Data Collection Operationalize Objective Systematic Consistent
Data Grammatical point Datum--singular Data--plural zPieces of information Data collection, the phase in which the research comes alive. The real world is encountered and small unexpected problems surface. The “meat” of the research process.
Types of Data zQualitative--characterized by words zQuantitative--characterized by numbers Most qualitative data can be quantified which makes analysis easier. Which levels of measurement represent the quantification of qualitative data and what are the limitations of analysis?
Data Gathering Techniques zObservation zQuestioning Which technique is used depends on many things: ynature of data ysample yoperational definition of variable ysense of situational appropriateness
Data domains Cognitive--paper and pencil Affective--interview Psychomotor--observation
Observation zCollect data on behavior zOne way, e.g. Subject to researcher yobserving, interpreting, recording
Questioning zCaptures non-observable phenomenon (or that which would create undue hardship to observe) z Opinions, attitudes, perceptions, past experiences, feelings, knowledge, etc. zTwo way, researcher to subject--subject to researcher yasked/answered, heard/recorded. yInterviewing, questionnaires, paper and pencil tests
Errors of reporting, interpretation, and recording zBoth observation and questioning subject to errors or bias from subject or researcher.
Observation--two observer roles “Straight” observer zdoes not contribute or distract from situation zaccurate data znot distracted or responsible zbetter in crisis or fast- paced situations zhawthorne effect Participant observer z observer part of situation-- blends in z richer data-difficult when caught up in action z becomes a subject as well as researcher z not good in emergency situations z avoids Hawthorne
Recording Observational Data Coding--very important--limits on the spot decision making for researcher Checklist Items of interest are listed and a check is made if observed Must be clear enough so that recorders agree e.g. “crying” vs. “tears in eyes” May record how many times action occurs but not qualitative nature of occurrence.
Video and Audio tapes zOften used in clinical research zEnhances reliability of measurement but still requires inference to interpret data. zData must still be classified and coded for analysis.
Behavioral Diary zHalfway between observing and recording zData collector simultaneously observes and records observations into a tape recorder. zData still must be classified and coded. zMay be intrusive and enhance Hawthorne effect.
Memory Reconstruction zParticipant observer may do this z“Process Recording” technique zData collector completes observation and immediately records observations, or an interaction may be conducted by one researcher and observed by another who records it afterwards. Some error in remembering--better with two=interrater reliability.
Questioning zInterviews zQuestionnaires zSelf-reports z Attitudes z Opinions z Feelings z Beliefs
Questionnaire Self administered paper and pencil instrument designed for individuals to complete with little or no explanation or instruction Interview Set of questions designed to be asked by the interviewer, who then records the answers. “interview schedule”=questions
Questionnaires easier and cheaper to administer, harder to construct easy to analyze large sample, poor response rate closed or forced choice response (no anecdotal) no opportunity to explain or interpret superficial data lie scale Interviews easier to construct, expensive to administer hard to analyze smaller sample, good response rate open ended questions (rich data) may answer questions qualitative in-depth data assess validity on the spot
Both questionnaires and interviews zAnalyze problem to determine needed data zExplain purpose of study-who interviewer is zExpectations of respondent zConfidentiality zavoid jargon to minimize intimidation zuse mechanisms to minimize defenses yProjective techniques--some people, friends’ behavior (Rorschach) ysingle focus--avoid double barreled questions ynondirective probes (interviews only)
zProvide privacy during interview zkeep to a reasonable length zuse “funnels” start with broad area and narrow down to specific zmake sequence and relationship of one question to another clear zprecode for analysis
Factors motivating increased response rate zAltruism zDon’t distribute in holiday or vacation season zHand address envelopes zNeatness, clarity and brevity of instrument zLess than 20 minutes to complete zEase of completion zGuarantee of anonymity zPersonal signature of researcher zSASE zFollow up phone calls zCard of intent.
Reactive Arrangements affect what kind of validity? zHawthorne--overall classification yrole selection--social desirability effect ydemand characteristics--good subject role yresponse sets (paper and pencil more often) xacquiescence sets xnay sayers xfence sitters yinterviewer effects--halo and reverse halo Lie scales/debriefing Unobtrusive measures
Unobtrusive Measures (Webb) zDesigned to avoid reactive effects (hawthorne) zNo obvious direct observation or questioning yPhysical traces xerosion xaccretion yArchives xrecords or diaries ycontrived observation xhidden hardware
Scales and Instruments Likert scale yattitudes/agreement ylarge number of items (1/2 pos. 1/2 neg.) lie scale yranked responses--”score” +2 +1 0 -1 -2 Agree str. Agree uncertain disagree disagree str
Linear graphic scale zForced choice but more freedom than likert zrank ordered choice l______l______l______l______l______l 0 1 2 3 4 5
Visual Analog Scale (VAS) None Severe Place a check on the line which represents the degree of craving for a cigarette after dinner on day two of smoking cessation.
Semantic differential scale (osgood) zBipolar adjective pairs on a linear scale zDesigned to avoid face validity so may get at unacknowledged beliefs, attitudes easy ___________________________ difficult fast ___________________________ slow warm ___________________________ cold happy ___________________________ sad open ___________________________ closed clear ___________________________ confusing fun ___________________________ work rich ___________________________ poor
Other data gathering instruments and techniques zSubject self-reports zSociometrics zDelphi technique zUsing available data