise expectations Do negative consequences follow good performance? Yes Change the consequences Do positive consequences follow poor performance? Yes Change the consequences Is the employee aware that improvement is expected? No Provide proper feedback Does the employee know how to improve? No Train or coach Could the employee improve performance if he wanted to? Yes Coach Chapter 6

47 Coaching Discussion 1. Get agreement problem exists.
2. Mutually discuss alternative solutions. 3. Mutually agree on action to be taken. 4. Follow up to measure results. 5. Recognize any achievement that occurs. Chapter 6

48 Mentoring Often involves a senior member of the organization and a junior manager Proven to be effective Some organizations moving to more formalized mentoring programs Chapter 6

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