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FASTER MEANS BETTER? Three Studies of Musical Tempo Jeffrey M. Miller Blaine Peden, PhD. Lee Anna Rasar, MMEd. Mickey Crothers, PhD. University of Wisconsin.

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Presentation on theme: "FASTER MEANS BETTER? Three Studies of Musical Tempo Jeffrey M. Miller Blaine Peden, PhD. Lee Anna Rasar, MMEd. Mickey Crothers, PhD. University of Wisconsin."— Presentation transcript:

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2 FASTER MEANS BETTER? Three Studies of Musical Tempo Jeffrey M. Miller Blaine Peden, PhD. Lee Anna Rasar, MMEd. Mickey Crothers, PhD. University of Wisconsin – Eau Claire

3 Yes Kerr1945paper snappers Uhrbrock1961naval capacitors, quartz crystal, radio tubes Oldham, et al1996data entry 5% - 14% No Smith1961typing skills Newman et al1966skateboard production Wentworth1991tasks by clients with MR Blood & Ferris1993conversation Lesiuk2000computer programming DOES MUSIC INCREASE PRODUCTIVITY?

4 Why may the results be inconsistent? Lack of statistical analysis in some studies Corporative motives Low sample sizes Subjective labels to categorize mood Failure to manipulate tempo

5 STUDIES MANIPULATING TEMPO Martin1990no significant differences in slow, medium, or fast tempo for simple or complex task Gunsch1991rock music improves math scores more than instrumental or no music

6 Experiment #1 Effects of Tempo on Typing Test Measures of Speed and Accuracy Jeffrey M. Miller Lee Anna Rasar, MMEd. Mickey Crothers, PhD. Funded by the McNair Program July – August, 2000

7 3 X 4 Mixed Design Between Subjects: 3 Groups Within Subjects: 4 Rounds #1: Practice - Slow – Medium – Fast (n=16) #2: Practice - Fast – Medium – Slow (n=17) #3: No music during any round (n=16) Dependent Variable 1: Typing Speed Dependent Variable 2: Typing Accuracy

8 Source ppartial n 2 Between Groups < Within Rounds < Groups x Roundsn.s Typing Speed

9 Gross CPM by Group & Round Group SlowMedFast FastMedSlow NoMusic Gross Characters per Minute Gross CPM Practice Gross CPM Round 1 Gross CPM Round 2 Gross CPM Round 3

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11 Conclusions Music may distract from productivity regardless of aesthetic enjoyment.

12 What if the tempo changes within the piece of music?? Was music distracting because the typing test was complex??? Let’s try a math test!

13 Experiment #2: Tempo Direction and Text Consistency Implications for Test-Taking Jeffrey M. Miller Blaine Peden, Ph.D. Course Requirement August, 2000

14 2 X 2 Factorial Design Between Subjects Variable 1: Tempo Acceleration or Tempo Deceleration Between Subjects Variable 2: Consistent Font or Inconsistent Font Dependent Variable 1: Math Problems Completed Dependent Variable 2: Math Accuracy

15 Source ppartial n 2 Tempo < Font = Tempo x Font= Math Problems Completed

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17 Source ppartial n 2 Tempo < Font n.s Tempo x Font n.s Math Problems Correctly Solved

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19 Conclusion Conclusion Accelerating tempos promote higher rates of math completion and accuracy. Alternatively, The accelerating tempo was less readily perceived, and, hence, less distracting

20 What if some math problems are simple and some are complex? What if some math problems are simple and some are complex? What if the tempo changes between groups? What if we use music by a different composer?

21 Experiment #3: Complexity and Range of Modulation: Factors in Tempo Perception Jeffrey M. Miller Blaine Peden, Ph.D. Funded by University of Wisconsin – Eau Claire February, 2001

22 3 X 2 Mixed Design Between Subjects: 3 Groups Within Subjects: 2 Rounds #1: No tempo increase #2: Tempo increase of 25% #3: Tempo increase of 50%

23 Schneider & Shiffrin (1977) Automatic Processes: Controlled Processes:

24 Source ppartial n 2 Tempo < Complexity < Tempo x Complexity< Math Problems Completed

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26 Source ppartial n 2 Tempo n.s. --- Complexity < Tempo x Complexityn.s. --- Math Problem Errors

27 Conclusion Faster tempos decrease math completion regardless of test complexity ANOTHER VARIABLE!!! Melodic Activity

28 TypingMathComplexity TempoStable; Changed between selections Unstable; Changed within the selection Stable; Changed between groups ComposerHaydn Bach TaskComplexSimpleBoth Results Favor No musicAcceleration96 bpm (or slower?)

29 FUTURE DIRECTIONS Typing Study: Replication in the Workplace Math and Complexity Studies 1. Include 25% and 50% SLOWER hypothesizing that scores increase for simple problems at slower tempos. 2. Compare the Bach and Haydn pieces hypothesizing that the Haydn piece promotes higher scores at different levels of tempo increase due to differences in melodic activity.

30 THANK YOU!!! UWEC Office of Sponsored Programs & Research Dr. Blaine Peden Lee Anna Rasar, MMEd. Dr. Mickey Crothers Ronald E. McNair Postbaccalaureate Achievement Program


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